Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (also referred to as LMU or the University of Munich, in German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.

University of Munich
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Sigillum Universitatis Ludovico-Maximilianeae.svg
Munich
Latin: Universitas Ludovico-Maximilianea Monacensis
TypePublic
Established1472; 548 years ago (1472) (as University of Ingolstadt until 1802)
Budget€682.0 million (without the university hospital)[1]
RectorBernd Huber
Academic staff
6,017[1]
Administrative staff
8,066[1]
Students51,025[1]
Location, ,
Nobel Laureates43 (October 2020)
ColoursGreen and White
   
AffiliationsGerman Excellence Universities
Europaeum
LERU
Websitewww.en.uni-muenchen.de
University of Munich logo

The University of Munich is Germany's sixth-oldest university in continuous operation.[n 1] Originally established in Ingolstadt in 1472 by Duke Ludwig IX of Bavaria-Landshut, the university was moved in 1800 to Landshut by King Maximilian I of Bavaria when Ingolstadt was threatened by the French, before being relocated to its present-day location in Munich in 1826 by King Ludwig I of Bavaria. In 1802, the university was officially named Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität by King Maximilian I of Bavaria in his as well as the university's original founder's honour.[2]

The University of Munich is associated with 43 Nobel laureates (as of October 2020). Among these were Wilhelm Röntgen, Max Planck, Werner Heisenberg, Otto Hahn and Thomas Mann. Pope Benedict XVI was also a student and professor at the university. Among its notable alumni, faculty and researchers are inter alia Rudolf Peierls, Josef Mengele, Richard Strauss, Walter Benjamin, Joseph Campbell, Muhammad Iqbal, Marie Stopes, Wolfgang Pauli, Bertolt Brecht, Max Horkheimer, Karl Loewenstein, Carl Schmitt, Gustav Radbruch, Ernst Cassirer, Ernst Bloch, Konrad Adenauer. The LMU has recently been conferred the title of "University of Excellence" under the German Universities Excellence Initiative.

LMU is currently the second-largest university in Germany in terms of student population; in the winter semester of 2015/2016, the university had a total of 51,025 matriculated students. Of these, 8,671 were freshmen while international students totalled 7,812 or almost 15% of the student population. As for operating budget, the university records in 2017 a total of 682.0 million euros in funding without the university hospital; with the university hospital, the university has a total funding amounting to approximately 1.8 billion euros.[3]

HistoryEdit

1472–1800Edit

 
University buildings in Ingolstadt

The University was founded with papal approval in 1472 as the University of Ingolstadt (foundation right of Louis IX the Rich), with faculties of philosophy, medicine, jurisprudence and theology. Its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who later became bishop of Chiemsee.

In the period of German humanism, the university's academics included names such as Conrad Celtes and Petrus Apianus. The theologian Johann Eck also taught at the university. From 1549 to 1773, the university was influenced by the Jesuits and became one of the centres of the Counter-Reformation. The Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university.

At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, which led to a stronger emphasis on natural science.

1800–1933Edit

 
Portrait of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, after whom the University of Munich was renamed in 1802
 
Adolf von Baeyer, Emil Fischer, Jacob Volhard and other chemists at LMU in 1877

In 1800, the Prince-Elector Maximilian IV Joseph (the later Maximilian I, King of Bavaria) moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the university was renamed the Ludwig Maximilian University in honour of its two founders, Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria. The Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms that sought to modernize the rather conservative and Jesuit-influenced university. In 1826, it was moved to Munich, the capital of the Kingdom of Bavaria. The university was situated in the Old Academy until a new building in the Ludwigstraße was completed. The locals were somewhat critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian and later Ludwig I invited to Munich. They were dubbed the "Nordlichter" (northern lights) and especially physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them.[4]

 
View of the University of Munich from Amalienstrasse around 1900

In the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the world's leading scientists. It was also a period of great expansion. From 1903, women were allowed to study at Bavarian universities, and by 1918, the female proportion of students at LMU had reached 18%. In 1918, Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation (higher doctorate), at LMU.

During the Weimar Republic, the university continued to be one of the world's leading universities, with professors such as Wilhelm Röntgen, Wilhelm Wien, Richard Willstätter, Arnold Sommerfeld and Ferdinand Sauerbruch.

1943–1945Edit

During the Third Reich, academic freedom was severely curtailed. In 1943 the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university.

1945–presentEdit

 
View of the main building of LMU from Professor-Huber-Platz in 2017
 
The Lichthof (atrium)
 
Colonnade in the first floor

The university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era. In the late 1960s, the university was the scene of protests by radical students.

Today, the University of Munich is part of 24 Collaborative Research Centers funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and is host university of 13 of them. It also hosts 12 DFG Research Training Groups and three international doctorate programs as part of the Elite Network of Bavaria, an educational policy concept of Bavaria for the promotion of gifted pupils and students in the higher education sector. It attracts an additional 120 million euros per year in outside funding and is intensively involved in national and international funding initiatives.

LMU Munich has a wide range of degree programs, with 150 subjects available in numerous combinations. 15% of the 45,000 students who attend the university come from abroad.

In 2005, Germany's state and federal governments launched the German Universities Excellence Initiative, a contest among its universities. With a total of 1.9 billion euros, 75 percent of which comes from the federal state, its architects aim to strategically promote top-level research and scholarship. The money is given to more than 30 research universities in Germany.

The initiative will fund three project-oriented areas: graduate schools to promote the next generation of scholars, clusters of excellence to promote cutting-edge research and "future concepts" for the project-based expansion of academic excellence at universities as a whole. In order to qualify for this third area, a university had to have at least one internationally recognized academic center of excellence and a new graduate school.

After the first round of selections, LMU Munich was invited to submit applications for all three funding lines: It entered the competition with proposals for two graduate schools and four clusters of excellence.

On Friday 13 October 2006, a blue-ribbon panel announced the results of the Germany-wide Excellence Initiative for promoting top university research and education. The panel, composed of the German Research Foundation and the German Science Council, has decided that LMU Munich will receive funding for all three areas covered by the Initiative: one graduate school, three "excellence clusters" and general funding for the university's "future concept".

In January 2012, scientists at the Ludwig Maximilian University, published details of the most sensitive listening device known so far. This has led to the college being inducted into the Guinness book of world records.[5]

In September 2018, the Munich public prosecutor's office investigated against a vice president of the university on suspicion of unfaithfulness. The Vice President should have claimed "excessive travel expenses".[6] In the following year, veterinary students reported that the LMU violated animal welfare. According to them, the LMU keeps pigs in tight grid boxes, so that some animals showed scratches, bumps and respiratory diseases from lying down. Students who report these circumstances told that they been threatened with the deregistration of the university.[7] In the beginning of 2020, the LMU locked around 80 students in a room who wanted to discuss under the topic "Climate Burns, University Burns" why universities are doing research for companies that are harmful to the climate.[8]

CampusEdit

 
LMU's institutes and research centers are spread throughout Munich
 
Entrance to LMU's main building
 
Subway station Universität serves LMU's main campus via lines U3/U6

LMU's institutes and research centers are spread throughout Munich, with several buildings located in the suburbs of Oberschleissheim and Garching as well as Maisach and Bad Tölz. The university's main buildings are grouped around Geschwister-Scholl-Platz and Professor-Huber-Platz on Ludwigstrasse, extending into side streets such as Akademiestraße, Schellingstraße, and Veterinärstraße. Other large campuses and institutes are located in Großhadern (Klinikum Großhadern), Martinsried (chemistry and biotechnology campus), the Ludwigsvorstadt (Klinikum Innenstadt) and in the Lehel (Institut am Englischen Garten), across from the main buildings, through the Englischer Garten.

The university's main building is situated in Geschwister-Scholl-Platz and the university's main campus is served by the Munich subway's Universität station.

AcademicsEdit

Subjects and fields of studyEdit

Despite the Bologna Process which saw the demise of most traditional academic-degree courses such as the Diplom and Magister Artium in favour of the more internationally known Bachelors and Masters system, the University of Munich continues to offer more than 100 areas of study with numerous combinations of majors and minors.[9]

In line with the university's internationalisation as a popular destination for tertiary studies, an increasing number of courses mainly at the graduate and post-graduate levels are also available in English to cater to international students who may have little or no background in the German language.[10] Some notable subject areas which currently offer programmes in English include various fields of psychology, physics as well as business and management.[11]

FacultiesEdit

 
LMU's Institute of Systematic Botany is located at Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg
 
Faculty of chemistry buildings at the Martinsried campus of LMU Munich

The university consists of 18 faculties which oversee various departments and institutes.[12] The official numbering of the faculties and the missing numbers 06 and 14 are the result of breakups and mergers of faculties in the past. The Faculty of Forestry Operations with number 06 has been integrated into the Technical University of Munich in 1999 and faculty number 14 has been merged with faculty number 13.[13][14][15]

Research centresEdit

 
Audimax

In addition to its 18 faculties, the University of Munich also maintains numerous research centres involved in numerous cross-faculty and transdisciplinary projects to complement its various academic programmes.[16] Some of these research centres were a result of cooperation between the university and renowned external partners from academia and industry; the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society, for example, was established through a joint initiative between LMU Munich and the Deutsches Museum, while the Parmenides Center for the Study of Thinking resulted from the collaboration between the Parmenides Foundation and LMU Munich's Human Science Center.[17]

Some of the research centres which have been established include:

Tuition and feesEdit

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[18]53
QS World[19]62
THE World[20]32
USNWR Global[21]46

[needs update] As of October 2016, universities in Bavaria do not raise a2 a semester and a mandatory off-hours public transportation semester ticket (for the Munich Transport and Tariff Association, MVV) of €65 have to be paid. For €189 additionally, a full network pass is then optionally available. This mixed model (€117 or €306) is the result of several years of negotiations to allow students to get an affordable semester ticket despite the high costs of regular tickets in Munich. The current package was accepted by an overwhelming majority of 86.3% of students across all Munich universities in 2012 and introduced in the 2013 winter term.[22]

RankingsEdit

University rankings (overall)
Germany
THE
1
U.S. News & World Report
1
QS
2
ARWU
1

LMU Munich is consistently ranked among the world's top 100 universities in various international ranking surveys such as the Academic Ranking of World Universities and the Times Higher Education Supplement which ranks over 1000 universities worldwide.

Munich International Summer University (MISU at LMU Munich)Edit

The Munich International Summer University (MISU at LMU) is the Summer University by the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU), which takes place annually in Munich and depending on the course also involves stays at different European cities. MISU at LMU Munich invites international students to attend short-term programs at the LMU Munich in order to progress academically even in winter or summer breaks at their home university. MISU hereby offers two course formats: On the one hand German Language classes are held at different times over the year. On the other hand, MISU offers 16 subject-specific Summer Schools and Winter Schools covering a wide range of academic fields. Around 1000 students from nearly 90 different countries joined MISU short-term programs in 2019.[33]

HistoryEdit

Germany has a long tradition of hosting summer programs for international students.[34] The LMU Munich organised its Summer University for the first time in 1927. Labelled as Sommerkurse für Ausländer (Summer Courses for Foreigners) the Summer University ran annually until 1934 and primarily consisted of German Language courses for international students.[35] After a longer intermittence period, LMU’s Summer University resumed as Internationaler Münchner Sommer (International Summer in Munich). Since then the number of courses has increased and the range of subject-specific [[Summer Schools] was extended to further academic disciplines. From 2008 onwards LMU’s Summer University operates under the name Munich International Summer University (MISU).[36]

ObjectivesEdit

A central aim of MISU is to boost the interntationality of the LMU Munich in terms of research and teaching.[37] Compared to semester-based student exchange programs, short-term programs such as Summer Schools have the advantage for international students to receive a very intensive and concise insight into the research areas and campus at the LMU Munich.[38] MISU hereby has the objective to combine excellent academic education with extra-curricular activities. Participants are thus not only supervised intensively by established researchers on selected topics but are also introduced to the history, culture and politics of Munich, Bavaria and Germany. Moreover, the Summer University allows the LMU Munich to intensify cooperation with international partner universities. MISU’s short-term programs therefore strengthen the LMU’s international visibility as one of the highest ranked universities in Europe.[39] Having attended MISU courses, students might consider pursuing a postgraduate study or a doctoral degree at the LMU Munich in the future. Participants who fulfilled all course requirements are awarded with graded certificates and ECTS credits in line with the European Credit Transfer System.

CoursesEdit

MISU offers two course formats: subject-specific summer academies and German Language Classes. MISU’s summer academies are subject-specific courses that either introduce students to new topics or upgrade students‘ knowledge on research areas in academic fields of interest. The summer academies are designed and organized in close cooperation with LMU’s faculties and researchers. Most of the summer academies are open for students of different academic backgrounds and levels. Interdisciplinary seminars bring the advantage that students may exchange information beyond their respective academic fields and may hence learn from each other about new perspectives. The number of participants per course is limited in order to ensure intensive supervision and student interactions in class. Most of the summer academies do not only take place in Munich but also provide for academic and culturally motivated stays in other European cities. The following academic disciplines are covered by MISU summer academies.[40]

MISU’s German Language Courses are open for students all over the world. Courses are geared towards the aim to teach the German language in its academic, social and cultural context in order to ensure that students advance their language skills while also improving their knowledge on Germany. Therefore, MISU offers Language courses for all levels – basic, intermediate and advanced – at different times of the year.[41] The Federal Republic of Germany offers scholarships for these purposes through the Deutsche Akademische Austauschdienst (DAAD).[42]

  • Summer German Language Courses
  • Study Preparation Courses
  • Specialized Courses for Advanced Learners

Notable alumni and faculty membersEdit

The alumni of Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich played a major role in the development of quantum mechanics. Max Planck, the founder of quantum theory and Nobel laureate in Physics in 1918, was an alumnus of the university. Founders of quantum mechanics such as Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, and others were associated with the university. Most recently, to honor the Nobel laureate in Chemistry Gerhard Ertl, who worked as a professor at the University of Munich from 1973 to 1986, the building of the Physical Chemistry was named after him.

Pakistani philosopher and poet Sir Muhammad Iqbal, regarded as the "Poet of the East" and "The Thinker of Pakistan", earned his PhD degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich in 1908. Working under the guidance of Friedrich Hommel, Iqbal published his doctoral thesis in 1908, entitled The Development of Metaphysics in Persia.[43][44][45][46]

The anti-Nazi resistance White Rose was based in this university.[47]

University hallsEdit

Great Assembly Hall (Große Aula)Edit

 
Große Aula

The große Aula is located in the university main building at Ludwigstraße in Munich. The Aula was constructed as part of the main building by Friedrich von Gärtner and completed in 1840. The hall is situated in the first floor and extends to the second floor.

The Aula was not destroyed during World War II and, thus, one of few usable post war venues in Munich. Hence, the Aula was used for the first performances of concerts after the war. Furthermore, it was venue for the constituent assembly of the state of Bavaria, where the current Bavarian constitution was enacted.[48]

Today, the Aula hosts mainly concerts, talks and lectures.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In modern Germany, only Heidelberg University (1386), Leipzig University (1409), the University of Rostock (1419), the University of Greifswald (1456) and the University of Freiburg (1457) are older. Although Cologne, Erfurt and Würzburg were originally founded earlier than the University of Munich, they shut down for longer periods.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "Facts and Figures". LMU Munich. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  2. ^ "Landshut (1800–1826) – LMU München". Uni-muenchen.de. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  3. ^ "Facts and Figures - LMU Munich". www.en.uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Wortgewaltiger Gegner der Nordlichter: Der Mediziner Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis", in: Ulrike Leutheusser, Heinrich Nöth (Hg.), „Dem Geist alle Tore öffnen". König Maximilian II. von Bayern und die Wissenschaft, München 2009, pp. 142–153; 2. Aufl. München 2011, pp. 142–153.
  5. ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness Book of World Records. pp. 194. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.
  6. ^ Günther Knoll: Untreue-Verdacht gegen einen der LMU-Vizepräsidenten. Access: April 30, 2020.
  7. ^ Martina Scherf: Eingepfercht für die Forschung, abgerufen am April 30, 2020.
  8. ^ Sabine Buchwald: In der Großen Aula eingesperrt. Access: April 30, 2020.
  9. ^ "Herzlich willkommen! – LMU München". Uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  10. ^ "Degree Students – LMU Munich". En.uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  11. ^ "Studienfächer und Studiengänge von A bis Z – LMU München". Uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  12. ^ "Faculties – LMU Munich". En.uni-muenchen.de. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  13. ^ "Geschichte der forstwissenschaftlichen Ausbildung in Bayern". Technische Universität München. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  14. ^ "Fakultäten". Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  15. ^ Andreas C. Hofmann: Warum die LMU München (keine) 20 Fakultäten hat. Zur Ausdifferenzierung des Wissens an der Ludovico-Maximilianea im Spiegel der Geschichte ihrer Fakultäten, in: aventinus bavarica Nr. 15 [29. Mai 2010], http://www.aventinus-online.de/no_cache/persistent/artikel/7838.
  16. ^ "Research Centers – LMU Munich". En.uni-muenchen.de. Archived from the original on 3 November 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  17. ^ "About us " MCA " EUNICE " Education " Parmenides Foundation". Parmenides-foundation.org. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  18. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings 2018 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018 | Top 500 universities | Shanghai Ranking - 2018". www.shanghairanking.com.
  19. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2019". Top Universities. 1 February 2017.
  20. ^ "World University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). 18 August 2017.
  21. ^ "U.S. News Education: Best Global Universities 2019".
  22. ^ "Semesterticket München". Semesterticket-muenchen.de. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  23. ^ "World University Rankings 2019". Times Higher Education. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  24. ^ "Best Global Universities Ranking (free)". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  25. ^ "QS World University Ranking". Topuniversities.com. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  26. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities (free)". Shanghai Jiao Tong University Homepage. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  27. ^ "Expertscape: Pancreatic Neoplasms, November 2018". expertscape.com. November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  28. ^ Michael Proft. (2018). 7. DAX-Vorstands-Report
  29. ^ Klaus Hansen. (2019). 8. DAX-Vorstands-Report
  30. ^ Klaus Hansen. (2019). 8. DAX-Vorstands-Report
  31. ^ Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, ed. (18 July 2018), "Förderatlas 2018", Forschungsberichte (in German) (1 ed.), Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978-3-527-34520-5
  32. ^ "Ranking: Diese Unis nehmen nur die besten Abiturienten". Adzuna.de (in German). 8 October 2019. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  33. ^ Munich International Summer University: ‘ ‘MISU at LMU Annual Report 2019‘ ‘, 2019.
  34. ^ Joachim Hoffmann: Zur Geschichte der Universitätsferienkurse. In: Informationen Deutsch als Fremdsprache, Nr. 12,4, 1985, p. 341-352.
  35. ^ Ulrich Bauer: Sommerschulen für Interkulturelle Deutschstudien. Geschichte-Konzeptualisierung-Modellbildung. Ein Beitrag zur Angewandten Lehrforschung Interkultureller Germanistik, IUDICIUM Verlag, 2002, p. 73.
  36. ^ Munich International Summer University: MISU at LMU Annual Report 2019, 2019, p. 8.
  37. ^ LMU Munich: Internationality of LMU Munich.
  38. ^ Kathleen Campbell: Short-term study abroad programs: objectives and accomplishments. In: Journal of International Mobility, Nr. 4, 2016.
  39. ^ The Times Higher Education World University Rankings: World University Ranking 2020.
  40. ^ MISU Summer Academies. Ludwig Maximlians University of Munich.
  41. ^ German Language Courses. Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich.
  42. ^ Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst: Stipendiendatenbank.
  43. ^ Sharif, Imran (21 April 2011). "Allama Iqbal's 73rd death anniversary observed with reverence". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  44. ^ Lansing, East; H-Bahai, Mi. (2001) [1908]. "The development of metaphysics in persia" (PDF). London Luzac and Company. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  45. ^ Mir, Mustansir (1990). Tulip in the desert: A selection of the poetry of Muhammad Iqbal. c.Hurts and Company, Publishers Ltd. London. p. 2. ISBN 978-967-5-06267-4.
  46. ^ Jackso, Roy (2006). Fifty key figures in Islam. Routledge. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-415-35467-7.
  47. ^ "DenkStätte Weiße Rose". Weisse rose Stiftung e.V. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  48. ^ "Geschichte der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München". innovations-report.de. Retrieved 5 October 2010.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 48°09′03″N 11°34′49″E / 48.15083°N 11.58028°E / 48.15083; 11.58028