List of possible impact structures on Earth

This is a list of possible impact structures on Earth. More than 130 geophysical features on the surface of the Earth have been proposed as candidate sites for impact events by appearing several times in the literature and/or being endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG)[1] and/or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS).[2] For the purposes of this list and the List of impact craters on Earth, the terminology of "confirmed" as defined by the Earth Impact Database (EID) is considered authoritative.[3] The list below includes those features which remain unconfirmed, each of which is ranked according to a three-step confidence level as indicated by the Russian Academy of Sciences, by Anna Mikheeva:[4] 1 for "probable", 2 for "potential", and 3 for "questionable". Level 4 is given to discredited structures, which hence represent geological features other than impact craters.[4] Structures with confidence 0 are considered "confirmed" (EID) or "proven" (Mikheeva) and should be placed in the lists of confirmed craters according to continent.

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

List of possible impact structuresEdit

The following tables list geological features on Earth that some individuals have associated with impact events, but for which there is currently no confirming scientific evidence in the peer-reviewed literature. In order for a structure to be confirmed as an impact crater, it must meet a stringent set of well-established criteria. Some proposed impact structures are likely to eventually be confirmed, whereas others are likely to be shown to have been misidentified (see below). Recent extensive surveys have been done for Australian (2005),[5] African (2014),[6] and South American (2015)[7] craters, as well as those in the Arab world (2016).[8] A book review by A. Crósta and U. Reimold disputes some of the evidence presented for several of the South American structures.[9]

Legend
Confidence[4] 0 - proven[note 1]
1 – probable
2 – potential
3 – questionable
4 – discredited
Diameter Kilometers
Age Approximate
Name Location Confidence Diameter (km) Age (Ma) Notes Image Coordinates
38th Parallel structures United States (Missouri, etc.) variable 2-17 320 ± 10 [11] 37°30′N 88°18′W / 37.5°N 88.3°W / 37.5; -88.3 (Hicks Dome)
37°48′N 90°12′W / 37.8°N 90.2°W / 37.8; -90.2 (Avon crater)
37°48′N 91°24′W / 37.8°N 91.4°W / 37.8; -91.4 (Crooked Creek crater)
37°54′N 92°42′W / 37.9°N 92.7°W / 37.9; -92.7 (Decaturville crater)
37°42′N 92°24′W / 37.7°N 92.4°W / 37.7; -92.4 (Hazelgreen crater)
38°00′N 93°36′W / 38.0°N 93.6°W / 38.0; -93.6 (Weaubleau-Osceola structure)
37°42′N 95°42′W / 37.7°N 95.7°W / 37.7; -95.7 (Rose Dome)
Ak-Bura (Murgab) Tajikistan 1 0.080 0.0003
(1700 AD)
[12][13][14][15] 38°5′38.5″N 74°16′58″E / 38.094028°N 74.28278°E / 38.094028; 74.28278 (Ak-Bura)
Al Madafi Saudi Arabia 1 6 6-66 [16][17][18][17][18] 28°40′N 37°11′E / 28.67°N 37.18°E / 28.67; 37.18 (Al Madafi)
Alamo bolide impact United States (Nevada) 0 100 ± 40 367 [19][12][20][note 1] 37°19′N 116°11′W / 37.31°N 116.18°W / 37.31; -116.18 (Alamo)
Anéfis Mali 2 3.9 23? [21][12][22][23] 18°04′19″N 0°02′53″W / 18.072°N 0.048°W / 18.072; -0.048 (Anefis)
Aorounga Central Chad 0 11.6 <345 [24][25][26] 19°13′44″N 19°15′40″E / 19.229°N 19.261°E / 19.229; 19.261 (Aorounga center)
Arganaty Kazakhstan (Almaty region) 0 300 250 [27][28][29][note 1] 46°30′N 79°48′E / 46.5°N 79.8°E / 46.5; 79.8 (Arganaty)
Arlit Niger 2 10 ? [30][31][32] 21°21′11″N 9°08′42″E / 21.353°N 9.145°E / 21.353; 9.145 (Arlit)
Australian impact structure Australia (Northern Territory) Highly speculative 600 >545 [33] 25°33′S 131°23′E / 25.550°S 131.383°E / -25.550; 131.383 (MAPCIS)
Azuara Spain 1 35-40 30-40 [34] 41°07′N 0°13′W / 41.117°N 0.217°W / 41.117; -0.217 (Azuara)
Bajada del Diablo Argentina 2 40 0.45 ± 0.3 [35][36][37] 42°46′S 67°24′W / 42.767°S 67.400°W / -42.767; -67.400 (Bajada del Diablo)
Bajo Hondo Argentina (Buenos Aires Province) 2 3.9 <10 [38][39] 42°15′S 67°55′W / 42.250°S 67.917°W / -42.250; -67.917 (Bajo Hondo)
Bangui magnetic anomaly Central African Republic 2 600-800? >542 [40][6][41] 6°00′N 18°18′E / 6°N 18.3°E / 6; 18.3 (Bangui)
Bateke Plateau Gabon 3 7.1 <2.6 [42][43] 0°38′45″S 14°27′29″E / 0.64583°S 14.45806°E / -0.64583; 14.45806 (Bateke)
Bedout Australia (offshore) 2 250 250 [44][45][5] 18°S 119°E / 18°S 119°E / -18; 119 (Bedout)
Bee Bluff United States (Texas) 0 2.4 40? [46][47][48][note 1] 29°02′N 99°51′W / 29.03°N 99.85°W / 29.03; -99.85 (Bee Bluff)
Björkö Sweden (Björkö, Ekerö) 1 10 1200 [49][50] 59°18′N 17°36′E / 59.30°N 17.60°E / 59.30; 17.60 (Björkö)
Bloody Creek Canada (Nova Scotia) 1 40 ? [51] 44°45′N 65°14′W / 44.750°N 65.233°W / 44.750; -65.233 (Bloody Creek)
Bohemian crater Czech Republic 2 260-300 >700? [52][12][53][54] 50°00′N 14°42′E / 50.0°N 14.7°E / 50.0; 14.7 (Bohemian)
Bow City Canada (Alberta) 2 8 70 [55] 50°25′N 112°16′W / 50.417°N 112.267°W / 50.417; -112.267 (Bow City)
Bowers crater Antarctic Ocean (Ross Sea) 2 100 3-5 [56][57][58][59] 71°12′S 176°00′E / 71.2°S 176°E / -71.2; 176 (Bowers)
Brushy Creek Feature United States (Louisiana) 1 2.0 0.011–0.030 [60][61] 30°46′N 90°44′W / 30.76°N 90.73°W / 30.76; -90.73 (Brushy Creek Feature)
Burckle Indian Ocean 1 30? 3000 BC [62][63][64] 30°52′S 61°22′E / 30.86°S 61.36°E / -30.86; 61.36 (Burckle)
Catalina structures
(Navy, Catalina, Emery Knoll)
Pacific Ocean (NE) 2 12, 32, 37 16-18 [65][66][67] 32°55′N 118°05′W / 32.91°N 118.09°W / 32.91; -118.09 (Catalina)
Cerro do Jarau Brazil (Paraná) 1 10 117 [68][69][70] 30°12′S 56°32′W / 30.200°S 56.533°W / -30.200; -56.533 (Cerro)
Charity Shoal Canada (Ontario) 2 1.2 <470 [71][72][73][74] 44°2′15″N 76°29′37″W / 44.03750°N 76.49361°W / 44.03750; -76.49361 (Charity Shoal)
Corossol Canada (Quebec) 3 4 <470 [75][76][77][78] 50°03′N 66°23′W / 50.050°N 66.383°W / 50.050; -66.383 (Corossol)
Darwin Crater Tasmania 0 1.2 0.816 [79][note 1] 42°19′S 145°40′E / 42.317°S 145.667°E / -42.317; 145.667 (Darwin crater)
Decorah United States (Iowa) 2 5.6 470 [80][81][82] 43°18′50″N 91°46′20″W / 43.31389°N 91.77222°W / 43.31389; -91.77222 (Decorah)
Diamantina River ring feature Australia (Queensland) 2 120 300 [83][84] 22°09′S 141°54′E / 22.150°S 141.900°E / -22.150; 141.900 (Winton crustal anomaly)
Dumas magnetic anomaly Canada (Saskatchewan) 1 3.2 70 ± 5 [85][86] 49°55′N 102°07′W / 49.92°N 102.12°W / 49.92; -102.12 (Dumas)
Duolun China (Inner Mongolia) 2 120 ± 50 129 ± 3 [87][88] 42°3′N 116°15′E / 42.050°N 116.250°E / 42.050; 116.250 (Duolun)
El-Baz Egypt 1 4 ? [89][26][90] 24°12′N 26°24′E / 24.200°N 26.400°E / 24.200; 26.400 (El-Baz)
Eltanin Pacific Ocean (SE) 0 35? 2.5 [91][92][93][note 1] 57°47′S 90°47′W / 57.783°S 90.783°W / -57.783; -90.783 (Eltanin)
Faya Basin Chad 1 2 385 ± 15 [94][95] 18°10′N 19°34′E / 18.167°N 19.567°E / 18.167; 19.567 (Faya)
Falkland Plateau anomaly Atlantic Ocean
(near Falkland Islands)
2 250-300 250 [96][12][97][98][99][100] 51°S 62°W / 51°S 62°W / -51; -62 (Malvinas)
Fried Egg structure Atlantic Ocean (near Azores) 2 6 17 [101][102] 36°N 27°W / 36°N 27°W / 36; -27 (Fried Egg)
Garet El Lefet Libya 1 3 ? [103][104][105] 25°00′N 16°30′E / 25.0°N 16.5°E / 25.0; 16.5 ("Garet El Lefet")
Gatun structure Panama 1 3 20 [106] 09°05′58″N 79°47′22″W / 9.09944°N 79.78944°W / 9.09944; -79.78944 (Gatun structure)
General San Martín Argentina 2 11 1.2 [107][108][109] 38°0′S 63°18′W / 38.000°S 63.300°W / -38.000; -63.300 (General San Martin)
Gnargoo Australia (Western Australia) 1 75 <300 [110][111] 24°48′24″S 115°13′29″E / 24.80667°S 115.22472°E / -24.80667; 115.22472 (Gnargoo)
Guarda Portugal 1 30 200 [112][113] 40°38′N 07°06′W / 40.633°N 7.100°W / 40.633; -7.100 (Guarda)
Hartney anomaly Canada (Manitoba) 1 8 120 ± 20 [114][86][115] 49°24′N 100°40′W / 49.4°N 100.67°W / 49.4; -100.67 (Hartney)
Hiawatha Greenland 2 31 <1985 [116][117] 78°44′N 66°14′W / 78.733°N 66.233°W / 78.733; -66.233 (Hiawatha)
Hickman Australia (Western Australia) 2 30 0.01–0.1 [118] 23°2′13″S 119°40′59″E / 23.03694°S 119.68306°E / -23.03694; 119.68306 (Hickman)
Hico United States (Texas) 1 9 <60 [119][120][121] 32°01′N 98°02′W / 32.01°N 98.03°W / 32.01; -98.03 (Hico)
Hotchkiss Canada (Alberta) 1 4 220 ± 100 [122][123] 57°32′20″N 118°52′41″W / 57.539°N 118.878°W / 57.539; -118.878 (Hotchkiss)
Howell United States (Tennessee) 1 2.5 380 ± 10 [124][125][126] 35°14′N 86°37′W / 35.23°N 86.61°W / 35.23; -86.61 (Howell)
Ibn-Batutah Libya 2 2.5 120 ± 20 [127][128] 21°34′10″N 20°50′15″E / 21.56944°N 20.83750°E / 21.56944; 20.83750 (Ibn-Batutah)
Ishim Kazakhstan (Akmola region) 0 300 430-460 [129][130][131][note 1] 52°0′N 69°0′E / 52.000°N 69.000°E / 52.000; 69.000 (Ishim Akmola)
Iturralde Bolivia 1 8.0 0.011–0.030 [132] 12°35′S 67°40′W / 12.583°S 67.667°W / -12.583; -67.667 (Iturralde)
Jackpine Creek magnetic anomaly Canada (British Columbia) 1 25 120 ± 20 [133][134] 55°36′N 120°06′W / 55.6°N 120.1°W / 55.6; -120.1 (Jackpine)
Jebel Hadid Libya 2 4.7 <66 [135][136] 20°52′12″N 22°42′18″E / 20.87000°N 22.70500°E / 20.87000; 22.70500 (Jebel Hadid)
Jeptha Knob United States (Kentucky) 0 4.3 425 [137][note 1] 38°11′N 85°07′W / 38.183°N 85.117°W / 38.183; -85.117 (Jeptha Knob)
Johnsonville United States (South Carolina) 0 11 300? [138][12][139][note 1] 33°49′N 79°22′W / 33.817°N 79.367°W / 33.817; -79.367 (Snows Island)
Jwaneng South Botswana 2 1.3 <66 [140][141] 24°42′S 24°46′E / 24.700°S 24.767°E / -24.700; 24.767 (Jwaneng South)
Luna India 2 2.1 0.0040
(2000 BC)
[142][143] 23°42′17″N 69°15′37″E / 23.70472°N 69.26028°E / 23.70472; 69.26028 (Kachchh)
Kebira Egypt 2 31 100 [144][145] 24°40′N 24°58′E / 24.667°N 24.967°E / 24.667; 24.967 (Kebira)
Kilmichael United States (Mississippi) 1 13 45 [146][147][148][149] 33°30′N 89°33′W / 33.5°N 89.55°W / 33.5; -89.55 (Kilmichael)
Krk structure Croatia 2 12 40 [150][151] 45°04′N 14°37′E / 45.06°N 14.62°E / 45.06; 14.62 (Krk)
Kurai Basin Russia (Altai Region) 1 20 <200 [152][153] 50°12′N 87°54′E / 50.200°N 87.900°E / 50.200; 87.900 (Kurai)
La Dulce Argentina 1 2.8 0.445? [154][108] 38°13′S 59°13′W / 38.21°S 59.21°W / -38.21; -59.21 (La Dulce)
Labynkyr Russia 0 67 150? [155][12][156][157][note 1] 62°19′30″N 143°05′24″E / 62.325°N 143.090°E / 62.325; 143.090 (Labynkyr)
Lac Iro Chad 1 13 ? [158][6][159] 10°10′N 19°40′E / 10.167°N 19.667°E / 10.167; 19.667 (Iro Lake)
Lairg Gravity Low Scotland 2 40 1200 [160] 58°1′12″N, 4°24′0″W
Lake Cheko Russia (Siberia) 3 50 0.0001
(1908 AD)
[161] 60°57′50″N 101°51′36″E / 60.964°N 101.86°E / 60.964; 101.86 (Cheko)
Lake Tai (Tai Hu) China (Jiangsu) 1 70 ± 5 365 ± 5 [162][163][164] 31°14′N 120°8′E / 31.233°N 120.133°E / 31.233; 120.133 (Tai)
Loch Leven Scotland 2 18x8 290 [165][166] 56°12′N 3°23′W / 56.200°N 3.383°W / 56.200; -3.383 (Loch Leven)
Lorne Basin Australia (New South Wales) 2 30 250 ± 2 [167][168] 31°36′S 152°37′E / 31.60°S 152.62°E / -31.60; 152.62 (Lorne)
Lycksele structure 2 Sweden 2 130 1500 ± 300 [169][170][171] 64°55′N 18°47′E / 64.92°N 18.78°E / 64.92; 18.78 (Lycksele)
Madagascar structure 3 Madagascar 4 12 ? [172][173] 18°50′20″S 46°13′16″E / 18.839°S 46.221°E / -18.839; 46.221 (Madagascar)
Magyarmecske anomaly Hungary 1 7 299 [174][175][176][177] 45°57′N 17°58′E / 45.95°N 17.97°E / 45.95; 17.97 (Magyarmecske)
Mahuika New Zealand (offshore) 2 20? 0.0006
(1400 AD)
[178][179][63] 48°18′S 166°24′E / 48.3°S 166.4°E / -48.3; 166.4 (Mahuika)
Maniitsoq structure Greenland 2 100 3000 [180][181][182] 65°15′N 51°50′W / 65.250°N 51.833°W / 65.250; -51.833 (Maniitsoq)
Mejaouda (El Mrayer) Mauritania 1 3 <542? [183][12][105][22][184] 22°43′19″N 7°18′43″W / 22.722°N 7.312°W / 22.722; -7.312 (Mejaouda)
Merewether Canada (Newfoundland) 0 20 0.0009
(1100 AD)
[185][186][note 1] 58°02′N 64°03′W / 58.04°N 64.05°W / 58.04; -64.05 (Merewether)
Meseta de la Barda Negra Argentina 4 1.5 4 ± 1 [187][188] 39°10′S 69°53′W / 39.167°S 69.883°W / -39.167; -69.883 (Barda Negra)
Middle-Urals Ring Structure Russia 1 400–550 >542 [189][190][191] 56°N 56°E / 56°N 56°E / 56; 56 (Urals Ring)
Mistassini-Otish impact structure Canada (Quebec) 1 600 2200 [192][193] 50°34′N 73°25′W / 50.57°N 73.42°W / 50.57; -73.42 (Mistassini lake)
Mount Ashmore dome Indian Ocean (in Timor Sea) 2 >50 35 [194][195][196] 12°33′S 123°12′E / 12.55°S 123.2°E / -12.55; 123.2
Mousso Chad 2 3.8 <542 [197][198] 17°58′N 10°53′E / 17.967°N 10.883°E / 17.967; 10.883 (Mousso)
Mt. Oikeyama Japan 2 90 0.030? [199][200] 35°24′18″N 138°00′47″E / 35.405°N 138.013°E / 35.405; 138.013 (Oikeyama)
Mulkarra Australia (South Australia) 1 17 105 [201][202] 27°51′S 138°55′E / 27.85°S 138.92°E / -27.85; 138.92 (Mulkarra)
Nastapoka (Hudson Bay) arc Canada (Quebec) 3 450 1800? [203][12][204][205] 57°00′N 78°50′W / 57.000°N 78.833°W / 57.000; -78.833 (Hudson Bay)
Ouro Ndia Mali 2 3 <2.6 [206][12][22] 14°59.8′N 4°30.0′W / 14.9967°N 4.5000°W / 14.9967; -4.5000 (Ouro Ndia)
Pantasma Nicaragua 3 10 ? [207] 13°22′N 85°57′W / 13.37°N 85.95°W / 13.37; -85.95 (Pantasma)
Panther Mountain United States (New York) 1 10 375 [208][209][210] 42°03′N 74°24′W / 42.050°N 74.400°W / 42.050; -74.400 (Panther Mountain)
Peerless structure United States (Montana) 1 6 470 ± 10 [211][212] 48°48′N 105°48′W / 48.8°N 105.8°W / 48.8; -105.8 (Peerless)
Piratininga Brazil (Paraná) 3 12 117 [213][69][214] 22°28′S 49°09′W / 22.467°S 49.150°W / -22.467; -49.150 (Piratininga)
Praia Grande Brazil (Santos Basin, offshore) 1 20 84 [215][69][70] 25°39′S 45°37′W / 25.650°S 45.617°W / -25.650; -45.617 (prai grande)
Ramgarh India (Rajasthan) 0 3 ? [216][217][218][note 1] 25°20′16″N 76°37′29″E / 25.33778°N 76.62472°E / 25.33778; 76.62472 (Ramgarh)
Ross Antarctic Ocean (Ross Sea) 2 600? <38 [219][57][220] 77°30′S 178°30′E / 77.5°S 178.5°E / -77.5; 178.5 (Ross)
Rubielos de la Cérida Spain 0 80x40 30-40 [221][222][223][note 1] 40°46′59″N 1°15′00″W / 40.783°N 1.25°W / 40.783; -1.25 (Rubielos)
Sakhalinka Pacific Ocean (NW) 2 12 70 [224][225][226][227][228] 30°15′N 170°03′E / 30.250°N 170.050°E / 30.250; 170.050 (Sakhalinka)
São Miguel do Tapuio Brazil (Piauí) 1 22 120 [229][12][70][230][231][232] 5°37.6′S 41°23.3′W / 5.6267°S 41.3883°W / -5.6267; -41.3883 (Sao Miguel Do Tapuio)
Shanghewan China (Jilin) 1 30 ? [233][234][235] 44°29′N 126°11′E / 44.483°N 126.183°E / 44.483; 126.183 (Shangewan)
Shiva Indian Ocean 1 500 66 [236] 18°40′N 70°14′E / 18.667°N 70.233°E / 18.667; 70.233 (Shiva)
Shiyli Kazakhstan 0 5.5 46 ± 7 [237][238][note 1] 49°10′N 57°51′E / 49.167°N 57.850°E / 49.167; 57.850 (Shiyli)
Silverpit Atlantic Ocean (North Sea) 1 20 60 ± 15 [239][240][241][242][243][244][245][246] 54°14′N 1°51′E / 54.233°N 1.850°E / 54.233; 1.850 (Silverpit)
Sirente Italy 4 10 0.0017
(320 ± 90 AD)
[247][248] 42°10′38″N 13°35′45″E / 42.17722°N 13.59583°E / 42.17722; 13.59583 (Sirente)
Sithylemenkat Lake United States (Alaska) 3 12 0.033? [249][250][251][252] 66°07′34″N 151°23′20″W / 66.12611°N 151.38889°W / 66.12611; -151.38889 (Sithylemenkat)
Smerdyacheye Lake Russia 1 20 0.01–0.03? [253][254]   55°44′06″N 39°49′23″E / 55.735°N 39.823°E / 55.735; 39.823 (Smerdyacheye)
Sudan 3 (Mahas) Sudan [citation needed] 2.8 ? [citation needed] 20°01.9′N 30°13.7′E / 20.0317°N 30.2283°E / 20.0317; 30.2283 (Mahas)
Sudan 2 (Bayuda) Sudan 2 10 ? [255][256][257]
 
 
Mahas
 
Bayuda
 
Red Sea Hills
Three craters in Sudan
18°03.5′N 33°30.2′E / 18.0583°N 33.5033°E / 18.0583; 33.5033 (Bayuda)
Sudan 1 (Red Sea Hills) Sudan 2 6 ? [258][259][260]
 
 
Mahas
 
Bayuda
 
Red Sea Hills
Three craters in Sudan
17°57.1′N 37°56.1′E / 17.9517°N 37.9350°E / 17.9517; 37.9350 (Red Sea)
Svetloyar Lake Russia 0 40 0.0026
(600 BC)
[261][262][note 1]   56°49′08″N 45°05′35″E / 56.819°N 45.093°E / 56.819; 45.093 (Svetloyar)
Takamatsu Japan 1 4-8 15 [263][264][265][266][267] 34°18′N 134°03′E / 34.3°N 134.05°E / 34.3; 134.05 (Takamatsu)
Tarek (Gilf Kebir) Egypt 3 2.1 112? [268][12][269][270] 24°36′04″N 27°12′18″E / 24.601°N 27.205°E / 24.601; 27.205 (Tarek)
Tatarsky North Pacific Ocean (NW) 2 14 ? [271][272] 49°57′35″N 141°23′40″E / 49.95972°N 141.39444°E / 49.95972; 141.39444 (Tatarsky1)
Tatarsky South Pacific Ocean (NW) 2 20 ? [273][272] 48°17′38″N 141°23′40″E / 48.29389°N 141.39444°E / 48.29389; 141.39444 (Tatarsky2)
Tefé River structure Brazil (Amazonas) 2 15 65 ± 20 [274][70][275] 4°57′S 66°03′W / 4.950°S 66.050°W / -4.950; -66.050 (Tefé)
Talundilly Australia (Queensland) 1 84 128 ± 5 [276][277][278] 24°44′S 144°37′E / 24.73°S 144.62°E / -24.73; 144.62 (Talundilly)
Temimichat Mauritania 1 0.7 2? [279][12][280] 24°15′N 9°39′W / 24.250°N 9.650°W / 24.250; -9.650 (Temimichat)
Tsenkher Mongolia 1 3.6 5 [281][282][283] 43°38′41″N 98°22′09″E / 43.64472°N 98.36917°E / 43.64472; 98.36917 (Tsenkher)
Toms Canyon United States (New Jersey) 1 22 35 [284][285][286][287] 39°08′N 72°51′W / 39.133°N 72.850°W / 39.133; -72.850 (Toms Canyon)
Umm al Binni Iraq 0 3.4 <0.0050
(3000 BC)
[288][note 1] 31°14′29″N 47°06′21″E / 31.24139°N 47.10583°E / 31.24139; 47.10583 (Umm al Binni)
Ust-Kara Russia (Nenetsia, offshore) 2 25 70 ± 2.2 [289][290] 69°17′N 65°21′E / 69.28°N 65.35°E / 69.28; 65.35 (Ust-Kara)
Vélingara Senegal 1 48 23-40 [291][292] 13°02′N 14°08′W / 13.033°N 14.133°W / 13.033; -14.133 (Vélingara)
Versailles United States (Kentucky) 1 1.5 <400 [293][294] 38°05′N 84°40′W / 38.09°N 84.67°W / 38.09; -84.67 (Versailles)
Vichada Colombia (Vichada) 2 50 30? [295][12] 4°30′N 69°15′W / 4.500°N 69.250°W / 4.500; -69.250 (Vichada)
Victoria Island United States (California) 2 5.5 37-49 [296] 37°53′N 121°32′W / 37.89°N 121.53°W / 37.89; -121.53 (Victoria Island structure)
Warburton East Australia (South Australia) 2 200 300-360 [297][298][299][300] 28°00′S 140°30′E / 28°S 140.5°E / -28; 140.5 (Warbuton)
Warburton West Australia (South Australia) [citation needed] 200 300-360 [300][298]
Weaubleau United States (Missouri) 1 19 330 ± 10 [301][302][303] 38°00′N 93°36′W / 38.0°N 93.6°W / 38.0; -93.6 (Weaubleau)
Wembo-Nyama (Omeonga) DR Congo 2 36-46 60? [304][305][306] 3°37′52″S 24°31′07″E / 3.63111°S 24.51861°E / -3.63111; 24.51861 (Wembo-Nyama ring structure)
Wilkes Land 2 Antarctica 2 480 250-500 [307] 70°S 140°E / 70°S 140°E / -70; 140 (Wilkes)
Woodbury United States (Georgia) 1 7 500 ± 100 [308][309] 32°55′N 84°33′W / 32.92°N 84.55°W / 32.92; -84.55 (Woodbury)
Yallalie Australia (Western Australia) 0 12 99? [310][12][311][312][313][314][note 1] 30°26′40″S 115°46′16″E / 30.44444°S 115.77111°E / -30.44444; 115.77111 (Yallalie)
Zerelia West Greece 2 20 0.0070
(5000 BC)
[315][316] 39°09′48″N 22°42′32″E / 39.16333°N 22.70889°E / 39.16333; 22.70889 (Zerelia West)
Zerelia East Greece 2 10 0.0070
(5000 BC)
[315][316] 39°09′43″N 22°42′51″E / 39.16194°N 22.71417°E / 39.16194; 22.71417 (Zerelia East)

OverviewEdit

Russia's Lake Cheko is thought by one research group to be the result of the famous Tunguska event, although sediments in the lake have been dated back more than 5,000 years. There is highly speculative conjecture about the supposed Sirente impact (c. 320 ± 90 AD) having caused the Roman emperor Constantine's vision at Milvian Bridge.[317][better source needed]

The Burckle crater and Umm al Binni structure are proposed to be behind the floods that affected Sumerian civilization.[318][319] The Kachchh impact may have been witnessed by the Harappan civilization and mentioned as a fireball in Sanskrit texts.[143]

The ages of the Bloody Creek crater[320] and Hiawatha crater are uncertain.

As the trend in the Earth Impact Database for about 26 confirmed craters younger than a million years old shows that almost all are less than two km (1.2 mi) in diameter (except the three km (1.9 mi) Agoudal and four km (2.5 mi) Rio Cuarto), the suggestion that two large craters, Mahuika (20 km (12 mi)) and Burckle (30 km (19 mi)), formed only within the last few millennia has been met with skepticism.[321][322][323] However, the source of the young (less than a million years old) and enormous Australasian strewnfield (c. 790 ka) is suggested to be a crater about 100 km (62 mi) across somewhere in Indochina,[324][325] with Hartung and Koeberl (1994) proposing the elongated 100 km × 35 km (62 mi × 22 mi) Tonlé Sap lake in Cambodia (visible in the map at the side) as a suspect structure.[326]

The Decorah crater has been conjectured as being part of the Ordovician meteor event.[327][better source needed]

Several twin impacts have been proposed, such as the Rubielos de la Cérida and Azuara (30–40 Ma),[328] Cerro Jarau and Piratininga (c. 117 Ma),[69] and Warburton East and West (300–360 Ma).[300] However, adjacent craters may not necessarily have formed at the same time, as demonstrated by the case of the confirmed Clearwater East and West lakes.

Some confirmed impacts like Sudbury or Chicxulub are also sources of magnetic anomalies[329] and/or gravity anomalies. The magnetic anomalies Bangui and Jackpine Creek,[134] the gravity anomalies Wilkes Land crater and Falkland Islands,[97] and others have been considered as being of impact origin. Bangui apparently has been discredited,[26][330] but appears again in a 2014 table of unconfirmed structures in Africa by Reimold and Koeberl.[6]

Several anomalies in Williston Basin were identified by Swatzky in the 1970s as astroblemes including Viewfield, Red Wing Creek, Eagle Butte, Dumas, and Hartney, of which only the last two are unconfirmed.[86]

The Eltanin impact has been confirmed (via an iridium anomaly and meteoritic material from ocean cores) but, as it fell into the Pacific Ocean, apparently no crater was formed. The age of Silverpit and the confirmed Boltysh crater (65.17 ± 0.64 Ma), as well as their latitude, has led to the speculative hypothesis that there may have been several impacts during the KT boundary.[331][332] Of the five oceans in descending order by area, namely the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Antarctic, and Arctic, only the smallest (the Arctic) does not yet have a proposed unconfirmed impact crater.

Craters larger than 100 kilometres (62 mi) in the Phanerozoic (after 541 Ma) are notable for their size as well as for the possible coeval events associated with them especially the major extinction events.

For example, the Ishim impact structure[130] is conjectured to be bounded by the late Ordivician-early Silurian (c. 445 ± 5 Ma),[131] the two Warburton basins have been linked to the Late Devonian extinction (c. 360 Ma),[298] both Bedout and the Wilkes Land crater have been associated with the severe Permian–Triassic extinction event (c. 252 Ma),[333][334] Manicouagan (c. 215 Ma) was once thought to be connected to the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event (c. 201 Ma)[335] but more recent dating has made it unlikely, while the consensus is the Chicxulub impact caused the one for Cretaceous–Paleogene (c. 66 Ma).

However, other extinction theories employ coeval periods of massive volcanism such as the Siberian Traps (Permian-Triassic) and Deccan Traps (Cretaceous-Paleogene).

Undiscovered but inferredEdit

 
Australasian strewnfield. Shaded areas represent tektite finds.

There is geological evidence for impact events having taken place on Earth on certain specific occasions, which should have formed craters, but for which no impact craters have been found. In some cases this is because of erosion and Earth's crust having been recycled through plate tectonics, in others likely because exploration of the Earth's surface is incomplete. Typically the ages are already known and the diameters can be estimated.

Parent crater of Expected crater diameter Age Notes
Dakhleh glass 0.4 km 150 ka [336][337]
Argentinian tektites 5 km 480 ka [338]
Australasian tektites 32–114 km 780 ka [325]
Central American tektites 14 km 820 ka [339][340]
Skye ejecta deposits Unknown 60 Ma [341]
Stac Fada Member 40 km 1.2 Ga [342]
Barberton Greenstone Belt microtektites 500 km 3.2 Ga [343]
Marble Bar impact spherules "hundreds of kilometers" 3.4 Ga [344][better source needed]

Mistaken identityEdit

Some geological processes can result in circular or near-circular features that may be mistaken for impact craters. Some examples are calderas, maars, sinkholes, glacial cirques, igneous intrusions, ring dikes, salt domes, geologic domes, ventifacts, tuff rings, forest rings, and others. Conversely, an impact crater may originally be thought as one of these geological features, like Meteor Crater (as a maar) or Upheaval Dome (as a salt dome).

The presence of shock metamorphism and shatter cones are important criteria in favor of an impact interpretation, though massive landslides (such as the Köfels landslide of 7800 BC which was once thought to be impact-related) may produce shock-like fused rocks called "frictionite".[345]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Shown as "proven" by Mikheeva (2017),[4] not "confirmed" by EID (2018)[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Impact Field Studies Group
  2. ^ Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures
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  30. ^ Unnamed ("Arlit")
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  38. ^ Bajo Hondo
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  48. ^ Bee Bluff
  49. ^ Björkö
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  51. ^ Bloody Creek
  52. ^ Bohemia
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  55. ^ Bow City
  56. ^ Bowers
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  68. ^ Jarau
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  71. ^ Charity Shoal
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  75. ^ Corossol
  76. ^ Higgins, M.D., P. Lajeunesse, G. St-Onge, R. Sanfacon, and M. Duchesne, 2013, Impact Breccia Clast from the Corossol Crater, Canada. 76th Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. id.5190.
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  79. ^ Darwin
  80. ^ Decorah
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  85. ^ Dumas
  86. ^ a b c Gubins, A. & Strangway, D. (1978). "Magnetic Fields Associated with a Probable Late Cretaceous Astrobleme at Dumas, Saskatchewan", Lunar and Planetary Science IX, pp. 433–435
  87. ^ Duolun
  88. ^ Wu Siben (1989). (1989). "Geologic feature of the Duolun impact crater". Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 20: 1219. Bibcode:1989LPI....20.1219W.
  89. ^ El-Baz
  90. ^ El-Baz, F (1981). "Circular Feature Among Dunes of the Great Sand Sea, Egypt". Science. 213 (4506): 439–440. Bibcode:1981Sci...213..439E. doi:10.1126/science.213.4506.439. PMID 17760189.
  91. ^ Eltanin
  92. ^ Shuvalov V.V. (2006). Numerical modeling of the Eltanin impact: determination of projectile size and tsunami amplitude. 40 ESLAB Symposium: 1 International Conference on Impact Cratering in the Solar System, Noordwijk, 8–12 May 2006, Noordwijk: ESA, pp. 201-202
  93. ^ Weiss Rober, Lynett Patrick; Wunnemann Kai (2015). The Eltanin impact and its tsunami along the coast of South America: Inigshts for potential deposits Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett. Vol. 409. pp. 175–181
  94. ^ Faya Basin
  95. ^ M. Schmieder and E. Buchner (2010). The Faya Basin (Chad) revisited – structural insights from central peak morphology and potential Martian analogs, Nördlingen Ries Crater Workshop (2010).
  96. ^ Falkland
  97. ^ a b Rocca, M.; Presser, J. (2015). "A possible new very large impact structure in Malvinas Islands". Historia Natural, Tercera Series. 5 (2).
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  101. ^ Fried Egg
  102. ^ Amos, J (2009) 'Fried Egg' may be impact crater BBC News.
  103. ^ Garet El Lefet
  104. ^ Roger Weller. Garet El Lefet crater
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  106. ^ Gatun
  107. ^ General San Martín
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  110. ^ Gnargoo
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  112. ^ Guarda
  113. ^ Monteiro, J. F. (1991). "The Guarda Circular Structure: A Possible Complex Impact Crater". Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 22: 915. Bibcode:1991LPI....22..915M.
  114. ^ Hartney
  115. ^ Anderson, C. (1980). "A Seismic Reflection Study of a Probable Astrobleme near Hartney, Manitoba" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Exploration Geophysics. 16: 7.
  116. ^ Hiawatha
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  118. ^ Hickman
  119. ^ Hico
  120. ^ J. Glidewell (2009). SEISMIC DATA THROUGH THE HICO STRUCTURE: A POSSIBLE IMPACT FEATURE IN NORTHCENTRAL TEXAS, 40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference
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  122. ^ Hotchkiss
  123. ^ M. Mazur and R. Stewart (1998). Interpreting the Hotchkiss structure: A possible meteorite impact feature in northwestern Alberta, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology (CREWES).
  124. ^ Howell
  125. ^ B. Deane, P. Lee, K. Milam, J. Evenick, and R.Zawislak (2004). THE HOWELL STRUCTURE, LINCOLN COUNTY, TENNESSEE: A REVIEW OF PAST AND CURRENT RESEARCH, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV
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  127. ^ Ibn-Batutah
  128. ^ Ghoneim, Eman M. (2009). "Ibn-Batutah: A possible simple impact structure in southeastern Libya, a remote sensing study". Geomorphology. 103 (3): 341–350. Bibcode:2009Geomo.103..341G. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.07.005.
  129. ^ Ishim
  130. ^ a b Frank Dachille (1976). (1976). "Frequency of the formation of large terrestrial impact craters". Meteoritics. 11: 270. Bibcode:1976Metic..11..270D.
  131. ^ a b Zeylik B. S.; Seytmuratova E. Yu, 1974: A meteorite-impact structure in central Kazakhstan and its magmatic-ore controlling role. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 1, pp. 167–170
  132. ^ Iturralde
  133. ^ Jackpine Creek
  134. ^ a b S. Goussev, R. Charters, J. Peirce and W. Glenn (2002). Jackpine Creek Magnetic Anomaly: A Case of the HRAM Prospect Scale Interpretation. CSEG: The Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists
  135. ^ Jebel Hadid
  136. ^ Schmieder, Martin; Buchner, Elmar; Le Heron, Daniel Paul (2009). "The Jebel Hadid structure (Al Kufrah Basin, SE Libya) – A possible impact structure and potential hydrocarbon trap?". Marine and Petroleum Geology. 26 (3): 310–318. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2008.04.003.
  137. ^ Jeptha Knob
  138. ^ Snows Island
  139. ^ Talwani, Pradeep; Wildermuth, Eric; Parkinson, Chris D. (2003). "An impact crater in northeast South Carolina inferred from potential field data". Geophysical Research Letters. 30 (7): 1366. Bibcode:2003GeoRL..30.1366T. doi:10.1029/2003GL017051.
  140. ^ Jwaneng South
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BibliographyEdit

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