Mühldorf concentration camp complex
Mühldorf was a satellite system of the Dachau concentration camp located near Mühldorf in Bavaria, established in mid-1944 and run by the Schutzstaffel (SS). The camps were established to provide labor for an underground installation for the production of the Messerschmitt 262 (Me-262), a jet fighter designed to challenge Allied air superiority over Germany.
As the Allied air offensive against Nazi Germany intensified after 1943, the Nazi leadership decided to construct underground installations in order to produce weaponry and related war material. Accelerated construction of such facilities required significant outlay of human resources. The SS provided concentration camp prisoners to carry out the most dangerous tasks, such as hollowing out tunnels from mountainsides and caves, constructing subterranean factories, and hauling construction materials. To facilitate these immense projects, it set up hundreds of satellite camps close to proposed industrial sites in 1944 and 1945.
According to the account of a prisoner who turned over the camp's administrative files to American authorities, the Mettenheim camp held some 2,000 inmates, a nearby women's camp 500 persons, the "forest camps" (Waldlager) about 2,250 male and female inmates, while two other camps held a total of 550 persons. Most of the prisoners were Hungarian Jews, but there were also Jews from Greece, France, Italy as well as political prisoners from Russia, Poland and Serbia. The surrounding area also contained numerous forced-labor and prisoner-of-war camps to supply workers for the factory.
Conditions at the Mühldorf complex were dismal. As at the Kaufering camps, the SS guards carried out "selections" at the Mühldorf complex in the fall of 1944, deporting hundreds of sick and disabled inmates to the gas chambers at Auschwitz. It is estimated that more than half of the prisoners held there perished following their deportation to the Auschwitz-Birkenau killing center or died on site from overwork, abuse, shootings, and disease. Prisoners in the "forest camps V and VI" (Waldlager V and VI), located near the town of Ampfing, were housed in earthen huts, barracks partially submerged in the ground with soil-covered roofs designed to camouflage the structures from Allied aerial reconnaissance. Prisoners frequently worked 10- to 12-hour days hauling heavy bags of cement and carrying out other arduous construction tasks.
In late April, as the U.S. Army approached the camps, the SS guards evacuated some 3,600 prisoners from the camp on death marches.
War crimes trialEdit
In February 1946, the US Military Tribunal at Dachau indicted fourteen Nazi officials of the Mühldorf camp for crimes committed against the unarmed prisoners, including killings, beatings, torture, starvation and abuse. On May 13, 1947, thirteen of the defendants were found guilty, six were sentenced to death by hanging, two to life imprisonment, and the remainder to sentences varying from 10 to twenty years; one was acquitted.
- This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL.
- "United States v. Franz Auer, et al". Review and Recommendations of the Acting Deputy Judge Advocate for War Crimes. 7708 War Crimes Group, European Command: Deputy Judge Advocate's Office. Case no. 000-50-136. 1 February 1946.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "The Dachau Trials: Muehldorf Cases (February 1946 - May 1947)". Jewish Virtual Library. 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-26.
- Mühldorf: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
- Website for the Society for Remembrance
- Website for the Mühldorf History workshop