Mastigonemes are lateral "hairs" found covering the flagella of heterokont and cryptophyte algae. They are approximately 15 nm in diameter, and usually consist of a tubular shaft that itself terminates in smaller "hairs". It is believed that they assist in locomotion by increasing the surface area of a flagellum.
- whiplash flagella (= smooth, acronematic flagella): without hairs, e.g., in Opisthokonta
- hairy flagella (= tinsel, flimmer, pleuronematic flagella): with hairs (= mastigonemes sensu lato), divided in:
- with fine hairs (= non tubular, or simple hairs): occurs in Euglenophyceae, Dinoflagellata, some Haptophyceae (Pavlovales)
- with stiff hairs (= tubular hairs, retronemes, mastigonemes sensu stricto), divided in:
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- Webster & Weber (2007).
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- Barsanti, Laura; Gualtieri, Paolo (2006). Algae: anatomy, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Florida, USA: CRC Press. pp. 60-63, 
- Dodge, J.D. (1973). The Fine Structure of Algal Cells. Academic Press, London. pp. 57-79, 
- Lee, R. E. (2008). Phycology (4th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 7, .
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