Louis Pouzin

Louis Pouzin (born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France) is a French computer scientist. He designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.[1][2][3]

Louis Pouzin
M. Louis POUZIN 2013.jpg
Born20 April 1931 Edit this on Wikidata (age 89)
Chantenay-Saint-Imbert Edit this on Wikidata
Alma mater
Awards

This network was the first actual implementation of the pure datagram model, initially imagined and described by Donald Davies, subsequently named by Halvor Bothner-By, and seen by Louis Pouzin as his personal invention.[4] His work, and that of his colleagues Hubert Zimmerman and Gérard Le Lann, were acknowledged by Vinton Cerf as substential contributions to the design of TCP/IP, the protocol suite used by the Internet.[3][5]

BiographyEdit

He studied at the École Polytechnique from 1950 to 1952.

Having participated in the design of the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), Pouzin wrote a program called RUNCOM around 1963–64. RUNCOM permitted the execution of contained commands within a folder and can be considered the ancestor of the command-line interface and shell scripts. Pouzin was the one who coined the term shell for a command language in 1964 or 1965.[6] Pouzin's concepts were later implemented in Multics by Glenda Schroeder at MIT.[7] Schroeder developed the first Multics shell with the assistance of an unnamed man from General Electric. Schroeder's Multics shell was the predecessor to the Unix shell, which is still in use today.

From 1967 to 1969 Pouzin developed one operating system for Météo-France, the French national meteorological service, using CDC 6400 as hardware. This system was created for weather forecast and statistics and was used for 15 years.[8]

Pouzin directed the pioneering CYCLADES networking project from 1971-76. Building on Donald Davies’s simulation of datagram networks, Pouzin built the CIGALE packet switching network. CYCLADES used a layered architecture, as did the Internet later, to research internetworking concepts.[9][10][11]

He participated in the International Networking Working Group from 1972, initially chaired by Vint Cerf.[12][13] He was acknowledged by Bob Kahn and Cerf in their 1974 paper on internetworking protcols, "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication".[14]

In 2002 Pouzin, along with Jean-Louis Grangé, Jean-Pierre Henninot and Jean-François Morfin, participated in the creation of Eurolinc, which is a non-profit association that promotes multilingualism in domain names. In June 2003, Eurolinc was accredited by UNO to participate at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS).[15]

In November 2011, he founded Savoir-Faire, an alternative root company, with Chantal Lebrument and Quentin Perrigueur. [16][17]

In 2012 he developed a service called Open-Root, which is dedicated to sell top-level domains (TLD) in all scripts outside of ICANN. This way people can develop second-level domains for free.[18]

AwardsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The internet's fifth man". Economist. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2017. In the early 1970s Mr Pouzin created an innovative data network that linked locations in France, Italy and Britain. Its simplicity and efficiency pointed the way to a network that could connect not just dozens of machines, but millions of them. It captured the imagination of Dr Cerf and Dr Kahn, who included aspects of its design in the protocols that now power the internet.
  2. ^ "Say Bonjour to the Internet's Long-Lost French Uncle". Wired. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "Postel and Pouzin: 1997 SIGCOMM Award Winners", ACM SIGCOMM web site
  4. ^ Comment j’ai inventé le Datagramme [[1]]
  5. ^ Soyez Fabien, Lebrument Chantal (2020). The Inventions of Louis Pouzin - One of the Fathers of the Internet. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-34836-6.
  6. ^ "The Internet's fifth man", Brain scan, The Economist, London: Economist Group, December 13, 2013, Mr Pouzin created a program called RUNCOM that helped users automate tedious and repetitive commands. That program, which he described as a “shell” around the computer’s whirring innards, gave inspiration—and a name—to an entire class of software tools, called command-line shells, that still lurk below the surface of modern operating systems.
  7. ^ "The Origin of the Shell", Multicians, accessed 31 March 2012.
  8. ^ Grangé, J. L. (2012). Oral history interview with Jean-Louis Grangé by Andrew L. Russell.
  9. ^ Abbate, Janet (2000). Inventing the Internet. MIT Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-262-51115-5.
  10. ^ Pelkey, James. "6.3 CYCLADES Network and Louis Pouzin 1971–1972". Entrepreneurial Capitalism and Innovation: A History of Computer Communications 1968–1988.
  11. ^ C. Hempstead; W. Worthington (2005). Encyclopedia of 20th-Century Technology. Routledge. ISBN 9781135455514.
  12. ^ Andrew L. Russell (30 July 2013). "OSI: The Internet That Wasn't". IEEE Spectrum. Vol. 50 no. 8.
  13. ^ Cerf, V.; Kahn, R. (1974). "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Communications. 22 (5): 637–648. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1974.1092259. ISSN 1558-0857. The authors wish to thank a number of colleagues for helpful comments during early discussions of international network protocols, especially R. Metcalfe, R. Scantlebury, D. Walden, and H. Zimmerman; D. Davies and L. Pouzin who constructively commented on the fragmentation and accounting issues; and S. Crocker who commented on the creation and destruction of associations.
  14. ^ Cerf, V.; Kahn, R. (1974). "A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Communications. 22 (5): 637–648. doi:10.1109/TCOM.1974.1092259. ISSN 1558-0857. The authors wish to thank a number of colleagues for helpful comments during early discussions of international network protocols, especially R. Metcalfe, R. Scantlebury, D. Walden, and H. Zimmerman; D. Davies and L. Pouzin who constructively commented on the fragmentation and accounting issues; and S. Crocker who commented on the creation and destruction of associations.
  15. ^ http://www.eurolinc.eu/
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2016-12-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ Savoir-faire biographies - http://old.open-root.eu/decouvrir-open-root/biographies/
  18. ^ http://open-root.eu/
  19. ^ a b https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000037909697&categorieLien=id
  20. ^ 2012 Inductees, Internet Hall of Fame website. Last accessed April 24, 2012.
  21. ^ "2013 Winners Announced" Archived 2017-01-02 at the Wayback Machine Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering.
  22. ^ "Louis Pouzin" Global IT Award.