The James Clerk Maxwell Prize in Plasma Physics is an annual American Physical Society (APS) award that is given in recognition of outstanding contributions to the field of the Plasma Physics. It was established in 1975 by Maxwell Technologies, Inc, in honor of the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. It is currently sponsored by General Atomics. The prize includes a $10,000 USD monetary award and recognition at the annual American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics conference.^{[1]}
The James Clerk Maxwell Prize in Plasma Physics | |
---|---|
Awarded for | Outstanding contributions to the field of Plasma Physics |
Country | United States |
Presented by | American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics |
First awarded | Established 1975 |
Website | http://www.aps.org/programs/honors/prizes/maxwell.cfm |
Contents
RecipientsEdit
Year | Recipient | Country of Birth | Rationale | Reference |
---|---|---|---|---|
1975 | Lyman Spitzer | United States | "For his pioneering investigations of the behavior of plasma and guiding and inspiring a generation of plasma physicists through his research and leadership in the controlled thermonuclear program." | ^{[2]}^{[3]} |
1976 | Marshall Nicholas Rosenbluth | United States | "For his pioneering analyses of the behavior of plasma in its various manifestations. His wide ranging work has had a strong impact on important facets of plasma theory, particularly stability but also including transport processes, interactions of radiation with plasma, fluctuations, wave phenomena, and other fundamental processes." | ^{[4]} |
1977 | John M. Dawson | United States | "For his outstanding contributions to plasma physics and controlled fusion as both as innovative theorist and a prolific inventor, whose ideas have provided the basis for several current fusion configurations. He initiated the use of computer simulation as a new and powerful tool for the study of plasmas. He inspired and trained a cadre of younger theorists to continue the development of the field he initiated." | ^{[5]} |
1978 | Richard F. Post | United States | "For many original contributions to both fundamental plasma physics and the design of Fusion Reactors. In particular for his unswerving dedication to all aspects of the study of magnetic mirror plasma confinement." | ^{[6]} |
1979 | Tihiro Ohkawa | Japan | "For his development of multi-current or doublet approach to the design of tokamaks with non-circular cross sections and for investigation of plasma confinement in toroidal multipoles." | ^{[7]}^{[8]} |
1980 | Thomas H. Stix | United States | "For his contributions to the development and formalization of the theory of wave propagation in plasmas and for his pioneering research on radio frequency plasma heating. His work has played the guiding role in the understanding of waves in space plasmas and in the development of advanced plasma heating methods for controlled fusion devices." | ^{[9]} |
1981 | John H. Nuckolls | United States | "For his contributions to the genesis and progress of inertial confinement fusion. His insight into the fundamental physics issues has served to guide and in-spire the technical evolution of the field." | ^{[10]} |
1982 | Ira B. Bernstein | United States | "For his pioneering contributions to the theory of plasmas. His incisive studies of the physics of waves, stability, and transport have provided essential guidance to a generation of colleagues and disciples." | ^{[11]} |
1983 | Harold P. Furth | Austria/United States | "For his extraordinary scientific and intellectual leadership of research on toroidal magnetic confinement fusion. His outstanding technical contributions range from his pioneering investigations of resistive instabilities to his mastery of magnetic topology which has led to new configurations of confinement." | ^{[12]} |
1984 | Donald W. Kerst | United States | "For his path-breaking contributions to plasma physics, including the invention of the levitated toroidal multipole, the elucidation of classical and anomalous transport mechanisms, and the demonstration of high beta plasma confinement; for his seminal ideas on particle accelerators; and for the inspired guidance of a generation of productive experimentalists." | ^{[13]} |
1985 | John H. Malmberg | United States | "For his outstanding experimental studies which expanded out understanding of wave-particle interactions in neutral plasmas and increased our confidence in plasma theory; and for his pioneering studies of the confinement and transport of pure electron plasmas." | ^{[14]} |
1986 | Harold Grad | United States | "For outstanding contributions to magneto-fluid dynamics, plasma physics and Magnetic Fusion Energy. His investigations, using rigorous mathematical methods with advanced analytical and computational techniques, include seminal research on the Boltzmann equations, collisionless shocks, guiding center plasmas, and equilibrium, stability and transport theory. His work expresses a scientific philosophy that serves as a model for a new generation of theoretical physicists and mathematicians." | ^{[15]} |
1987 | Bruno Coppi | Italy | "For outstanding contributions to fundamental theory, experimental interpretation and engineering design in fusion research. Among his theoretical discoveries are the ion mixing, impurity gradient, and ubiquitous modes and his work on m=1 tearing has recently been extended to explain anomalous loss of fast particles. His experimental interpretations include confinement scalings, slideaway electrons, detailed transport laws, and the principle of profile consistency. He has pioneered in the conceptual and engineering design of high field tokamaks, many of which now operate successfully, and which serve as the basis for proposals for low cost fusion ignition devices such as Ignitor." | ^{[16]} |
1988 | Norman Rostoker | Canada | "In recognition of his pioneering theoretical contributions to the statistical mechanics of particles with Coulomb interactions; to the treatment of inhomogeneities, fluctuations and Larmor radius effects in plasmas; and his outstanding leadership in both experimental and theoretical research on the acceleration of electron and ion beams and their interactions with plasmas." | ^{[17]} |
1989 | Ravindra N. Sudan | India | "For wide-ranging contributions to the theory of plasma stability and turbulence, and pioneering work on the generation and propagation of ion beams; his penetrating analytic and computational studies, often done with his numerous students, have had considerable impact on ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, on confinement and heating in field reversed ion rings, and on light-ion-beam drivers for inertial confinement fusion." | ^{[18]}^{[19]} |
1990 | William L. Kruer | United States | "For outstanding and seminal contributions to the theoretical and experimental understanding of the intense electromagnetic waves with plasmas and for numerous contributions to the understanding of basic plasma phenomena via numerical simulation." | ^{[20]} |
1991 | Hans R. Griem | United States | "For his numerous contributions to experimental plasma physics and spectroscopy, particularly in the area of improved diagnostic methods for high temperature plasmas, and for his books on plasma spectroscopy and spectral line broadening in plasmas that have be-come standard references in the field." | ^{[21]} |
1992 | John M. Greene | United States | "For outstanding contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovery of the inverse scattering trans-form leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations, and for invention of the residue methods of determining the transition to global chaos." | ^{[22]} |
1993 | Russell M. Kulsrud | United States | "For his pioneering contributions to basic plasma theory, to the physics of magnetically confined plasmas, and to plasma astrophysics. His important work en-compasses plasma equilibria and stability, adiabatic invariance, ballooning modes, runaway electrons, colliding beams, spin-polarized plasmas, and cosmic-ray instabilities." | ^{[23]}^{[24]} |
1994 | Roy W. Gould | United States | "For outstanding contributions to the knowledge of plasma physics, pioneering research in beam-plasma interactions, plasma waves, cyclotron and plasma wave echoes, resonance cones, and for the dissemination of knowledge about plasmas through more than thirty years of teaching." | ^{[25]} |
1995 | Francis F. Chen | United States | "For his rare combination of physical insight, theoretical ability and skill for performing careful, clear and definitive experiments. He has made fundamental contributions to plasma physics in such diverse areas as magnetic confinement devices, laser plasma interactions, novel plasma based accelerators and sources for plasma processing. Of particular note are his pioneering works on: electrostatic probes, low frequency fluctuations in magnetized plasma, parametric instabilities in laser plasma interactions, and helicon plasma sources. In addition, his classic text book Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion has helped educate a generation of plasma physicists." | ^{[26]} |
1996 | Thomas Michael O'Neil | United States | "For seminal contributions to plasma theory, including extension of Landau damping to the nonlinear regime and demonstration of the importance of particle trapping; discovery of the plasma-wave echo; and pioneering studies of the confinement, transport, and thermal equilibria of non-neutral plasmas, liquids and crystals. His theoretical work and active guidance of experiments with trapped, non-neutral plasmas provide much of the foundation for this branch of plasma physics." | ^{[27]} |
1997 | Charles F. Kennel | United States | "For his fundamental contributions to the basic plasma physics of collisionless shocks, magnetic reconnection and quasilinear theory, and to plasma astrophysics - including the Van Allen radiation belt and the Crab Nebula." | ^{[28]} |
1998 | Boris B. Kadomtsev | "For fundamental contributions to plasma turbulence theory, stability and nonlinear theory of MHD and kinetic instabilities in plasmas, and for international leadership in research and teaching of plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion physics." | ^{[29]}^{[30]} | |
1999 | John Bryan Taylor | "For ground breaking research, distinguished by its ingenuity and clarity, in such topics as: relaxation theory, transport, finite Larmor radius effects, the minimum-B concept, adiabatic invariance, the standard map, bootstrap currents, the ballooning representation, and confinement scaling laws." | ^{[31]} | |
2000 | Akira Hasegawa | Japan | "For innovative discoveries and seminal contributions to the theories of nonlinear drift wave turbulence, Alfven wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas, and optical solitons and their application to high speed communication." | ^{[32]} |
2001 | Roald Sagdeev | Russia | "For an unmatched set of contributions to modern plasma theory including: collisionless shocks, stochastic magnetic fields, ion temperature gradient instabilities, quasi-linear theory, neo-classical transport, and weak turbulence theory." | ^{[33]} |
2002 | Edward A. Frieman | United States | "For contributions to the theory of magnetically confined plasmas, including fundamental work on the formulation of the MHD Energy Principle and on the foundations of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic theory essential to the analysis of microinstabilities and transport." | ^{[34]} |
2003 | Eugene N. Parker | United States | "For seminal contributions in plasma astrophysics, including predicting the solar wind, explaining the solar dynamo, formulating the theory of magnetic reconnection, and the instability which predicts the escape of the magnetic fields from the galaxy." | ^{[35]} |
2004 | Noah Hershkowitz | United States | "For fundamental contributions to the physics of low temperature plasmas, including radio frequency wave heating, sheath physics, potential profiles, diagnostic probes, and the industrial applications of plasmas." | ^{[36]} |
Valery Godyak | Russia | ^{[37]} | ||
2005 | Nathaniel Fisch | United States | "For theoretical development of efficient rf-driven current in plasmas and for greatly expanding our ability to understand, to analyze, and to utilize wave-plasma interactions." | ^{[38]} |
2006 | Chandrashekhar J. Joshi | India | "For his insight and leadership in applying plasma concepts to high energy electron and positron acceleration, and for his creative exploration of related aspects of plasma physics." | ^{[39]} |
2007 | John Lindl | United States | "For 30 years of continuous plasma physics contributions in high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research and scientific management." | ^{[40]} |
2008 | Ronald C. Davidson | Canada | "For pioneering contributions to the physics of one-component non-neutral plasmas, intense charge particle beams, and collective nonlinear interaction processes in high-temperature plasmas." | ^{[41]} |
2009 | Miklos Porkolab | Hungary | "For pioneering investigations of linear and nonlinear plasma waves and wave-particle interactions; fundamental contributions to the development of plasma heating, current drive and diagnostics; and leadership in promoting plasma science education and domestic and international collaborations." | ^{[42]} |
2010 | James Drake | United States | "For pioneering investigations of plasma instabilities in magnetically confined, astrophysical and laser-driven plasmas; in particular, explication of the fundamental mechanism of fast reconnection of magnetic fields in plasmas; and leadership in promoting plasma science." | ^{[43]} |
2011 | Gregor Morfill | Germany | "For pioneering, and seminal contributions to, the field of dusty plasmas, including work leading to the discovery of plasma crystals, to an explanation for the complicated structure of Saturn's rings, and to microgravity dusty plasma experiments conducted first on parabolic-trajectory flights and then on the International Space Station." | ^{[44]} |
2012 | Liu Chen | United States | "For seminal contributions to plasma theory, including geomagnetic pulsation, kinetic Alfvén wave, toroidal Alfvén eigenmode, fishbone oscillation and energetic particle mode, nonlinear dynamics of drift wave, and nonlinear gyrokinetic equation." | ^{[45]} |
2013 | Phillip A. Sprangle | United States | "For pioneering contributions to the physics of high intensity laser interactions with plasmas, and to the development of plasma accelerators, free-electron lasers, gyrotrons and high current electron accelerators" | ^{[46]} |
2014 | Clifford Surko | United States | "For the invention of and development of techniques to accumulate, confine, and utilize positron plasmas, and for seminal experimental studies of waves and turbulence in tokamak plasmas." | ^{[47]} |
2015 | Masaaki Yamada | United States | "For fundamental experimental studies of magnetic reconnection relevant to space, astrophysical and fusion plasmas, and for pioneering contributions to the field of laboratory plasma astrophysics." | ^{[48]} |
2016 | Ellen G. Zweibel | United States | "For seminal research on the energetics, stability, and dynamics of astrophysical plasmas, including those related to stars and galaxies, and for leadership in linking plasma and other astrophysical phenomena." | ^{[49]} |
2017 | Dmitri Ryutov | "For many outstanding contributions to the theoretical plasma physics of low and high energy density plasmas, open and closed magnetic configurations, and laboratory and astrophysical systems." | ^{[50]} | |
2018 | Keith H. Burrell | "For pioneering research, including key experimental advances and diagnostic development, that established the links between sheared plasma flow and turbulent transport, leading to improved confinement regimes for magnetized plasmas through turbulent transport reduction by sheared flow." | ^{[51]} |
See alsoEdit
ReferencesEdit
- ^ "James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics". www.aps.org. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
- ^ "1975 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "Lyman Spitzer Jr". Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
- ^ "1976 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1977 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1978 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1979 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "Tihiro Ohkawa". 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
- ^ "1980 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1981 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1982 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1983 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1984 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1985 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1986 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1987 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1988 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1989 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "The 1989 james clerk maxwell prize in plasma physics". Physics of Fluids B: Plasma Physics. 2 (2): 233. 1990-01-01. Bibcode:1990PhFlB...2..233.. doi:10.1063/1.3480474. ISSN 0899-8221.
- ^ "1990 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1991 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1992 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1993 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "Russell M. Kulsrud received the Maxwell Prize of the American Physical Society". Physics Today. 47 (2): 115. 1994. Bibcode:1994PhT....47Q.115.. doi:10.1063/1.2808413.
- ^ "1994 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1995 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1996 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1997 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "1998 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "Physicists To Be Honored at November Meetings". APS.
- ^ "1999 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2000 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2001 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2002 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2003 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2004 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2004 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2005 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2006 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2007 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2008 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2009 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2010 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2011 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2012 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2013 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS.
- ^ "2014 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- ^ "AWARD: PPPL's Masaaki Yamada wins James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics". Princeton University. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
- ^ "2016 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". APS. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- ^ "Prize Recipient". www.aps.org. Retrieved 2017-10-19.
- ^ "2018 James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Recipient". www.aps.org. Retrieved 2018-10-23.