Mayflower was an English ship that transported the first English Puritans, known today as the Pilgrims, from England to the New World in 1620. After a grueling 10 weeks at sea, the Mayflower, with 102 passengers and a crew of about 30, reached America, dropping anchor near the tip of Cape Cod on November 11, 1620.
Mayflower as sea
|Namesake:||Crataegus monogyna (may)|
|Owner:||Christopher Jones (¼ of the ship)|
|Maiden voyage:||Before 1609|
|Out of service:||1622–1624|
|Fate:||most likely taken apart by Rotherhithe shipbreaker c. 1624.|
|Class and type:||Dutch cargo fluyt|
|Tonnage:||180 tons +|
|Length:||c. 80–90 ft (24–27.5 m) on deck, 100–110 ft (30–33.5 m) overall.|
|Capacity:||Unknown, but carried c. 135 people to Plymouth Colony|
The Puritans believed that the Church of England was beyond redemption due its Roman Catholic past, which forced them to pray in private. In 1608, they left England for Holland, where they could worship freely. After remaining there until 1620, a number of the Puritans purchased boats to cross the Atlantic for America, which they considered a "new Promised Land," and where they established Plymouth Colony.:44
The Pilgrims had originally hoped to reach America in early October using two ships, but delays and complications meant they could use only one, the Mayflower. Arriving in November, they had to survive unprepared through a harsh winter. As a result, only half of the original Pilgrims survived the first winter at Plymouth. Without the help of local Indigenous peoples to teach them food gathering and other survival skills, all of the colonists may have perished. The following winter, they celebrated the colony's first fall harvest along with the Indigenous people, which became the first Thanksgiving.
The Pilgrims created and signed the Mayflower Compact while on the ship. The Compact was an agreement made among the passengers before going ashore to establish a rudimentary form of democracy, in which each member would contribute to the safety and welfare of the planned settlement. As one of the earliest pilgrim vessels, the ship has become a cultural icon in the history of the United States. Celebrations for the 400th Anniversary of the landing have been planned during 2020 in the U.S., England and the Netherlands, however, the coronavirus pandemic has put some of those plans on hold.
Motivations for the voyage
A congregation of approximately four hundred English Puritans living in exile in Leiden, Holland, was determined to purge the Church of England of what they felt were many excesses and abuses. But rather than work for change in England, they chose to live as separatists in religiously tolerant Holland in 1608. As separatists, they were considered illegal radicals by their home country of England.
The government of Leiden was recognized for offering financial aid to reformed churches, whether English, French or German, which made it a sought-after destination for Protestant intellectuals.:17 Many of the separatists were illegal members of a church in Nottinghamshire England, secretly practicing their Puritan form of Protestantism. When they learned that the authorities were aware of their congregation, church members fled in the night with little more than the clothes they were wearing, and clandestinely made it to Holland.:18
However, life in Holland became increasingly difficult for the congregation. They were forced into menial and backbreaking jobs, such as cleaning wool, which led to a variety of health afflictions. In addition, a number of the country's leading theologians began engaging in open debates which led to civil unrest, instilling the fear that Spain might again place Holland's population under siege, as it had done years earlier. England's James I subsequently formed an alliance with Holland against Spain, with a condition outlawing independent English church congregations in Holland.:26 Thus formed the separatists' motivating factors to sail for the New World, with the benefit of being beyond the reach of King James and his bishops.
Their desire to travel to America was considered audacious and risky, as previous attempts to settle in North America had failed. Jamestown, founded in 1607, saw most of its settlers die within the first year. 440 of the 500 new arrivals died of starvation during the first six months of winter. The Puritan separatists also learned of the constant threat of attacks by Indigenous peoples. But despite all the arguments against traveling to this new land, their conviction that God wanted them to go held sway: "We verily believe and trust the Lord is with us," they wrote, "and that He will graciously prosper our endeavors according to the simplicity of our hearts therein."
After deciding to leave Holland, they planned to cross the Atlantic using two purchased ships. A small ship, with the name Speedwell, would first carry them from Leiden to England. Then, the larger Mayflower, would be used to transport most of the passengers and supplies the rest of the way.
Not all of the Separatists were able to depart, however. Many did not have enough time to settle their affairs and their budgets were too meager to buy the necessary travel supplies. The congregation therefore decided that the younger and stronger members should go first, with others possibly following in the future. Although the congregation had been led by John Robinson, who first proposed the idea of emigrating to America, he chose to remain in Leiden to care for those who could not make the voyage.
In explaining to his congregation why they should emigrate, Robinson used the analogy of the ancient Israelites leaving Babylon to escape bondage by returning to Jerusalem, where they would build their temple. "The Pilgrims and Puritans actually referred to themselves as God's New Israel," writes Peter Marshall. It was therefore the manifest destiny of the Puritans to similarly build a "spiritual Jerusalem" in America.:39
When it was time to leave, the ship's senior leader, Edward Winslow, described the scene of families being separted at the departure: "A flood of tears was poured out. Those not sailing accompanied us to the ship, but were not able to speak to one another for the abundance of sorrow before parting." William Bradford, another leader who would be the second Governor of the Plymouth Colony, similarly described the departure:
Truly doleful was the sight of that sad and mournful parting. To see what sighs and sobs and prayers did sound among them; what tears did gush from every eye, and pithy speeches pierced each heart...their Reverend Pastor, falling down on his knees, and they all with him...:23
The trip to the south coast of England took three days, where the ship took anchor at Southampton on July 26, 1620. From there, the Pilgrims first laid eyes on their larger ship, the Mayflower, as it was being loaded with provisions.
Speedwell and Mayflower
Carrying about 65 passengers, the Mayflower left London in mid July of 1620. The ship then proceeded down the Thames to the south coast of England where it anchored at Southampton, Hampshire. There she waited for the planned rendezvous on July 22 with the Speedwell, coming from Holland with members of the Leiden congregation. Although both ships planned to depart for America by the end of July, a leak was discovered on the Speedwell, which had to be repaired.
The ships set sail for America around August 5, but Speedwell sprang another leak shortly after,which necessitated the ships to return to Dartmouth for repairs. They made a new start after the repairs, but more than 200 miles (320 km) beyond Land's End at the southwestern tip of England, the Speedwell sprang a third leak. It was now early September, and they had no choice but to abandon Speedwell and make a determination on her passengers. This was a dire event, as vital funds had wasted on the ship, which was considered very important to the future success of their settlement in America. Both ships returned to Plymouth, where twenty Speedwell passengers joined the now overcrowded Mayflower, while the others returned to Holland.
They waited for seven more days until the wind picked up. William Bradford was especially worried, however: "We lie here waiting for as fair a wind as can blow ... Our victuals will be half eaten up, I think, before we go from the coast of England; and, if our voyage last long, we shall not have a month's victuals when we come in the country.":343 }} According to Bradford, Speedwell was refitted and seaworthy, having "made many voyages ... to the great profit of her owners." He suggested that Speedwell's master may have used "cunning and deceit" to abort the voyage by causing the leaks, fearing starvation and death in America.:28
Mayflower sets sail
Rev. E. W. Bishop
In early September, western gales turned the North Atlantic into a dangerous place to sail. The Mayflower's provisions were already quite low when departing Southampton, and they became lower still by delays of more than a month. The passengers had been on board the ship this entire time, feeling worn out and in no condition for a very taxing, lengthy Atlantic journey cooped up in the cramped spaces of a small ship.:29
When the Mayflower sailed from Plymouth alone on September 6, 1620, O.S. (September 16, 1620, N.S.) with what Bradford called "a prosperous wind",:29 she carried 102 passengers plus a crew of 25 to 30 officers and men, bringing the total aboard to approximately 130. However, at about 180 tons, the Mayflower was considered a smaller cargo ship, having traveled mainly between England and Bordeaux with clothing and wine, not an ocean ship.[a] Nor was it in good shape, as it was sold for scrap four years after her Atlantic voyage.:39 She was a high built craft forward and aft measuring approximately 100 feet (30 m) in length and about 25 feet (7.6 m) at her widest point.:24:37
The trip across the Atlantic
The living quarters for the 102 passengers were cramped, with the living area about 80 feet by 20 feet (1,600 sq. feet,) and the ceiling about five feet high.:43 With couples and children packed closely together for a trip lasting two months, a great deal of trust and confidence was required among everyone aboard.:45
John Carver, one of the leaders on the ship, often inspired the Pilgrims with a "sense of earthly grandeur and divine purpose." He was later called the "Moses of the Pilgrims," notes historian Jon Meacham. The Pilgrims "believed they had a covenant like the Jewish people of old," writes author Rebecca Fraser. "America was the new Promised Land.":44 In a similar vein, early American writer James Russell Lowell stated, "Next to the fugitives whom Moses led out of Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence the future of the world."
The first half of the voyage proceeded over calm seas and under pleasant skies. Then the weather changed, with continuous Northeasterly storms hurling themselves against the ship, and huge waves constantly crashing against the topside deck.:4 In the midst of one storm, the servant of physician Samuel Fuller died and was buried at sea. A baby was also born, christened Oceanus Hopkins. During another storm, so fierce that the sails could not be used, the ship was forced to drift without hoisting its sails for days, or else risk losing her masts.:59 The storm washed a male passenger, John Howland, overboard. He had sunk about 12 feet until a crew member threw out a rope, which Howland managed to grab, and he was safely pulled back on board.:349
The passengers for forced to crouch in semi-darkness below deck as ocean swells rose to over a hundred feet.:50 With waves tossing the boat in different directions, men held onto their wives, who themselves held onto their children. Water was soaking everyone and everything above and below deck.:50
However, in mid-ocean, the ship came close to being totally disabled and may have had to return to England or risk sinking. A storm had so badly damaged its main beam that even the sailors despaired. By a stroke of luck, one of the colonists had a metal jackscrew that he had purchased in Holland to help in the construction of the new settler homes.:349 They used it to secure the beam, which kept it from cracking further, thus maintaining the seaworthiness of the vessel. All told, despite the crowding, unsanitary conditions and sea sicknesses, there was only one fatality during the voyage.:350
The ship's cargo included many stores that supplied the Pilgrims with the essentials needed for their journey and future lives. It is assumed that they carried tools, food and weapons, as well as some live animals, including dogs, sheep, goats, and poultry. The ship also held two small 21-foot boats powered by oars or sails. There were also artillery pieces aboard, which they might need to defend themselves against enemy European forces or Indigenous tribes.
Arrival in America
On November 9, 1620, O.S. (November 19, 1620, N.S.), they sighted present-day Cape Cod. They spent several days trying to sail south to their planned destination of the Colony of Virginia, where they had obtained permission to settle from the Company of Merchant Adventurers. But the strong winter seas forced them to return to the harbor at Cape Cod hook, known today as Provincetown Harbor, and they set anchor on November 11, 1620:53
It was before setting anchor that the Mayflower Compact was drawn up and signed by the male Puritans and non-Puritan passengers (whom the Puritans referred to as "Strangers").:54 Among the resolutions in the Compact were those establishing legal order and to quell increasing strife within the ranks. Myles Standish was selected to make sure the rules were obeyed, as there was a consensus that discipline would need to be enforced to ensure the survival of the planned colony.:54 Once they agreed to settle and build a self-governing community, they came ashore.
The moment the Pilgrims stepped ashore was described by William Bradford, the second Governor of the Plymouth Colony:
Being thus arrived in a good harbor and brought safe to land, they fell upon their knees and blessed the God of heaven, who had brought them over the vast and furious ocean, and delivered them from all the perils and miseries thereof, again to set their feet on the firm and stable earth, their proper element.
On Monday, November 27, an exploring expedition was launched under the direction of Capt. Christopher Jones to search for a suitable settlement site. There were 34 persons in the open small boat: 24 passengers and 10 sailors. They were ill prepared for the bitter winter weather which they encountered on their reconnoiter, as the Puritans were not accustomed to winter weather which was much colder than back home. They were forced to spend the night ashore due to the bad weather they encountered, ill-clad in below-freezing temperatures with wet shoes and stockings that froze overnight. Bradford wrote, "Some of our people that are dead took the original of their death here" on the expedition.:65–66
Plymouth faced many difficulties during its first winter, the most notable being the risk of starvation and the lack of suitable shelter. The Pilgrims had no way of knowing that the ground would be frozen by the middle of November, making it impossible to do any planting. Nor were they prepared for the snow storms that would make the countryside impassable without snowshoes. And in their haste to leave, they did not think to bring any fishing rods.:47
From the beginning, the assistance they received from the local Native Americans was vital. One colonist's journal reported, "We dug and found some more corn, two or three baskets full, and a bag of beans. ... In all we had about ten bushels, which will be enough for seed. It is with God's help that we found this corn, for how else could we have done it, without meeting some Indians who might trouble us." Governor Bradford held out hope:
Friends, if ever we make a plantation, God works a miracle! Especially considering how scant we shall be of victuals; and, most of all, ununited amongst ourselves, and devoid of good tutors and leaders. Violence will break all. Where is the meek and humble spirit of Moses and of Nehemiah, who reedified the walls of Jerusalem, and the State of Israel? ... I see not, in reason, how we shall escape, even the gasping of hunger-starved persons: but God can do much; and his will be done!":56
During the winter, the passengers remained on board Mayflower, suffering an outbreak of a contagious disease described as a mixture of scurvy, pneumonia, and tuberculosis. After it was over, only 53 passengers remained—just over half; half of the crew died, as well. In the spring, they built huts ashore, and the passengers disembarked from Mayflower on March 21, 1621.
Historian Benson John Lossing described that first settlement:
After many hardships, . . . the Pilgrim Fathers first set foot December, 1620 upon a bare rock on the bleak coast of Massachusetts Bay, while all around the earth was covered with deep snow. . . Dreary, indeed, was the prospect before them. Exposure and privations had prostrated one half of the men before the first blow of the ax had been struck to build a habitation. . . . One by one perished. The governor and his wife died in April 1621; and on the first of that month, forty-six of the one hundred emigrants were in their graves, nineteen of whom were signers of the Mayflower Compact.
Jones had originally planned to return to England as soon as the Pilgrims found a settlement site. But his crew members began to be ravaged by the same diseases that were felling the Pilgrims, and he realized that he had to remain in Plymouth Harbor "till he saw his men began to recover.":91 Mayflower lay in New Plymouth harbor through the winter of 1620–21, then set sail for England on April 5, 1621. As with the Pilgrims, her sailors had been decimated by disease. Jones had lost his boatswain, his gunner, three quartermasters, the cook, and more than a dozen sailors. Mayflower made excellent time on her voyage back to England. The westerly winds that had buffeted her on the initial voyage pushed her along on the return trip home. She arrived in London on May 6, 1621, less than half the time that it had taken her to sail to America.":100–101[b]
Some families traveled together, while some men came alone, leaving families in England and Leiden. Just over a third of the passengers were Puritan separatists who sought to break away from the established Church of England and create a society along the lines of their religious ideals. Other passengers were hired hands, servants, or farmers recruited by London merchants, all originally destined for the Colony of Virginia.
The passengers mostly slept and lived in the low-ceilinged great cabins and on the main deck, which was 75 by 20 feet large (23 m × 6 m) at most. The cabins were thin-walled and extremely cramped, and the total area was 25 ft by 15 ft (7.6 m × 4.5 m) at its largest. Below decks, any person over five feet (150 cm) tall would be unable to stand up straight. The maximum possible space for each person would have been slightly less than the size of a standard single bed.
Passengers would pass the time by reading by candlelight or playing cards and games. They consumed large amounts of alcohol such as beer with meals. This was known to be safer than water, which often came from polluted sources and caused disease. No cattle or beasts of draft or burden were brought on the journey, but there were pigs, goats, and poultry.
Mayflower ship history
There were 26 vessels bearing the name Mayflower in the Port Books of England during the reign of James I (1603–1625); it is not known why the name was so popular. The identity of Captain Jones's Mayflower is based on records from her home port, her tonnage (est. 180–200 tons), and the master's name in 1620 in order to avoid confusion with the many other Mayflower ships. It is not known when and where Mayflower was built, although late records designate her as "of London". She was designated in the Port Books of 1609–11 as "of Harwich" in the county of Essex, coincidentally the birthplace of Mayflower master Christopher Jones about 1570.
Records dating from August 1609 note Christopher Jones as master and part owner of Mayflower when his ship was chartered for a voyage from London to Trondheim in Norway and back to London. The ship lost an anchor on her return due to bad weather, and she made short delivery of her cargo of herring. Litigation resulted, and this was still proceeding in 1612. According to records, the ship was twice on the Thames at London in 1613, once in July and again in October and November, and in 1616 she was on the Thames carrying a cargo of wine, which suggests that the ship had recently been on a voyage to France, Spain, Portugal, the Canaries, or some other wine-producing land. Jones sailed Mayflower cross-Channel, taking English woolens to France and bringing French wine back to London. He also transported hats, hemp, Spanish salt, hops, and vinegar to Norway, and he may have taken Mayflower whaling in the North Atlantic in the Greenland area or sailed to Mediterranean ports.
After 1616, there is no further record which specifically relates to Jones's Mayflower until 1624. This is unusual for a ship trading to London, as it would not usually disappear from the records for such a long time. No Admiralty court document can be found relating to the pilgrim fathers' voyage of 1620, although this might be due to the unusual way in which the transfer of the pilgrims was arranged from Leyden to New England, or some of the records of the period might have been lost.
Jones was one of the owners of the ship by 1620, along with Christopher Nichols, Robert Child, and Thomas Short. It was from Child and Jones that Thomas Weston chartered her in the summer of 1620 to undertake the Pilgrim voyage. Weston had a significant role in Mayflower voyage due to his membership in the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London, and he eventually traveled to the Plymouth Colony himself.:24
Three of Mayflower's owners applied to the Admiralty court for an appraisal of the ship on May 4, 1624, two years after Captain Jones' death in 1622; one of these applicants was Jones' widow Mrs. Josian (Joan) Jones. This appraisal probably was made to determine the valuation of the ship for the purpose of settling the estate of its late master. The appraisal was made by four mariners and shipwrights of Rotherhithe, home and burial place of Captain Jones, where Mayflower was apparently then lying in the Thames at London. The appraisement is extant and provides information on ship's gear on board at that time, as well as equipment such as muskets and other arms. The ship may have been laid up since Jones' death and allowed to get out of repair, as that is what the appraisal indicates. The vessel was valued at one hundred and twenty-eight pounds, eight shillings, and fourpence.
What finally became of Mayflower is an unsettled issue. Charles Edward Banks, an English historian of the Pilgrim ship, claims that the ship was finally broken up, with her timbers used in the construction of a barn at Jordans village in Buckinghamshire. Tradition claims that this barn still exists as the Mayflower Barn, located within the grounds of Old Jordan in South Buckinghamshire. In 1624, Thomas Russell supposedly added to part of a farmhouse already there with timbers from a ship, believed to be from the Pilgrim ship Mayflower, bought from a shipbreaker's yard in Rotherhithe. The well-preserved structure was a tourist attraction, receiving visitors each year from all over the world and particularly from America, but it is now privately owned and not open to the public.
Another ship called Mayflower made a voyage from London to Plymouth Colony in 1629 carrying 35 passengers, many from the Pilgrim congregation in Leiden that organized the first voyage. This was not the same ship that made the original voyage with the first settlers. The 1629 voyage began in May and reached Plymouth in August; this ship also made the crossing from England to America in 1630 (as part of the Winthrop Fleet), 1633, 1634, and 1639. It attempted the trip again in 1641, departing London in October of that year under master John Cole, with 140 passengers bound for Virginia. It never arrived. On October 18, 1642, a deposition was made in England regarding the loss.
Mayflower structure and layout
Mayflower was square-rigged with a beakhead bow and high, castle-like structures fore and aft which protected the crew and the main deck from the elements—designs that were typical of English merchant ships of the early 17th century. Her stern carried a 30-foot high, square aft-castle which made the ship difficult to sail close to the wind and not well suited against the North Atlantic's prevailing westerlies, especially in the fall and winter of 1620; the voyage from England to America took more than two months as a result. Mayflower's return trip to London in April–May 1621 took less than half that time, with the same strong winds now blowing in the direction of the voyage.:24:37
Mayflower's exact dimensions are not known, but she probably measured about 100 feet (30 m) from the beak of her prow to the tip of her stern superstructure, about 25 feet (7.6 m) at her widest point, and the bottom of her keel about 12 feet (3.6 m) below the waterline. William Bradford estimated that she had a cargo capacity of 180 tons, and surviving records indicate that she could carry 180 casks holding hundreds of gallons each.:37 The general layout of the ship was as follows:
- Three masts: mizzen (aft), main (midship), and fore, and also a spritsail in the bow area
- Three primary levels: main deck, gun deck, and cargo hold
Aft on the main deck in the stern was the cabin for Master Christopher Jones, measuring about ten by seven feet (3 m × 2.1 m). Forward of that was the steerage room, which probably housed berths for the ship's officers and contained the ship's compass and whipstaff (tiller extension) for sailing control. Forward of the steerage room was the capstan, a vertical axle used to pull in ropes or cables. Far forward on the main deck, just aft of the bow, was the forecastle space where the ship's cook prepared meals for the crew; it may also have been where the sailors slept.
The poop deck was located on the ship's highest level above the stern on the aft castle and above Master Jones' cabin. On this deck stood the poop house, which was ordinarily a chart room or a cabin for the master's mates on most merchant ships; but it might have been used by the passengers on Mayflower, either for sleeping or cargo.
The gun deck was where the passengers resided during the voyage, in a space measuring about 50 by 25 feet (15.2 m × 7.6 m) with a five-foot (1.5 m) ceiling. But it was a dangerous place if there was conflict, as it had gun ports from which cannon could be run out to fire on the enemy. The gun room was in the stern area of the deck, to which passengers had no access because it was the storage space for gunpowder and ammunition. The gun room might also house a pair of stern chasers, small cannon used to fire from the ship's stern. Forward on the gun deck in the bow area was a windlass, similar in function to the steerage capstan, which was used to raise and lower the ship's main anchor. There were no stairs for the passengers on the gun deck to go up through the gratings to the main deck, which they could reach only by climbing a wooden or rope ladder.
Below the gun deck was the cargo hold where the passengers kept most of their food stores and other supplies, including most of their clothing and bedding. It stored the passengers' personal weapons and military equipment, such as armor, muskets, gunpowder and shot, swords, and bandoliers. It also stored all the tools that the Pilgrims would need, as well as all the equipment and utensils needed to prepare meals in the New World. Some Pilgrims loaded trade goods on board, including Isaac Allerton, William Mullins, and possibly others; these also most likely were stored in the cargo hold. There was no privy on Mayflower; passengers and crew had to fend for themselves in that regard. Gun deck passengers most likely used a bucket as a chamber pot, fixed to the deck or bulkhead to keep it from being jostled at sea.
Mayflower was heavily armed; her largest gun was a minion cannon which was brass, weighed about 1,200 pounds (545 kg), and could shoot a 3.5 pound (1.6 kg) cannonball almost a mile (1,600 m). She also had a saker cannon of about 800 pounds (360 kg), and two base cannons that weighed about 200 pounds (90 kg) and shot a 3 to 5 ounce ball (85–140 g). She carried at least ten pieces of ordnance on the port and starboard sides of her gun deck: seven cannons for long-range purposes, and three smaller guns often fired from the stern at close quarters that were filled with musket balls. Ship's Master Jones unloaded four of the pieces to help fortify Plymouth Colony.:37
Mayflower officers, crew, and others
According to author Charles Banks, the officers and crew of Mayflower consisted of a captain, four mates, four quartermasters, surgeon, carpenter, cooper, cooks, boatswains, gunners, and about 36 men before the mast, making a total of about 50. The entire crew stayed with Mayflower in Plymouth through the winter of 1620–1621, and about half of them died during that time. The remaining crewmen returned to England on Mayflower, which sailed for London on April 5, 1621.
Out of all the voyages to the American colonies from 1620 to 1640, the Mayflower's first crossing of Pilgrim Fathers has become the most culturally iconic and important in the history of migration from Europe to the New World during the Age of Discovery.
The main record for the voyage of Mayflower and the disposition of the Plymouth Colony comes from the letters and journal of William Bradford, who was a guiding force and later the governor of the colony. His detailed record of the journey is one of the primary sources used by historians, and the most complete history of Plymouth Colony that was written by a Mayflower passenger.
The American national holiday, Thanksgiving, originated from the first Thanksgiving feast held by the Pilgrims in 1621, a prayer event and dinner to mark the first harvest of the Mayflower settlers.
The 300th Anniversary of Mayflower's Landing was commemorated in 1920 and early 1921 by celebrations throughout the United States and by countries in Europe. Delegations from England, Holland and Canada met in New York. The mayor of New York, John Francis Hylan, in his speech, said that the principles of the Pilgrim's Mayflower Compact were precursors to the United States Declaration of Independence. While American historian George Bancroft called it "the birth of constitutional liberty.":55 Governor Calvin Coolidge similarly credited the forming of the Compact as an event of the greatest importance in American history:
It was the foundation of liberty based on law and order, and that tradition has been steadily upheld. They drew up a form of government which has been designated as the first real constitution of modern times. It was democratic, an acknowledgment of liberty under law and order and the giving to each person the right to participate in the government, while they promised to be obedient to the laws....[A]ny form of government is better than anarchy, and any attempt to tear down government is an attempt to wreck civilization.
With twenty Mayflower historical societies throughout the country, along with an unknown number of descendants, the celebration was expected to last during much of 1920. As a result of World War I ending a few years earlier, the original plan to hold a world's fair in its honor was canceled.
400th Anniversary, 2020
The 400th Anniversary of Mayflower's Landing will take place in 2020. Organizations in the UK and US are preparing for celebrations to mark the voyage. Festivities celebrating the anniversary have already begun in various places in New England. Other celebrations are planned in England and the Netherlands, where the Pilgrims were living in exile until their voyage. However, the coronavirus pandemic has forced some plans to be put on hold.
Among some of the events planned are a Mayflower Autonomous Ship, without any persons aboard, will use an AI Captain designed by IBM to self-navigate across the ocean. While the Harwich Mayflower Heritage Centre is hoping to build a replica of the ship at Harwich, England. Descendants of the Pilgrims are hoping for a "once-in-a-lifetime" experience to commemorate their ancestors.
- Billericay, where the Pilgrim Fathers met prior to the voyage
- Leigh-on-Sea, where Mayflower was outfitted
- Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony)
- Puritan migration to New England (1620–1640)
- Plymouth Adventure (directed by Clarence Brown, 1952)
- Mayflower: The Pilgrims' Adventure (1979)
- Mayflower II, a replica of Mayflower in Plymouth, Massachusetts
- Speedwell (1577 ship)
- A good, strong ship was at least 300 tons, which made the Mayflower relatively small.:39
- Jones died after coming back from a voyage to France on March 5, 1622, at about age 52. For the next two years, Mayflower lay at her berth in Rotherhithe, not far from Jones' grave at St. Mary's church. By 1624, she was no longer useful as a ship; her subsequent fate is unknown, but she was probably broken up about that time.:101
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- Weinstein, Allen, and Rubel, David. The Story of America, Agincourt Press Production, (2002) pp. 60-61
- "The Mayflower and the Birth of America", Sky History
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- Jackson, Kevin. Mayflower: The Voyage from Hell, Amazon ebook, 2013
- Marshall, Peter. The Light and the Glory, Baker Publishing Group (1977) p. 20 ISBN 0800732715
- Meacham, Jon, American Gospel: God, the Founding Fathers, and the Making of a Nation, Random House, 2006, p. 40
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- Philbrick, Nathaniel. Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, Viking (2006) ISBN 9780670037605
- Charles Edward Banks p.17
- Whittock, Martyn. Mayflower Lives: Pilgrims in a New World and the Early American Experience, Pegasus Books (2019) ebook ISBN 164313132X
- Bishop, Rev. E. W., "The Pilgrim Forefathers", Lansing State Journal (Michigan), Oct. 2, 1920 p. 4
- Arber, Edward. The Story of the Pilgrim Fathers, 1606-1623, Ward and Downey, Limited (1897) ISBN 9780722266403
- Philbrick, Nathaniel. Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community and War, (Penguin Books 2006)
- Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623, orig. pub 1929, reprint 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co., p. 17–19
- Bunker, Nick. Making Haste from Babylon: The Mayflower Pilgrims and their New World a History, Knopf, New York (2011) ISBN 0307386260
- Cutaway illustration of the Mayflower
- Talbot, Archie Lee (1930), A New Plymouth Colony at Kennebeck, Brunswick: Library of Congress.
- Lowell, James Russell (1913), The Round Table, Boston: Gorham Press, pp. 217–18,
Next to the fugitives whom Moses led out of Egypt, the little shipload of outcasts who landed at Plymouth are destined to influence the future of the world. The spiritual thirst of mankind has for ages been quenched at Hebrew fountains; but the embodiment in human institutions of truths uttered by the Son of Man eighteen centuries ago was to be mainly the work of Puritan thought and Puritan self-devotion. …If their municipal regulations smack somewhat of Judaism, yet there can be no nobler aim or more practical wisdom than theirs; for it was to make the law of man a living counterpart of the law of God, in their highest conception of it.
- Ames, Azel; Bradford, William. History of the Mayflower Voyage and the Destiny of Its Passenger, Madison & Adams Press (2018), public domain (CC BY-SA 3.0) ISBN 978-80-268-8269-5
- Hodgson, Godfrey. A Great and Godly Adventure. Public Affairs: New York, 2006
- Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 413
- Bjoern Moritz, The Pilgrim-Fathers' Voyage with the Mayflower (ShipsOnStamps 2003) 
- Bradford, William. History of Plymouth Plantation Ward and Downey, Ltd, Boston. 1896 p. 448 ISBN 9780722266410
- George Ernest Bowman, The Mayflower Compact and its signers, (Boston: Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1920). Photocopies of the 1622, 1646 and 1669 versions of the document pp. 7–19.
- Rich, Shebnah (1883). Truro-Cape Cod or Land Marks and Sea Marks. Boston: D. Lothrop & Co. p. 53.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647, Knopf (1952)
- Azel Ames; William Bradford; Bureau of Military and Civic Achievement (2018). The Mayflower Voyage: Premium Edition - 4 Book Collection: 4 Books in One Edition Detailing The History of the Journey, the Ship's Log & the Lives of its Pilgrim Passengers. e-artnow. p. 591. ISBN 978-80-272-4506-2.
- Lossing, Benson John. A Pictorial History of the United States, Mason Bros. (1860) p. 63
- John Harris, Saga Of The Pilgrims(historical analysis), (Globe Newspaper Co., 1983), webpages (no links between): UCcom-saga1 and UCcom-saga11
- Caffrey, Kate. The Mayflower. New York: Stein and Day, 1974
- Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623 (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 22
- Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who Came to Plymouth on Mayflower in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623 (orig. pub: 1929, reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 19
- Banks, Charles Edward. The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers Who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and "Little James" in 1623 (orig. pub: 1929 reprint: 2006 by Genealogical Publishing Co.), p. 17.
- "The Mayflower". HISTORY.com.
- R. G. Marsden, The Mayflower English Historical Review (19 October 1904), p. 677
- Kate Caffrey, The Mayflower Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; Reissue edition (October 18, 2014), p. 324
- Pierson, RichardE.; Pierson, Jennifer (1997). Pierson Millennium. Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, Inc. ISBN 0-7884-0742-2.
- "Cross-Section". MayflowerHistory.com.
- Johnson 2006, p. 30.
- Johnson 2006, p. 31.
- "MayflowerHistory.com". MayflowerHistory.com.
- Johnson 2006, pp. 30–31.
- Charles Edward Banks, The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers: who came to Plymouth on the "Mayflower" in 1620, the "Fortune" in 1621, and the "Anne" and the "Little James" in 1623 (Baltimore, MD.:Genealogical Publishing Co., 2006) p. 18
- Eugene Aubrey Stratton. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People, 1620–1691, (Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake City, UT, 1986) p. 21
- "William Bradford", Caleb Johnson's Mayflower History
- "Mayor Extends City's Freedom to the Pilgrims", New York Tribune, Sept. 28, 1920
- New York Herald, Nov. 23, 1920 p. 6
- "How a Great Historic Event Is to be Celebrated Throughout the Year," The San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 1, 1920 p. 2
- "Celebrating the 400th anniversary of the Mayflower on both sides of the Atlantic", National Geographic, March 15, 2020
- "The 400th anniversary to remember," The Boston Globe, April 18, 2019 p. B2
- "The Mayflower's 400th anniversary celebrations scuppered by coronavirus", The Telegraph, May 22, 2020
- "Sleek new AI 'Mayflower' to cross Atlantic on 400th anniversary of Pilgrims' voyage", The First News, March 25, 2020
- "About Us". Harwich Mayflower Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
- "2020 Commemoration by the Mayflower Society", Mayflower Society
- Ames, Azel; Bradford, William. History of the Mayflower Voyage and the Destiny of Its Passenger, Madison & Adams Press (2018), public domain (CC BY-SA 3.0) ISBN 978-80-268-8269-5
- Bradford, William (1908). Davis, William T. (ed.). Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606–1646. Scribners. (the only written account of the voyage)
- Marble, Annie Russell (1920). The Women Who Came in the Mayflower. Boston: Pilgrim Press
- R. G. Marsden, "The 'Mayflower,'" English Historical Review 19 (October 1904): 669–80.
- Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War. Viking. ISBN 0-670-03760-5.
- Usher, Roland G (1984). The Pilgrims and their History. Williamstown, Massachusetts: Corner House Publishers. ISBN 0-87928-082-4. (originally published in 1918)
- Johnson, Caleb H. (2006). The Mayflower and Her Passengers. Indiana: Xlibris.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)[self-published source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mayflower.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Mayflower.|
- Mayflower and Plymouth History
- Mayflower 400
- Women of the Mayflower and Plymouth Colony by Mary Soule Googins, read before the Medford Historical Society, December 19, 1921
- Pilgrim Hall Museum of Plymouth, Massachusetts
- General Society of Mayflower Descendants
- The Mayflower And Her Log; Azel Ames, Project Gutenberg edition.
- The Mayflower And Her Log; Azel Ames, Internet Archive edition.
- Exact arrival site of the Mayflower on Satellite Map and NOAA Chart on BlooSee
- The Mayflower II
- Contemporary photos of Plymouth's Barbican and the Mayflower Steps
- Pilgrims Point, Plymouth (UK) A photo of the modern-day Mayflower Steps Arch and Pilgrims Point
- . Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.