Administrative divisions of the Ryukyu Kingdom

  (Redirected from Magiri)

The administrative divisions of the Ryukyu Kingdom were a hierarchy composed of districts, magiri, cities, villages, and islands established by the Ryukyu Kingdom throughout the Ryukyu Islands.[1]

Map of the administrative divisions in the Okinawa Islands from the 18th century

DivisionsEdit

There were three districts () or : Kunigami [ja] (国頭), Nakagami [ja] (中頭), and Shimajiri [ja] (島尻), which roughly correspond to the borders of the three Okinawan kingdoms during the Sanzan period. There were 57 magiri (間切, Okinawan: majiri[2]) throughout the kingdom including the Amami Islands. In concept they were similar to present-day Japanese prefectures, but in size they were closer to Japanese cities, towns and villages. There were four cities: Shuri (首里), Naha (那覇), Tomari (), and Kume (久米). They were comparable to Japanese urban prefectures. There were over 600 villages (, Okinawan: mura[3]) throughout the kingdom including the Amami Islands. There were approximately 24 shima () or "outlying islands", but only including islands that weren't already part of a magiri.

HistoryEdit

The three districts are based on the three kingdoms of Hokuzan, Chūzan, and Nanzan. The origin of the magiri system is unclear, but was solidified by the beginning of the reign of Shō Shin, the third king of the Second Shō Dynasty of the Ryukyu Kingdom who ruled between 1477 and 1526.[4] The magiri were originally controlled by individual aji, but as the Ryukyu Kingdom centralized at the turn of the 15th century the aji relocated to the capital of the kingdom at Shuri. After this period the title of aji became symbolic, and low-ranking officials were assigned the day-to-day administration of the magiri.[4]

Each magiri had several villages, sometimes referred to as shima, which represented an administrative unit similar to the mura, or village, in feudal Japan. Each magiri had five to ten villages. Ryukyuan commoners were registered to a particular village, and movement to or from the administrative areas was generally not permitted. Under the system of Shō Shin the central government at Shuri assigned each village a noro priestess to carry out the religious functions of the settlement.[4][5]

The magiri system continued to varying degrees in the Amami Islands even after they were ceded to Satsuma Domain in 1624. On Okinawa Island, there were 27 magiri at the turn of the 17th century, but by the 19th century Misato, Kushi, Motobu, Ginowan, Oroku, Onna, Ōgimi, and Yonagusuku were created, bringing the total to 35. The magiri system continued after the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom and annexation of the islands by Japan in 1879.[6] In 1907, under Imperial Edict 46 [ja], the Japanese administrative system of cities, towns, and village organization was extended to Okinawa.[1] The magiri system was officially abolished on April 1, 1908.[4]

List of magiriEdit

The following is a list of magiri by district:

Kunigami DistrictEdit

Kunigami District (国頭方, Kunigami-hō, Okinawan: Kunjan-hō), also known as Yanbaru (山原) in Okinawan[7] and Kunigami[8] or Hokuzan-fu (北山府) in Kanbun,[9] roughly correspond to the territory of Hokuzan during the Sanzan period.

Area Name Kanji Okinawan name present-day notes
Northern area of Okinawa Main Island and nearby islands Kunigami 国頭間切 Kunjan Kunigami
Ōgimi 大宜味間切 Wujimi Ōgimi established in 1673;
changed name from Taminato (田港) in 1695
Iheya 伊平屋間切 Ihya Iheya, Izena
Haneji 羽地間切 Haniji Nago (Haneji area, Yagaji area)
Nakijin 今帰仁間切 Nachijin Nakijin
Motobu 本部間切 Mutubu Motobu established in 1666;
changed name from Inoha (伊野波) in 1667
Nago 名護間切 Nagu Nago, excluding Haneji and Yagaji areas
Kushi 久志間切 Kushi Higashi and part of Nago established in 1673
Kin 金武間切 Chin Kin, Ginoza
Southern Amami Islands Erabu 永良部間切 Irabu China, Wadomari, (Kagoshima Prefecture de facto incorporated into Satsuma Domain (Ōsumi Province) since 1624;
de jure remained a part of Ryukyu Kingdom
Yoron 与論間切 Yunnu Yoron

Nakagami DistrictEdit

Nakagami District (中頭方, Nakagami-hō, Okinawan: Nakugami-hō), also known as Wiikata (上方) in Okinawan[10] or Chūzan-fu (中山府) in Kanbun,[9] roughly correspond to the territory of Chūzan during the Sanzan period.

Area Name Kanji Okinawan name present-day notes
Central area of Okinawa Main Island and nearby islands Onna 恩納間切 Unna Onna established in 1673
Yomitanzan 読谷山間切 Yuntanja Yomitan
Goeku 越来間切 Gwiiku Okinawa City
Misato 美里間切 Njatu Okinawa City, Uruma (Ishikawa Area) established in 1666
Gushikawa 具志川間切 Gushichaa Uruma (Gushikawa area)
Katsuren 勝連間切 Kacchan Uruma (Katsuren area)
Yonashiro 与那城間切 Yunagushiku Uruma (Yonashiro area) established with the name Nishihara (西原) in 1676;
changed name to Hirata (平田) in the same year;
finally changed to Yonashiro in 1687.
Nishihara 西原間切 Nishibaru Nishihara
Chatan 北谷間切 Chatan Chatan, Kadena, part of Okinawa City
Nakagusuku 中城間切 Nakagushiku present Nakagusuku, Kita-Nakagusuku, Uruma (Tsuken Island)
Ginowan 宜野湾間切 Jinōn present-day Ginowan established in 1671
Urasoe 浦添間切 Urashii Urasoe
Nakazato 仲里間切 Nakajatu Kumejima (Nakazato area)
Uezu 上江洲間切 Wiiji Kumejima (Gushikawa area)
Four cities
(not included in magiri)
Tomari Tumai Naha (northern area of Naha)
Naha 那覇 Nafa, Nafaa Naha (southern area of Naha), Tokashiki, Zamami contains 4 towns (, machi): Wakasa-machi (若狭町, Okinawan: Wakasa-machi), Higashi-machi (東町, Okinawan: Figashi-machi), Nishi-machi (西町, Okinawan: Nishi-machi) and Izumizaki (泉崎, Okinawan: Ijunjachi)[11]
Kume 久米 Kuninda Naha (Kume area) community of Thirty-six families from Min.
full name: Kumemura (久米村)
Chinese name: Táng íng (唐營) before 1650; Táng róng (唐榮) since 1650
Shuri Mihira 首里三平等 Sui Mifira Naha (Shuri area, Mawashi area), Nishihara, Haebaru) contains Shuri Castle and 3 hira (平等, Okinawan: fira): Mawashi no hira (真和志之平等, Okinawan: Maaji nu fira), Hae no hira (南風之平等, Okinawan: Fee nu fira) and Nishi no hira (西之平等, Okinawan: Nishi nu fira)[12]

Shimajiri DistrictEdit

Shimajiri District (島尻方, Shimajiri-hō, Okinawan: Shimajiri-hō), also known as Shimukata (下方) in Okinawan[13] or Nanzan-fu (南山府) in Kanbun,[9] roughly correspond to the territory of Nanzan during the Sanzan period.

Area Name Kanji Okinawan name present-day notes
Southern area of Okinawa Main Island and nearby islands Tomigusuku 豊見城間切 Tumigushiku Tomigusuku
Oroku 小禄間切 Uruku Naha (Oroku area) established in 1672
Takamine 高嶺間切 Takanmi Itoman (excluding Kyan and Mabuni areas) changed name from Shimajiriōzato (島尻大里) in 1667
Kyan 喜屋武間切 Chan Itoman (Kyan area)
Mabuni 摩文仁間切 Mabuni Itoman (Mabuni area)
Makabe 真壁間切 Makabi Itoman (Makabe area)
Kanegusuku 兼城間切 Kanigushiku Itoman (Kanegusuku area) also known as Shimajirikanegusuku (島尻兼城)
Kochinda 東風平間切 Kuchinda Yaese (Kochinda area)
Gushichan 具志頭間切 Gushichan Yaese (Gushichan area)
Ōzato 大里間切 Ufuzatu Nanjō (Ōzato area), Yonabaru) changed name from Shimazoeōzato (島添大里) in 1667
Sashiki 佐敷間切 Sashichi Nanjō (Sashiki area, Chinen area)
Tamagusuku 玉城間切 Tamagushiku Nanjō (Tamagusuku area)

Sakishima IslandsEdit

Area Name Kanji Okinawan name present-day notes
Miyako Islands Hirara 平良間切 Teera Miyakojima (Hirara area)
Shimoji 下地間切 Shimuji Miyakojima (Shimoji area, Ueno area)
Sunakawa 砂川間切 Shinachaa Miyakojima (Gusukube area)
Yaeyama Islands Ōhama 大浜間切 Ufuhama Ishigaki
Miyara 宮良間切 Myaara Ishigaki
Ishigaki 石垣間切 Ishigachi Ishigaki

Northern Amami IslandsEdit

Area Name Kanji Okinawan name present-day notes
Amami Ōshima Kasari 笠利間切 Amami (Kasari area) de facto incorporated into Satsuma Domain (Ōsumi Province) since 1624;
de jure remained a part of Ryukyu Kingdom
Komi 古見間切 Tatsugō, Amami
Naze 名瀬間切 Yamato, Amami
Yakiuchi 焼内間切 Yamato, Uken
Sumiyō 住用間切 Amami (Sumiyō area)
Nishikata 西方間切 Setouchi
Higashikata 東方間切 Setouchi
Kikaijima Shidooke 志戸桶間切 Kikai (Shidooke area)
Higa 東間切 Kikai (Sōmachi area)
Isago 伊砂間切 Kikai (Isago area) de facto incorporated into Satsuma Domain (Ōsumi Province) since 1624;
de jure remained a part of Ryukyu Kingdom
established in 1693
Nishime 西目間切 Kikai (Nishime area) de facto incorporated into Satsuma Domain (Ōsumi Province) since 1624;
de jure remained a part of Ryukyu Kingdom
Wan 湾間切 Kikai (Wan area)
Araki 荒木間切 Kikai (Araki area)
Tokunoshima Higashi 東間切 Tokunoshima
Omonawa 面縄間切 Unnō Isen
Nishime 西目間切 Amagi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "間切" [Magiri]. Nihon Kokugo Daijiten (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2013. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
  2. ^ "マジリ". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  3. ^ "ムラ". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  4. ^ a b c d "間切" [Magiri]. Kokushi Daijiten (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2013. OCLC 683276033. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
  5. ^ Takara, Kurayoshi (Winter 1994–1995). "King and Priestess: Spiritual and Political Power in Ancient Ryukyu" (PDF). The Ryukyuanist. Naha, Okinawa Prefecture: International Society of Ryukyuan Studies (27): 1–2.
  6. ^ "間切り" [Magiri]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2013. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
  7. ^ "ヤンバル". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  8. ^ "ヤンバル". 今帰仁方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  9. ^ a b c Chūzan Seifu, preamble
  10. ^ "ウィーカタ". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  11. ^ "ナファユマチ". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  12. ^ "スイミフィラ". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).
  13. ^ "シムカタ". 首里・那覇方言音声データベース (in Japanese).