Livestock is commonly defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer solely to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States. The USDA uses livestock similarly to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it specifically refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal, beef, and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category.
The breeding, maintenance, and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture that has been practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming". Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have also led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities.
Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a compound word combining the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines, while livestock has a wider sense.
United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (P.L. 106-78, Title IX) defines livestock only as cattle, swine, and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry (including egg-producing poultry), equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, and other animals designated by the Secretary."
Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness or disease". It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption.
Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour, lifecycle and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild.
The dog was domesticated early; dogs appear in Europe and the Far East from about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near East and 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since approximately 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC.
This section does not cite any sources. (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The term "livestock" is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose. This can mean domestic animals, semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only lightly domesticated or of disputed status. These populations may also be in the process of domestication.
|Animal / Type||Domestication status||Wild ancestor||Time of first captivity, domestication||Area of first captivity, domestication||Current commercial uses||Picture||Ref|
|domestic||Vicuña||Between 5000 BC and 4000 BC||Andes||Alpaca fiber, meat|
|domestic||Addax||2500 BCE||Egypt||Meat, hides|
|domestic||Banteng||Unknown||Southeast Asia, Bali||Meat, milk, draught|
|captive (see also Beefalo)||N/A||Late 19th century||North America||Meat, leather|
|domestic||Wild dromedary and Bactrian camel||Between 4000 BC and 1400 BC||Asia||Mount, pack animal, meat, milk, camel hair|
|domestic||Aurochs||6000 BC||Southwest Asia, South Asia, North Africa||Meat (beef, veal), milk, leather, draught|
|captive||Capybara||Unknown||South America||Meat, skins, pet|
|captive||Collared peccary||Unknown||Brazil||Meat, skins, pet|
|captive||N/A||First century AD||UK||Meat (venison), leather, antlers, antler velvet|
|domestic||African wild ass||4000 BC||Egypt||Mount, pack animal, draught, meat, milk|
|domestic||Common eland, Giant eland||Unknown||South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe, West Africa||Meat, milk, leather, hides, horns|
|captive||Elk||1990s||North America||Meat, antlers, leather, hides|
|semidomestic||Fallow deer||9th century BC||Mediterranean Basin||Meat, antlers, hides, ornamentation|
|domestic||Gaur||Unknown||Southeast Asia||Meat, draught|
|domestic||Wild goat||8000 BC||Southwest Asia||Milk, meat, wool, leather, light draught, pet|
|domestic||Cavia tschudii||5000 BC||South America||Meat, pet|
|Greater cane rat
|captive||Greater cane rat||Unknown||West Africa||Meat|
|captive||Greater kudu||Unknown||South Africa||Meat, hides, horns, leather, pet|
|domestic||Wild horse||4000 BC||Eurasian Steppes||Mount, draught, milk, meat, pet, pack animal|
|domestic||Guanaco||3500 BC||Andes||Pack animal, draught, meat, fiber|
|domestic||Sterile Hybrid offspring of Jack donkey x mare (female horse)||Mount, pack animal, draught|
|domestic||Moose||1940s||Russia, Sweden, Finland, Alaska||Meat, milk, antlers, research, draft|
|domestic||Muskox||1960s||Alaska||Meat, wool, milk|
|domestic||Wild boar||7000 BC||Eastern Anatolia||Meat (pork), leather, pet, mount, research|
|domestic||Wild rabbit||AD 400-900||France||Meat, fur, leather, pet, research|
|semidomestic||Reindeer||3000 BC||Northern Russia||Meat, leather, antlers, milk, draught|
|domestic||Sika deer||Unknown||Japan, China||Meat, antlers, hides, leather, pet, tourism|
|domestic||Scimitar oryx||2320-2150 BC||Egypt||Meat, sacrifice, horns, hides, leather|
|domestic||Asiatic mouflon sheep||Between 11000 and 9000 BC||Southwest Asia||Wool, milk, leather, meat (lamb and mutton)|
|captive||Thorold's deer||Unknown||China||Meat, antlers|
|captive||White-tailed deer||Unknown||West Virginia, Florida, Colombia||Meat, antlers, hides, pet|
|domestic||Wild Asian water buffalo (Arni)||4000 BC||South Asia||Mount, draught, meat, milk|
|domestic||Wild yak||2500 BC||Tibet, Nepal||Meat, milk, fiber, mount, pack animal, draught|
|domestic||Aurochs||8000 BC||India||Meat, milk, draught, hides|
Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but also the fuel, fertiliser, clothing, transport and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, and wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs, milk and blood (by the Maasai) were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance, people and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures; in montane regions the summer pasture was up in the mountains, the winter pasture in the valleys.
Animals can be kept extensively or intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman, often for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing widely over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America, Australia and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall. Ranching systems have been used for sheep, deer, ostrich, emu, llama and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter.
In rural locations, pigs and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, and in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, and still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are often intensively managed; dairy cows may be kept in zero-grazing conditions with all their forage brought to them; beef cattle may be kept in high density feedlots; pigs may be housed in climate-controlled buildings and never go outdoors; poultry may be reared in barns and kept in cages as laying birds under lighting-controlled conditions. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive, often family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cover the times of year when the grass stops growing, and fertiliser, feed and other inputs are bought onto the farm from outside.
Livestock farmers have suffered from wild animal predation and theft by rustlers. In North America, animals such as the gray wolf, grizzly bear, cougar, and coyote are sometimes considered a threat to livestock. In Eurasia and Africa, predators include the wolf, leopard, tiger, lion, dhole, Asiatic black bear, crocodile, spotted hyena, and other carnivores. In South America, feral dogs, jaguars, anacondas, and spectacled bears are threats to livestock. In Australia, the dingo, fox, and wedge-tailed eagle are common predators, with an additional threat from domestic dogs that may kill in response to a hunting instinct, leaving the carcass uneaten.
Good husbandry, proper feeding, and hygiene are the main contributors to animal health on the farm, bringing economic benefits through maximised production. When, despite these precautions, animals still become sick, they are treated with veterinary medicines, by the farmer and the veterinarian. In the European Union, when farmers treat their own animals, they are required to follow the guidelines for treatment and to record the treatments given. Animals are susceptible to a number of diseases and conditions that may affect their health. Some, like classical swine fever and scrapie are specific to one type of stock, while others, like foot-and-mouth disease affect all cloven-hoofed animals. Where the condition is serious, governments impose regulations on import and export, on the movement of stock, quarantine restrictions and the reporting of suspected cases. Vaccines are available against certain diseases, and antibiotics are widely used where appropriate. At one time, antibiotics were routinely added to certain compound foodstuffs to promote growth, but this practice is now frowned on in many countries because of the risk that it may lead to antibiotic resistance. Animals living under intensive conditions are particularly prone to internal and external parasites; increasing numbers of sea lice are affecting farmed salmon in Scotland. Reducing the parasite burdens of livestock results in increased productivity and profitability.
Transportation and marketingEdit
Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. In other areas, livestock may be bought and sold in a bazaar, such as may be found in many parts of Central Asia.
In developing countries, providing access to markets has encouraged farmers to invest in livestock, with the result being improved livelihoods. For example, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has worked in Zimbabwe to help farmers make their most of their livestock herds.
Animal husbandry has a significant impact on the world environment. It is responsible for somewhere between 20 and 33% of the fresh water usage in the world, and livestock, and the production of feed for them, occupy about a third of the earth's ice-free land. Livestock production is a contributing factor in species extinction, desertification, and habitat destruction. Animal agriculture contributes to species extinction in various ways. Habitat is destroyed by clearing forests and converting land to grow feed crops and for animal grazing, while predators and herbivores are frequently targeted and hunted because of a perceived threat to livestock profits; for example, animal husbandry is responsible for up to 91% of the deforestation in the Amazon region. In addition, livestock produce greenhouse gases. Cows produce some 570 million cubic metres of methane per day, that accounts for from 35 to 40% of the overall methane emissions of the planet. Livestock is responsible for 65% of all human-related emissions of the powerful and long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. As a result, ways of mitigating animal husbandry's environmental impact are being studied. Strategies include using biogas from manure.
Livestock provide a variety of food and nonfood products; the latter include leather, wool, pharmaceuticals, bone products, industrial protein, and fats. For many abattoirs, very little animal biomass may be wasted at slaughter. Even intestinal contents removed at slaughter may be recovered for use as fertilizer. Livestock manure helps maintain the fertility of grazing lands. Manure is commonly collected from barns and feeding areas to fertilize cropland. In some places, animal manure is used as fuel, either directly (as in some developing countries), or indirectly (as a source of methane for heating or for generating electricity). In regions where machine power is limited, some classes of livestock are used as draft stock, not only for tillage and other on-farm use, but also for transport of people and goods. In 1997, livestock provided energy for between an estimated 25 and 64% of cultivation energy in the world's irrigated systems, and that 300 million draft animals were used globally in small-scale agriculture.
Although livestock production serves as a source of income, it can provide additional economic values for rural families, often serving as a major contributor to food security and economic security. Livestock can serve as insurance against risk and is an economic buffer (of income and/or food supply) in some regions and some economies (e.g., during some African droughts). However, its use as a buffer may sometimes be limited where alternatives are present, which may reflect strategic maintenance of insurance in addition to a desire to retain productive assets. Even for some livestock owners in developed nations, livestock can serve as a kind of insurance. Some crop growers may produce livestock as a strategy for diversification of their income sources, to reduce risks related to weather, markets and other factors.
Many studies[which?] have found evidence of the social, as well as economic, importance of livestock in developing countries and in regions of rural poverty, and such evidence is not confined to pastoral and nomadic societies.
Social values in developed countries can also be considerable. For example, in a study of livestock ranching permitted on national forest land in New Mexico, USA, it was concluded that "ranching maintains traditional values and connects families to ancestral lands and cultural heritage", and that a "sense of place, attachment to land, and the value of preserving open space were common themes". "The importance of land and animals as means of maintaining culture and way of life figured repeatedly in permittee responses, as did the subjects of responsibility and respect for land, animals, family, and community."
In the US, profit tends to rank low among motivations for involvement in livestock ranching. Instead, family, tradition and a desired way of life tend to be major motivators for ranch purchase, and ranchers "historically have been willing to accept low returns from livestock production."
- Amenable species
- Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
- California Proposition 2 (2008)
- Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources
- Cuniculture (rabbit farming)
- Environmental effects of meat production
- Fur farming
- Leave the gate as you found it
- Livestock's Long Shadow - Environmental Issues and Options (UN report)
- Sericulture (silkworm farming)
- Sheep husbandry
- Western Fair
- Wildlife farming
- "livestock". Britannica.com.
- "Congress Clarifies That Horses are Not "Pets," Advances Landmark Livestock Health Measures". American Horse Council. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
- "Fresh Pork from Farm to Table". fsis.usda.gov.
- "NASS - Census of Agriculture - Publications - 2012". USDA. Retrieved 2017-11-29.
- "Livestock definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "Merriam-Webster: Definition of Livestock". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
- "Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws" (PDF). 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- cbc.ca: "Police launch investigation into Aylmer Meat Packers", 28 Aug 2003
- Larson, G.; Bradley, D. G. (2014). "How Much Is That in Dog Years? The Advent of Canine Population Genomics". PLOS Genetics. 10 (1): e1004093. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004093. PMC 3894154. PMID 24453989.
- Chessa, B.; Pereira, F.; Arnaud, F.; Amorim, A.; Goyache, F.; Mainland, I.; Kao, R. R.; Pemberton, J. M.; Beraldi, D.; Stear, M. J.; Alberti, A.; Pittau, M.; Iannuzzi, L.; Banabazi, M. H.; Kazwala, R. R.; Zhang, Y.-p.; Arranz, J. J.; Ali, B. A.; Wang, Z.; Uzun, M.; Dione, M. M.; Olsaker, I.; Holm, L.-E.; Saarma, U.; Ahmad, S.; Marzanov, N.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Holland, M. J.; Ajmone-Marsan, P.; Bruford, M. W.; Kantanen, J.; Spencer, T. E.; Palmarini, M. (2009-04-24). "Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations". Science. 324 (5926): 532–536. Bibcode:2009Sci...324..532C. doi:10.1126/science.1170587. PMC 3145132. PMID 19390051.
- Vigne, J. D.; Zazzo, A.; Saliège, J. F.; Poplin, F.; Guilaine, J.; Simmons, A. (2009). "Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106 (38): 16135–8. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10616135V. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905015106. PMC 2752532. PMID 19706455.
- Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning (2010-04-19). "Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (17): 7686–7691. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.7686L. doi:10.1073/pnas.0912264107. PMC 2867865. PMID 20404179.
- "Breeds of Livestock - Oklahoma State University". Ansi.okstate.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- McTavish, E.J.; Decker, J. E.; Schnabel, R. D.; Taylor, J. F.; Hillis, D. M. (2013). "New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (15): E1398–406. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110E1398M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1303367110. PMC 3625352. PMID 23530234.
- "History of chickens – India and China". 2017-06-12.
- Webster, John (2013). Animal Husbandry Regained: The Place of Farm Animals in Sustainable Agriculture. Routledge. pp. 4–10. ISBN 978-1-84971-420-4.
- Blench, Roger (17 May 2001). 'You can't go home again' – Pastoralism in the new millennium (PDF). Overseas Development Institute. p. 12.
- Starrs, Paul F. (2000). Let the Cowboy Ride: Cattle Ranching in the American West. JHU Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-8018-6351-6.
- Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (2003). Encyclopedia of Community: From the Village to the Virtual World. Sage. p. 1139. ISBN 978-0-7619-2598-9.
- Rebanks, James (2015). The Shepherd's Life. Penguin: Random House. p. 286. ISBN 978-0141-97936-6.
- Silbergeld, Ellen K; Graham, Jay; Price, Lance B (2008). "Industrial food animal production, antimicrobial resistance, and human health". Annual Review of Public Health. 29: 151–69. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090904. PMID 18348709.
- Meyer, Vernon M.; Driggers, L. Bynum; Ernest, Kenneth; Ernest, Debra. "Swine Growing-Finishing Units" (PDF). Pork Industry handbook. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
- Blount, W.P. (2013). Intensive Livestock Farming. Elsevier. pp. 360–62. ISBN 978-1-4831-9565-0.
- Northern Daily Leader, 20 May 2010, Dogs mauled 30 sheep (and killed them), p.3, Rural Press
- Simmons, Michael (2009-09-10). "Dogs seized for killing sheep - Local News - News - General - The Times". Victorharbortimes.com.au. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- "Farmers". European Platform for the Responsible Use of Medicines in Animals. 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "Classical swine fever" (PDF). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Scrapie Fact Sheet". National Institute for Animal Agriculture. 2001. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Foot-and-mouth". The Cattle Site. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "feed (agriculture) | Antibiotics and other growth stimulants". Britannica.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Fraser, Douglas (14 February 2017). "Scottish salmon farming's sea lice 'crisis'". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- "Parasite control". Animal Health Ireland. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Bonser, K. J. (1972). The Drovers. Who They Were and How They Went: An Epic of the English Countryside. Country Book Club.
- Chambers, Philip G.; Grandin, Temple; Heinz, Gunter; Srisuvan, Thinnarat (2001). "Guidelines for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock | CHAPTER 6: Transport of livestock". Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- Markets from research to outcomes Archived 2014-05-01 at WebCite, Farming Matters, Challenge Program on Water and Food, June 2013
- Australian Screen: Agricultural shows
- Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Arjen Y. Hoekstra (2012). "A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products" (PDF). Water Footprint Network.
- "Livestock a major threat to environment". Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations.
- Whitford, Walter G. (2002). Ecology of desert systems. Academic Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0-12-747261-4.
- "Unit 9: Biodiversity Decline // Section 7: Habitat Loss: Causes and Consequences". Annenberg Learner.
- Margulis, Sergio (2003). "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest". Washington: World Bank Publications.
- Ross, Philip (2013). "Cow farts have 'larger greenhouse gas impact' than previously thought; methane pushes climate change". International Business Times.
- Steinfeld H.; Gerber P.; Wassenaar T.; Castel V.; Rosales M.; de Haan C. (2006). "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options". FAO. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Monteny, Gert-Jan; Andre Bannink; David Chadwick (2006). "Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategies for Animal Husbandry, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 112 (2–3): 163–170. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.015. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
- FAOSTAT. (Statistical database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.) http://faostat3.fao.org/
- de Haan, Cees; Steinfeld, Henning; Blackburn, Harvey (1997). Livestock & the environment: finding a balance. European Commission Directorate-General for Development.
- Swanepoel, F., A. Stroebel and S. Moyo. (eds.) 2010. The role of livestock in developing communities: Enhancing multifunctionality. African Sun Media.
- Fafchamps, Marcel; Udry, Christopher; Czukas, Katherine (1998). "Drought and saving in West Africa: are livestock a buffer stock?" (PDF). Journal of Development Economics. 55 (2): 273–305. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.198.7519. doi:10.1016/S0304-3878(98)00037-6. ISSN 0304-3878. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Johannesen, Anne Borge; Skonhoft, Anders (2011). "Livestock as Insurance and Social Status: Evidence from Reindeer Herding in Norway" (PDF). Environmental and Resource Economics. 48 (4): 679–694. doi:10.1007/s10640-010-9421-2. ISSN 0924-6460. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Bell, Lindsay W.; Moore, Andrew D. (2012). "Integrated crop–livestock systems in Australian agriculture: Trends, drivers and implications". Agricultural Systems. 111: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2012.04.003. ISSN 0308-521X. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Kandulu, John M.; Bryan, Brett A.; King, Darran; Connor, Jeffery D. (2012). "Mitigating economic risk from climate variability in rain-fed agriculture through enterprise mix diversification". Ecological Economics. 79: 105–112. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.04.025. ISSN 0921-8009. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Asresie, A.; Zemedu, L. (2015). "Contribution of livestock sector in Ethiopian economy: a review". Adv Life Sci Technol. 29: 79–90. ISSN 2225-062X. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Bettencourt, Elisa Maria Varela; Tilman, Mário; Henriques, Pedro Damião de Sousa; Narciso, Vanda; Carvalho, Maria Leonor da Silva (2013). "The Economic and Sociocultural Role of Livestock in the Wellbeing of Rural Communities of Timor-Leste". hdl:10174/9347.
- Khan, Nizamuddin; Rehman, Anisur; Salman, Mohd. Sadiq (2013). "Impactul creșterii animalelor asupra dezvoltării socio-economice în Nordul Indiei". Forum Geografic (in Romanian). XII (1): 75–80. doi:10.5775/fg.2067-4635.2013.084.i. ISSN 1583-1523. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Ali, A.; Khan, M.A. (2013). "Livestock ownership in ensuring rural household food security in Pakistan" (PDF). J. Animal Plant Sci. 23 (1): 313–318. ISSN 1018-7081. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- McSweeney, A. M and C. Raish. 2012. Social, cultural and economic aspects of livestock ranching on the Santa Fe and Carson National Forests. USDA Forest Service RMRS-GTR 276.
- Gentner, B.J.; Tanaka, J.A. (2006). "Classifying federal public land grazing permittees". Journal of Range Management. 55 (1). doi:10.2458/azu_jrm_v55i1_gentner. ISSN 0022-409X. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- Torell, L. Allen; Rimbey, Neil R.; Tanaka, John A.; Bailey, Scott A. (2001). "THE LACK OF A PROFIT MOTIVE FOR RANCHING: IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS". In Torell, L. A.; Bartlett, E. T.; Larranaga, R. (eds.). Current issues in rangeland economics. Proc. Symp. Western Regional Coordinating Committee on Rangeland Economics: WCC-55. N. M. State Univ. Res. Rep. 737. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
|Look up livestock in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Livestock management.|