Manhattanization is a neologism coined to describe the construction of many tall or densely situated buildings, which transforms the appearance and character of a city to what is similar to Manhattan, the most densely populated borough of New York City. It was a pejorative word used by critics of the highrise buildings built in San Francisco during the 1960s and 1970s, who claimed the skyscrapers would block views of the bay and the surrounding hills. With careful urban planning, the phenomenon became more accepted in time. The term also gained usage as a buzzword for high-density developments in Las Vegas, Nevada, Los Angeles, Dubai, and Miami in the early 2000s and again in the 2010s. Another example is the high rise development in Toronto since 2007. The term has even been applied to many smaller US cities that have seen a large spike in downtown high rise rental buildings since the 21st Century. Nonetheless, these cities would have to multiply their populations many times over to match the population density of Manhattan, though this is a biased comparison between a city and a district, as even the other four "outer boroughs" of New York City would have to nearly triple in population to match Manhattan's current density.
The term "Manhattanization" has been used to describe the 2003–2008 boom of real estate developments in Miami that brought the construction of more than 50 high rise buildings throughout the city. A second housing market boom took place in Miami from 2012 to present (As of November 2015[update]). Along with the over ten thousand residential units added, the downtown area saw a revitalization and an increased prevalence of walking and public transport usage, similar to Manhattan. Miami is sometimes likened to a "southern Manhattan" not only for its high rises, but for its large financial district. Miami is now the US city with the third most skyscrapers (behind New York City and Chicago).
The term "Manhattanization" was initially used to describe the construction of large skyscrapers in San Francisco's Financial District in the 1970s. Since then, tall buildings have proliferated in San Francisco. This has expanded to the South of Market neighborhood. From 2000 to 2018, more than 15 buildings taller than 30 stories were built. There are now over 160 buildings taller than 240 feet. This is potentially worrisome as the area where most of the skyscrapers are located is on land with high potential for soil liquefaction.
Downtown Toronto, has experienced a construction boom since 2007, primarily in its development of condominiums and other high rise residential towers. In one week of 2014, Toronto's city council approved 755 stories of new development in the city's downtown core.
Moscow City, Russia
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