Marian Anderson

Marian Anderson (February 27, 1897 – April 8, 1993)[1] was an American contralto. She performed a wide range of music, from classical music to spirituals. She performed with renowned orchestras in major concert and recital venues throughout the United States and Europe between 1925 and 1965.

Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson in 1940, by Carl Van Vechten
Marian Anderson in 1940, by Carl Van Vechten
Background information
Born(1897-02-27)February 27, 1897
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DiedApril 8, 1993(1993-04-08) (aged 96)
Portland, Oregon, U.S.
Genres
InstrumentsVocals
Years active1925–1965
LabelsRCA Victor Red Seal

Anderson was an important figure in the struggle for African-American artists to overcome racial prejudice in the United States during the mid-twentieth century. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused permission for Anderson to sing to an integrated audience in Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. The incident placed Anderson in the spotlight of the international community on a level unusual for a classical musician. With the aid of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt and her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Anderson performed a critically acclaimed open-air concert on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939, on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in the capital. She sang before an integrated crowd of more than 75,000 people and a radio audience in the millions.

Anderson was the first African-American to perform at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City on January 7, 1955. In addition, she worked as a delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Committee and as a Goodwill Ambassador for the United States Department of State, giving concerts all over the world. She participated in the civil rights movement in the 1960s, singing at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. The recipient of numerous awards and honors, Anderson was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1977, the Kennedy Center Honors in 1978, the National Medal of Arts in 1986, and a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1991.

Early life and educationEdit

Marian Anderson was born on February 27, 1897, in Philadelphia, to John Berkley Anderson (c. 1872–1910) and Annie Delilah Rucker (1874–1964).[2] Her father sold ice and coal at the Reading Terminal in downtown Philadelphia and eventually opened a small liquor business as well. Prior to her marriage, Anderson's mother had briefly attended the Virginia Seminary and College in Lynchburg and had worked as a schoolteacher in Virginia. As she did not obtain a degree, Annie Anderson was unable to teach in Philadelphia under a law that was applied only to black teachers and not white ones.[3] She therefore earned an income caring for small children. Marian was the eldest of the three Anderson children. Her two sisters, Alyse (1899–1965) and Ethel (1902–90), also became singers. Ethel married James DePreist and their son James Anderson DePreist was a noted conductor.[4]

 
Anderson in 1920

Anderson's parents were both devout Christians and the whole family was active in the Union Baptist Church in South Philadelphia. Marian's aunt Mary, her father's sister, was particularly active in the church's musical life and convinced her niece to join the junior church choir at the age of six. In that role she got to perform solos and duets, often with her aunt Mary. Aunt Mary took Marian to concerts at local churches, the YMCA, benefit concerts, and other community music events throughout the city. Anderson credited her aunt's influence as the reason she pursued her singing career.[5] Beginning as young as six, her aunt arranged for Marian to sing for local functions where she was often paid 25 or 50 cents for singing a few songs. As she got into her early teens, Marian began to make as much as four or five dollars for singing; a considerable amount of money for the early 20th century. At the age of 10, Marian joined the People's Chorus of Philadelphia under the direction of singer Emma Azalia Hackley, where she was often a soloist.[5][6]

When Anderson was 12, her father was accidentally struck on the head while working at the Reading Terminal before Christmas 1909. He died of heart failure a month later at age 34. Marian and her family moved into the home of her father's parents, Grandpa Benjamin and Grandma Isabella Anderson. Her grandfather had been born a slave and had experienced emancipation in the 1860s. He was the first of the Anderson family to settle in South Philadelphia, and when Anderson moved into his home the two became very close. He died just a year after the family moved in.[6]

Anderson attended Stanton Grammar School, graduating in the summer of 1912. Her family, however, could neither afford to send her to high school, nor could they pay for any music lessons. Still, Anderson continued to perform wherever she could and learn from anyone who was willing to teach her. Throughout her teenage years, she remained active in her church's musical activities, now heavily involved in the adult choir. She joined the Baptists' Young People's Union and the Camp Fire Girls which provided her with some limited musical opportunities.[5] Eventually, the directors of the People's Chorus of Philadelphia and the pastor of her church, Reverend Wesley Parks, along with other leaders of the black community, raised the money she needed to get singing lessons with Mary Saunders Patterson and to attend South Philadelphia High School, from which she graduated in 1921.[7]

After high school, Anderson applied to an all-white music school, the Philadelphia Music Academy (now University of the Arts), but was turned away because she was black. The woman working the admissions counter replied, "We don't take colored" when she tried to apply. Undaunted, Anderson pursued studies privately in her native city through the continued support of the Philadelphia black community, first with Agnes Reifsnyder, then Giuseppe Boghetti. She met Boghetti through the principal of her high school. Anderson auditioned for him singing "Deep River" and he was immediately brought to tears. Boghetti scheduled a recital of English, Russian, Italian and German music at The Town Hall in New York City in April 1924 which took place in an almost empty hall and received poor reviews.[8]

Early careerEdit

In 1925 Anderson got her first big break when she won first prize in a singing competition sponsored by the New York Philharmonic. As the winner she got to perform in concert with the orchestra on August 26, 1925,[9] a performance that scored immediate success with both audience and music critics. Anderson remained in New York to pursue further studies with Frank La Forge. During this time Arthur Judson became her manager. They met through the New York Philharmonic. Over the next several years, she made a number of concert appearances in the United States, but racial prejudice prevented her career from gaining momentum. In 1928, she sang for the first time at Carnegie Hall.[10]

Rosenwald fundEdit

During her fall 1929 concert schedule, Anderson sang at Orchestra Hall in Chicago. The performance was greeted with measured praise. Critic Herman Devries from the Chicago Evening American wrote, "[Anderson] reached near perfection in every requirement of vocal art—the tone was of superb timbre, the phrasing of utmost refinement, the style pure, discreet, musicianly. But after this there was a letdown, and we took away the impression of a talent still unripe, but certainly a talent of potential growth."[11] In the audience were two representatives from Julius Rosenwald's philanthropic organization, Rosenwald Fund. The organization's representatives Ray Field and George Arthur encouraged Anderson to apply for a Rosenwald Fellowship, through which she received fifteen-hundred dollars to study in Berlin.[12]

European toursEdit

Anderson went to Europe where she spent a number of months studying with Sara Charles-Cahier before launching a highly successful European singing tour.[10] In the summer of 1930, she went to Scandinavia, where she met the Finnish pianist Kosti Vehanen who became her regular accompanist and her vocal coach for many years. She also met Jean Sibelius through Vehanen after he had heard her in a concert in Helsinki. Moved by her performance, Sibelius invited them to his home and asked his wife to bring champagne in place of the traditional coffee. Sibelius commented to Anderson of her performance that he felt that she had been able to penetrate the Nordic soul. The two struck up an immediate friendship, which further blossomed into a professional partnership, and for many years Sibelius altered and composed songs for Anderson to perform. He created a new arrangement of the song "Solitude" and dedicated it to Anderson in 1939. Originally The Jewish Girl's Song from his 1906 incidental music to Belshazzar's Feast, it later became the "Solitude" section of the orchestral suite derived from the incidental music.[13][14]

In 1933, Anderson made her European debut in a concert at Wigmore Hall in London, where she was received enthusiastically. She spent the early 1930s touring throughout Europe where she did not encounter the racial prejudices she had experienced in America.[15] Anderson, accompanied by Vehanen, continued to tour throughout Europe during the mid-1930s. She visited Eastern European capitals and Russia and returned again to Scandinavia, where "Marian fever" had spread to small towns and villages where she had thousands of fans. She quickly became a favorite of many conductors and composers of major European orchestras.[16] During a 1935 tour in Salzburg, the conductor Arturo Toscanini told her she had a voice "heard once in a hundred years."[17][18]

American toursEdit

In 1934, impresario Sol Hurok offered Anderson a better contract than she previously had with Arthur Judson. He became her manager for the rest of her performing career and through his persuasion she came back to perform in America.[19] In 1935, Anderson made her second recital appearance at The Town Hall in New York City, which received highly favorable reviews by music critics.[20] She spent the next four years touring throughout the United States and Europe. She was offered opera roles by several European houses but, due to her lack of acting experience, Anderson declined all of those offers. She did, however, record a number of opera arias in the studio, which became bestsellers.[16]

In the late 1930s, Anderson gave about 70 recitals a year in the United States. Although by then quite famous, her stature did not completely end the prejudice she confronted as a young black singer touring the United States. She was still denied rooms in certain American hotels and was not allowed to eat in certain American restaurants. Because of this discrimination, Albert Einstein, a champion of racial tolerance, hosted Anderson on many occasions, the first being in 1937 when she was denied a hotel before performing at Princeton University. She last stayed with him months before he died in 1955.[21][22]

1939 Lincoln Memorial concertEdit

 
Anderson in her 1939 concert at the Lincoln Memorial
External audio
  Anderson performing Schubert's Ave Maria; "Oh mio Fernando" from Donizetti's La favorite; Spirituals: "The Gospel Train", "My Soul Is Anchored in the Lord", "Tramping", on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in 1939
 
Anderson at the Lincoln Memorial

In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) denied permission to Anderson for a concert on April 9 at Constitution Hall under a "white performers-only" policy in effect at the time.[23][24][25] In addition to the policy on performers, Washington, D.C., was a segregated city, and black patrons were upset that they would have to sit at the back of Constitution Hall. Furthermore, Constitution Hall did not have the segregated public bathrooms required by DC law at the time for such events. Other DC venues were not an option; the District of Columbia Board of Education declined a request to use the auditorium of a white public high school.[26]

Charles Edward Russell, a co-founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and chair of the DC citywide Inter-Racial Committee, convened a meeting on the following day that formed the Marian Anderson Citizens Committee (MACC) composed of several dozen organizations, church leaders and individual activists in the city, including the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the Washington Industrial Council-CIO, American Federation of Labor, and the National Negro Congress. MACC elected Charles Hamilton Houston as its chairman and on February 20, the group picketed the board of education, collected signatures on petitions, and planned a mass protest at the next board of education meeting.[27]

 
Mitchell Jamieson's 1943 mural An Incident in Contemporary American Life, at the United States Department of the Interior Building, depicts the scene of Anderson's concert at the Lincoln Memorial

As a result of the ensuing furor, thousands of DAR members, including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, resigned from the organization.[28][1] In her letter to the DAR, Roosevelt wrote, "I am in complete disagreement with the attitude taken in refusing Constitution Hall to a great artist... You had an opportunity to lead in an enlightened way and it seems to me that your organization has failed."[29] Author Zora Neale Hurston criticized Eleanor Roosevelt's public silence about the similar decision by the District of Columbia Board of Education.[30]

As the controversy grew, the American press overwhelmingly backed Anderson's right to sing. The Philadelphia Tribune wrote, "A group of tottering old ladies, who don't know the difference between patriotism and putridism, have compelled the gracious First Lady to apologize for their national rudeness." The Richmond Times-Dispatch wrote, "In these days of racial intolerance so crudely expressed in the Third Reich, an action such as the D.A.R.’s ban. . . seems all the more deplorable."[31]

 
Marian Anderson greeting members of the audience at the ceremony held in the auditorium of the U.S. Department of the Interior, 1943

At Eleanor Roosevelt's behest,[32] President Roosevelt and Walter White, then-executive secretary of the NAACP, and Anderson's manager, impresario Sol Hurok, persuaded Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes to arrange an open-air concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.[28] The concert was performed on Easter Sunday, April 9, and Anderson was accompanied, as usual, by Vehanen. They began the performance with a dignified and stirring rendition of "My Country, 'Tis of Thee." The event attracted a crowd of more than 75,000 in addition to a national radio audience of millions.[33]

Two months later, in conjunction with the 30th NAACP conference in Richmond, Virginia, Eleanor Roosevelt gave a speech on national radio (NBC and CBS) and presented Anderson with the 1939 Spingarn Medal for distinguished achievement.[34] In 2001, a subsequent documentary film of the event has been selected for the National Film Registry, and NBC radio coverage of the event has been selected for the National Recording Registry.[1]

Mid-careerEdit

 
Anderson at the Department of the Interior in 1943, commemorating her 1939 concert
 
Anderson christens Liberty ship SS Booker T. Washington, 1942

During World War II and the Korean War, Anderson entertained troops in hospitals and bases. In 1943, she sang at the Constitution Hall at the invitation of the DAR to an integrated audience as part of a benefit for the American Red Cross. She said of the event, "When I finally walked onto the stage of Constitution Hall, I felt no different than I had in other halls. There was no sense of triumph. I felt that it was a beautiful concert hall and I was very happy to sing there." By contrast, the District of Columbia Board of Education continued to bar her from using the high school auditorium in the District of Columbia.[1]

The Metropolitan OperaEdit

On January 7, 1955, Anderson became the first African-American to perform with the Metropolitan Opera in New York. At the invitation of director Rudolf Bing, she sang the part of Ulrica in Giuseppe Verdi's Un ballo in maschera (opposite Zinka Milanov and Herva Nelli, as Amelia).[35] Anderson said later about the evening, "The curtain rose on the second scene and I was there on stage, mixing the witch's brew. I trembled, and when the audience applauded and applauded before I could sing a note, I felt myself tightening into a knot." Although she never appeared with the company again after this production, Anderson was named a permanent member of the Metropolitan Opera company. The following year she published her autobiography, My Lord, What a Morning, which became a bestseller.[1]

Presidential inaugurations and goodwill ambassador toursEdit

In 1957, she sang for President Dwight D. Eisenhower's inauguration, toured India and the Far East as a goodwill ambassador through the U.S. State Department and the American National Theater and Academy. She traveled 35,000 miles (56,000 km) in 12 weeks, giving 24 concerts. After that, President Eisenhower appointed her as a delegate to the United Nations Human Rights Committee. The same year, she was elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[36] In 1958 she was officially designated delegate to the United Nations, a formalization of her role as "goodwill ambassadress" of the U.S. which she had played earlier.[1]

On January 20, 1961 she sang for President John F. Kennedy's inauguration, and in 1962 she performed for President Kennedy and other dignitaries in the East Room of the White House, and also toured Australia.[37] She was active in supporting the civil rights movement during the 1960s, giving benefit concerts for the Congress of Racial Equality, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the America-Israel Cultural Foundation. In 1963, she sang at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. That same year she received one of the newly reinstituted Presidential Medal of Freedom, which is awarded for "especially meritorious contributions to the security or national interest of the United States, World Peace or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors." She also released her album, Snoopycat: The Adventures of Marian Anderson's Cat Snoopy, which included short stories and songs about her beloved black cat.[38] That same year Anderson concluded her farewell tour, after which she retired from public performance. The international tour began at Constitution Hall on Saturday October 24, 1964, and ended at Carnegie Hall on April 18, 1965.[1] In 1965, she christened the nuclear-powered ballistic-missile submarine, USS George Washington Carver.[39]

Later lifeEdit

Although Anderson retired from singing in 1965, she continued to appear publicly. She often narrated Aaron Copland's Lincoln Portrait with her nephew James DePriest conducting.[40] In 1976, Copland conducted a performance with the Philadelphia Orchestra at Saratoga.[41] Her achievements were recognized and honored with many prizes, including the University of Pennsylvania Glee Club Award of Merit in 1973;[42] the United Nations Peace Prize, New York City's Handel Medallion, and the Congressional Gold Medal, all in 1977;[43] Kennedy Center Honors in 1978; the George Peabody Medal in 1981; the National Medal of Arts in 1986; and a Grammy Award for Lifetime Achievement in 1991. In 1980, the United States Treasury Department coined a half-ounce gold commemorative medal with her likeness, and in 1984 she was the first recipient of the Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Award of the City of New York.[1] She has been awarded twenty-four honorary doctoral degrees from Howard University, Temple University, Smith College, and many others.[40]

Personal lifeEdit

On July 17, 1943, in Bethel, Connecticut, Anderson married architect Orpheus H. Fisher (1900–86), known as King. Fisher had asked her to marry him when they were teenagers.[44] The wedding was a private ceremony performed by United Methodist pastor Rev. Jack Grenfell and was the subject of a short story titled "The 'Inside' Story" written by Rev. Grenfell's wife, Dr. Clarine Coffin Grenfell, in her book Women My Husband Married, including Marian Anderson.[17][45][46]

 
Anderson entertains a group of overseas veterans and WACs on the stage of the San Antonio Municipal Auditorium, 1945.

According to Dr. Grenfell, the wedding was originally supposed to take place in the parsonage, but because of a bake sale on the lawn of the Bethel United Methodist Church, the ceremony was moved at the last minute to the Elmwood Chapel, on the site of the Elmwood Cemetery in Bethel, in order to allow the event to remain private.[47][48]

By this marriage she had a stepson, James Fisher, from her husband's previous marriage to Ida Gould.[49] The couple purchased a 100-acre (0.40 km2) farm in Danbury, Connecticut, three years earlier in 1940 after an exhaustive search throughout New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. Through the years Fisher built many structures on the property, including an acoustic rehearsal studio he designed for his wife. The property remained Anderson's home for almost 50 years.[50]

From 1940 she resided at a 50-acre farm, having sold half of the original 100 acres that she named Marianna Farm.[51] The farm was on Joe's Hill Road, in the Mill Plain section of Danbury in western Danbury. She constructed a three-bedroom ranch house as a residence, and she used a separate one-room structure as her studio. In 1996, the farm was named one of 60 sites on the Connecticut Freedom Trail. The studio was moved to downtown Danbury as the Marian Anderson studio.[52][53]

As a town resident Anderson wished to live as normally as possible, declining offers to be treated in restaurants and stores as a celebrity. She was known to visit the Danbury State Fair. She sang at the city hall on the occasion of the lighting of Christmas ornaments. She gave a concert at the Danbury High School. She served on the boards of the Danbury Music Center and supported the Charles Ives Center for the Arts and the Danbury Chapter of the NAACP.[52]

In 1986, Anderson's husband, Orpheus Fisher, died after 43 years of marriage. Anderson remained in residence at Marianna Farm until 1992, one year before her death. Although the property was sold to developers, various preservationists as well as the City of Danbury fought to protect Anderson's studio. Their efforts proved successful and the Danbury Museum and Historical Society received a grant from the State of Connecticut, relocated the structure, restored it, and opened it to the public in 2004. In addition to seeing the studio, visitors can see photographs and memorabilia from milestones in Anderson's career.[54][55]

 
Marian Anderson gravestone in Eden Cemetery

Anderson died of congestive heart failure on April 8, 1993, at age 96. She had suffered a stroke a month earlier. She died in Portland, Oregon, at the home of her nephew, conductor James DePreist, where she had relocated the year prior.[56] She is interred at Eden Cemetery, in Collingdale, Pennsylvania.

Awards and honorsEdit

External audio
  Anderson performing Brahms' Alto Rhapsody with Pierre Monteux conducting the San Francisco Symphony in 1945

LegacyEdit

 
Sculpture of Anderson, Converse College, South Carolina

The life and art of Anderson has been commemorated by writers, artists, and city, state, and national organizations. The following is a selected list:

Marian Anderson AwardEdit

The Marian Anderson Award was originally established in 1943 by Anderson after she was awarded the $10,000 Bok Prize that year by the city of Philadelphia. Anderson used the award money to establish a singing competition to help support young singers. Eventually the prize fund ran out of money and disbanded in 1976. In 1990, the award was re-established and has dispensed $25,000 annually. In 1998, the Marian Anderson Award prize money was restructured to be given to an established artist, not necessarily a singer, who exhibits leadership in a humanitarian area.[77]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Allan Kozinn, "Marian Anderson Is Dead at 96; Singer Shattered Racial Barriers", The New York Times, April 9, 1993.
  2. ^ Keiler 2000, pp. 16–17, 22, 312.
  3. ^ Keiler 2000, p. 17.
  4. ^ Allan Keiler, Marian Anderson: A Singer's Journey – Chapter One, The New York Times, 2000 (subscription access)
  5. ^ a b c Schenbeck, Lawrence (2012). Racial Uplift and American Music. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 177. ISBN 9781617032301.
  6. ^ a b Chidi, Sylvia Lovina (2014). Greatest Black Achievers in History. Lulu Press. p. 532. ISBN 978-1291909333. OCLC 980490928.
  7. ^ Bond, Zanice (January 19, 2007). "Marian Anderson (1897–1993)". BlackPast.org. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  8. ^ Ferris 1994, p. 33.
  9. ^ Aberjhani; West, Sandra L. (2003). Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. Infobase. pp. 11–13.
  10. ^ a b "Marian Anderson in recital here this Monday night". New journal and guide. December 1, 1928.
  11. ^ Keiler 2000, p. 90.
  12. ^ Keiler 2000, pp. 90–91.
  13. ^ "Arrangements for voice and piano". The Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  14. ^ "Belshazzar's Feast". The Finnish Club of Helsinki. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  15. ^ Keiler 2000, p. 76.
  16. ^ a b Max de Schauensee/Alan Blyth: "Marian Anderson", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, accessed February 9, 2009 (subscription required)
  17. ^ a b "Penn Special Collections-MA Register 4". U Penn. Archived from the original on October 28, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  18. ^ "Marian Anderson Papers, ca. 1900–1993 – Scope and Content Note". University of Pennsylvania Library Special Collections-MA Register 4. January 31, 2003. Archived from the original on June 7, 2007. Retrieved December 6, 2007.
  19. ^ Keiler 2000, p. 159.
  20. ^ Ferris, Jeri (1994). What I Had Sas Singing – The Story of Marian Anderson. Carolrhoda Books. ISBN 978-0-7613-5837-4. OCLC 883266758.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)[page needed]
  21. ^ Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe, Simon & Schuster, 2007, p. 445.
  22. ^ Mythos Einstein Leben und Werk eines Rebellen on YouTube, Arte, documentary, Germany 2015 Archived 2019-04-02 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ The World Book encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book. 2004. ISBN 0-71660104-4. OCLC 52514287.
  24. ^ "Marian Anderson at the MET: The 50th Anniversary, Early Career". The Metropolitan Opera Guild. 2005. Archived from the original on February 6, 2006. Retrieved October 8, 2006.
  25. ^ "NSDAR Archives Marian Anderson Documents (January–April 1939)". Daughters of the American Revolution. Retrieved June 23, 2020.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "What we can give". Rolla Daily News. June 12, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  27. ^ Simpson, Craig (March 14, 2013). "DC's Old Jim Crow Rocked by 1939 Marian Anderson Concert". Washington Spark. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
  28. ^ a b Mark Leibovich, "Rights vs. Rights: An Improbable Collision Course", The New York Times, January 13, 2008.
  29. ^ "Biography: Marian Anderson", American Experience, PBS
  30. ^ Zora Neale Hurston, "A Negro Voter Sizes Up Taft", The Saturday Evening Post, December 8, 1951, pp. 151–52.
  31. ^ "The Concert that Stirred America's Conscience". The Attic. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  32. ^ Eleanor Roosevelt and Marian Anderson, Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum
  33. ^ Hansen, Jacqueline (2005). "Marian Anderson, Voice of the Century". United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
  34. ^ "Along the N.A.A.C.P. Battlefront – Richmond Welcomes 30th N.A.A.C.P. Conference". The Crisis. 46 (7). July 1939. Retrieved August 1, 2018. With the conference reaching its climax Sunday Afternoon in the speech of Mrs. Roosevelt presenting to Marian Anderson the 24th Spingarn Medal for distinguished achievement. Mrs Roosevelt's speech will be broadcast ofer both the National Broadcasting Company network and the Columbia Broadcasting chain of stations
  35. ^ Jones, Randye. "Marian Anderson Biography". Afrocentric Voices. Archived from the original on June 15, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  36. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  37. ^ "Marian Anderson Calls on Kennedy at White House", The New York Times, March 23, 1962.
  38. ^ Snoopycat Album Details at Smithsonian Folkways
  39. ^ Keiler 2000, pp. 239.
  40. ^ a b Brooks Higginbotham, Evelyn; Gates, Henry Louis (2004). African American Lives. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780199882861.
  41. ^ Arsenault, Raymond. (2009). The sound of freedom : Marian Anderson, the Lincoln Memorial, and the concert that awakened America (1st U.S. ed.). New York: Bloomsbury Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-59691-578-7. OCLC 236341217.
  42. ^ "The University of Pennsylvania Glee Club Award of Merit Recipients". Archived from the original on February 9, 2012.
  43. ^ Quindlen, Anna (February 28, 1977), "Marian Anderson Honored at 75 by Carnegie Hall Concert", The New York Times, p. 24
  44. ^ Jones, Victoria Garrett (2008). Sterling Biographies: Marian Anderson: A Voice Uplifted. Sterling. pp. vi, 118. ISBN 978-1-4027-4239-2.
  45. ^ "Fogler Library: Finding Guide to the Clarine Coffin Grenfell Papers". U Maine. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  46. ^ Clarine Coffin Grenfell, Lornagrace Grenfell Stuart, Women My Husband Married, including Marian Anderson Archived 2018-11-23 at the Wayback Machine, Grenfell Reading Center, 2000, ISBN 0-96127662-2.
  47. ^ "Local Organizations List". Bethel Public Library. Archived from the original on May 12, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  48. ^ "General Conference Archives". Adventist archives. Retrieved December 13, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  49. ^ Keiler 2000.
  50. ^ William H. Honan, "For a Legend, A Fitting Encore", The New York Times, March 9, 2003.
  51. ^ Colebrook, Jessica, Travel Stories: Marian Anderson Studio Archived 2012-10-20 at the Wayback Machine, Connecticut Office of Tourism (2013).
  52. ^ a b Jay Axelbank, "Rare Voice, Gracious Neighbor", The New York Times, November 23, 1997
  53. ^ I-84, NY Croads.
  54. ^ Alice DuBois, "Travel Advisory; A Place to Remember Marian Anderson", The New York Times, September 26, 2004. Found at The New York Times archives. Last accessed August 6, 2010.
  55. ^ Michael Schuman, "Singer Marian Anderson, who overcame racism, graced Danbury, Conn.", Albany Times-Union, June 6, 2010, Travel section p. 5. Found at Times Union archives. Accessed August 6, 2010.
  56. ^ Ware, Susan, ed. (2004). Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century. 5. Harvard University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-674-01488-6.
  57. ^ "NAACP | Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to today". NAACP. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  58. ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom:". John F. Kennedy: Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  59. ^ "Penn Glee Club: Awards". Penn Glee Club. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  60. ^ National Women's Hall of Fame, Marion Anderson
  61. ^ a b Quindlen, Anna (February 28, 1977). "Marian Anderson Honored at 75 by Carnegie Hall Concert". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  62. ^ "The Congressional Gold Medal for Singer Marian Anderson". United States House of Representative: History, Art & Archives. March 8, 1977. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  63. ^ "KENNEDY CENTER HONORS 1978 {HONOREES: FRED ASTAIRE, RICHARD RODGERS, GEORGE BALANCHINE, MARIAN ANDERSON, ARTHUR RUBENSTEIN} (TV)". www.paleycenter.org.
  64. ^ "Gold Sale: A Modern Gold Rush". The Charlotte Observer. July 21, 1980.
  65. ^ "Eleanor Roosevelt's Human Rights Efforts Remembered with Award". Tyler Morning Telegraph. July 26, 1984.
  66. ^ "Marian Anderson". NEA. April 9, 2013.
  67. ^ "Lifetime Achievement Award". GRAMMY.com. October 18, 2010.
  68. ^ "Marian Anderson History | Marian Anderson Campaign". www.wcsu.edu.
  69. ^ Leslie Kandell, "Highlights in the Life Of Marian Anderson", The New York Times, February 13, 2003.
  70. ^ Anderson, Marian (2002). My Lord, what a morning : an autobiography. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252070534. OCLC 47849455.
  71. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  72. ^ Jeff Holtz (March 5, 2005). "Noticed; Oops! 9-year-old spots a typo". The New York Times. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  73. ^ What Paper I Savings Bonds Look Like, United States Treasury, December 28, 2011.
  74. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Listings". Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 4/11/11 through 4/15/11. National Park Service. April 22, 2011.
  75. ^ "Treasury Secretary Lew Announces Front of New $20 to Feature Harriet Tubman, Lays Out Plans for New $20, $10 and $5". United States Department of the Treasury. April 20, 2016. Archived from the original on August 13, 2016. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  76. ^ Kutner, Max (April 21, 2016). "Who Is Marian Anderson, the Woman on the New $5 Bill?". Newsweek. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  77. ^ About the Award Archived 2012-03-20 at the Wayback Machine, MarianAndersonaward.org

Sources

BibliographyEdit

  • Arsenault, Raymond, The Sound of Freedom: Marian Anderson, the Lincoln Memorial, and the concert that awakened America. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2009). ISBN 978-1596915787
  • Freedman, Russell, The Voice that Challenged a Nation: Marian Anderson and the Struggle For Equal Rights. New York: Clarion Books, 2004. ISBN 978-0-618-15976-5
  • Sims-Wood, Janet L, Marian Anderson, An Annotated Bibliography and Discography. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-313-22559-8
  • Steane, J. B. (1996). Singers of the Century. London: Amadeus Press. pp. 46–50. ISBN 978-1574670097.
  • Story, Rosalyn (1993). And So I Sing: African American Divas of Opera and Concert. New York: Amistad Press. ISBN 978-1567430110.
  • Vehanen, Kosti (1941). Marian Anderson: a Portrait. New York. Forgotten Books, 2018, ISBN 978-0837140513.

Biographical entriesEdit

Selected discographyEdit

External linksEdit