Political parties in Russia

This article discusses political parties in Russia.

The Russian Federation has a multi-party system. As of 2018 six parties have members in the federal parliament, the State Duma, with one dominant party (United Russia).

After the Perestroika reforms in the 1980s Russia had over 100 registered parties, but the people elected to the State Duma represented only a small number of parties. After 2000, during Vladimir Putin's first presidency (2000–2008), the number of parties quickly decreased. From 2008 to 2012 there were only seven parties in Russia, and every new attempt to register new, independent parties was blocked.[by whom?] The last-registered party of this period was the government-organized Right Cause (now the Party of Growth) which was registered on 18 February 2009. Before the 2011 parliamentary election, about 10 opposition parties were denied registration. However, after a series of mass protests and a 2011 European Court decision on the case of the Republican Party of Russia (now the People's Freedom Party), the law changed and the number of registered parties quickly increased to more than 48 as of December 2012.

HistoryEdit

Party of powerEdit

In Russian politics, a "party of power" is a specially established party which unconditionally supports the current president or prime minister in the parliament.[citation needed]

These parties have been considered[by whom?] parties of power:

LegislationEdit

 
Certificate of state registration of political parties in Russia, issued by the Ministry of Justice of Russia

Social composition of votersEdit

According to studies, United Russia voters in 2007 were younger and more market-oriented than the average voter. The party's electorate includes a substantial share of government employees, pensioners and military personnel, who are dependent on the state for their livelihood.[1] Sixty-four percent of United Russia supporters are female. According to researchers[who?], this could be because women place a great value on stability. In the run-up to the 2011 Duma elections, it was reported that support for United Russia was growing among young people.[2]

Registered partiesEdit

All parties registered by the Ministry of Justice have the right to participate in any elections all over the country. The list is placed on the Justice Ministry website. In December 2012, there were 48 registered parties in Russia; 6 of them are currently represented in the State Duma as of 2017.

Currently represented in the State DumaEdit

Currently represented in regional parliamentsEdit

List of registered partiesEdit

No.[3] Full name Short name Abbr. Ideology Position Leader(s) Created Registration Last federal elections results Free access to the
next legislative election
Note
Presidential Legislative
1 All-Russian political party "United Russia"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Единая Россия"
United Russia UR (ЕР) Statism
Conservatism
Russian nationalism
centrism Dmitry Medvedev 2001 2003 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
55.23% (Party list)
50.12% (SMC)
(343 seats)
MJ profile
Website
2 Political party "Communist Party of the Russian Federation"
Политическая партия "Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации"
Communist Party CPRF (КПРФ) Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left Gennady Zyuganov 1990 2002 11.77%
(Pavel Grudinin)
13.59% (Party list)
12.93% (SMC)
(42 seats)
MJ profile
Website
3 Political party LDPR — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
Политическая партия ЛДПР – Либерально-демократическая партия Россия
Liberal Democratic Party LDPR (ЛДПР) Russian ultranationalism
Pan-Slavism
Imperialism
Mixed economy
Far-right Vladimir Zhirinovsky 1992 2002 5.65%
(Vladimir Zhirinovsky)
13.39% (Party list)
10.09% (SMC)
(39 seats)
MJ profile
Website
4 Political party "Patriots of Russia"
Политическая партия "Патриоты России"
Patriots of Russia PR (ПР) Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Centre-left to left-wing Gennady Semigin 2003 2003 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.60% (Party list)
1.40% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
5 Political party "Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko""
Политическая партия "Российская объединенная демократическая партия "Яблоко"
Yabloko Social liberalism
Environmentalism
Pro-Europeanism
Centre to centre-left Nikolay Rybakov 1995 2003 1.05%
(Grigory Yavlinsky)
2.04% (Party list)
2.64% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
6 Political party "A Just Russia"
Политическая партия "Справедливая Россия"
A Just Russia JR (СР) Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Centre-left Sergey Mironov 2006 2006 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
6.34% (Party list)
10.00% (SMC)
(23 seats)
MJ profile
Website
7 All-Russian political party "Party of Growth"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Партия Роста"
Party of Growth PG (ПР) Liberal conservatism

Conservative liberalism
Economic liberalism

Centre-right Boris Titov 2008 2009 0.76%
(Boris Titov)
1.31% (Party list)
2.33% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
8 Political party "People's Freedom Party" (PARNAS)
Политическая партия "Партия народной свободы" (ПАРНАС)
People's Freedom Party PARNAS (ПАРНАС) Conservative liberalism
Liberal democracy
Federalism

Pro-Europeanism

Centre-right Mikhail Kasyanov 1990 2002 DNP
(endorsed Ksenia Sobchak and Grigory Yavlinsky)
0.74% (Party list)
1.06% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
9 Political party "Democratic Party of Russia"
Политическая партия "Демократическая партия России"
Democratic Party DPR (ДПР) Conservatism Centre-right to right-wing Timur Bogdanov 1990 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
10 Political party "Party of Progress"
Политическая партия "Партия прогресса"
Party of Progress PP (ПП) Nikolay Pakin 2012 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
11 Political party "Communist Party of Social Justice"
Политическая партия "Коммунистическая партия социальной справедливости"
Communist Party of Social Justice CPSJ (КПСС) Communism
Socialism
Far-left Andrey Bogdanov 2012 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
12 Political party "Russia of Future"
Политическая партия "Россия будущего"
Russia of Future RF (РБ) Liberalism Centre Alexander Zorin 2012 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
13 Political party "Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"
Политическая Партия "Российская экологическая партия «Зелёные»
The Greens Environmentalism
Centrism
Green politics
Centre-left Anatoly Panfilov 1993 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.77% (Party list)
1.53% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
14 Political party Communist Party Communists of Russia
Политическая Партия Коммунистическая партия Коммунисты России
Communists of Russia CR (КР) Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left Maxim Suraykin 2009 2012 0.68%
(Maxim Suraykin)
2.31% (Party list)
3.68% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
15 Public organization — political party "Russian All-People's Union"
Общественная организация — политическая партия "Российский общенародный союз"
Russian All-People's Union ROS (РОС) Russian nationalism
Pochvennichestvo
Social conservatism
Right-wing socialism
Economic: Left-wing
Social: Right-wing
Sergey Baburin 1991 2012 0.65%
(Sergey Baburin)
DNP MJ profile
Website
16 All-Russian political party "Party for Fairness!"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Партия за справедливость!"
Party for Fairness! PF! (ПС!) Vladimir Ponomarenko 2012 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
DNP MJ profile
Website
17 Political party of Social Protection
Политическая партия социальной защиты
Party of Social Protection PSP (ПСЗ) Vladimir Mikhailov 2012 2012 DNP DNP MJ profile
Website
18 Public organization All-Russian political party "Civilian Power"
Общественная организация Всероссийская политическая партия "Гражданская сила"
Civilian Power CP (ГС) Green liberalism Centre-right Kirill Bykanin 2002 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.14% (Party list)
0.16% (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
19 Political party "Russian Party of Pensioners for Social Justice"
Политическая партия "Российская партия пенсионеров за социальную справедливость"
Party of Pensioners RPPSJ (РППСС) Pensioners' interests
Elderly interests
Social justice
Social conservatism
Centre-left Vladimir Burakov 1997 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
1.76% (Party list)
DNP (SMC)
(0 seats)
MJ profile
Website
20 Political party "Civic Platform"
Политическая партия "Гражданская платформа"
Civic Platform CP (ГП) Conservatism
Liberal conservatism
Economic liberalism
Right-wing Rifat Shaykhutdinov 2012 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
0.22% (Party list)
0.73% (SMC)
(1 seat)
MJ profile Website
21 All-Russian political party "Party of Business"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Партия дела"
Party of Business PB (ПД) Centre-left Konstantin Babkin 2010 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
DNP MJ profile Website
22 All-Russian political party "Rodina"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Родина"
Rodina Russian nationalism
National conservatism
Far-right Aleksey Zhuravlyov 2003 2012 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
1.53% (Party list)
2.47% (SMC)
(1 seat)
MJ profile Website
23 Political party "Cossack Party of the Russian Federation"
Политическая партия "Казачья партия Российской Федерации"
Cossack Party CoPRF (КаПРФ) Cossack interests Nikolay Konstantinov 2013 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
24 All-Russian political party "Russian Party of Gardeners"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Российская партия садоводов"
Party of Gardeners RPG (РПС) Igor Kasyanov 2013 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
25 All-Russian political party "Civic Initiative"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Гражданская инициатива"
[a 1]
Civic Initiative GRANI (ГРАНИ) Liberalism
Conservative liberalism
Centre-right Dmitry Gudkov 2013 2013 1.68%
(Ksenia Sobchak)
DNP MJ profile Website
26 Political party "Party of Russia's Rebirth"
Политическая партия "Партия возрождения России"
Party of Russia's Rebirth PRR (ПВР) Democratic socialism Centre-left Igor Ashurbeyli 2002 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
27 Political party "National Course"
Политическая партия "Национальный курс"
National Course NC (НК) Andrey Kovalenko 2013 2013 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
DNP MJ profile Website
28 All-Russian political party "People Against Corruption"
Общероссийская политическая партия "Народ против коррупции"
People Against Corruption PAC (НПК) Anti-corruption Roman Putin 2013 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
29 Political party "Native Party"
Политическая партия "Родная партия"
Native Party NP (РП) Alexander Samokhin 2013 2013 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
30 All-Russian political party "International Party of Russia"
Всероссийская политическая партия "Интернациональная партия России"
International Party IPR (ИПР) Januko Rafailov
Gavriil Rafailov
Damir Serajetdinov
2014 2014 DNP DNP MJ profile
31 Political party "Party of Social Reforms - Profit from Natural Resources – to the People"
Политическая партия "Партия социальных реформ - Прибыль от природных ресурсов – Народу"
Party of Social Reforms PSR (ПСР) Stanislav Polischuk 2014 2014 DNP
(endorsed Vladimir Putin)
DNP MJ profile Website
32 Political party "United Party of People of Limited Working Capacity of Russia"
Политическая партия "Объединённая партия людей ограниченной трудоспособности России"
Party of People of Limited Working Capacity OPLOT (ОПЛОТ) Vladimir Maltsev 2014 2014 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
33 Political party "Good Deeds, Protection of Children, Women, Freedom, Nature and Pensioners, Against Violence Against Animals"
Политическая партия Добрых дел, защиты детей, женщин, свободы, природы и пенсионеров, против насилия над животными»
Party of Good Deeds PGD (ПДД) Andrey Kirillov 2014 2014 DNP DNP MJ profile
34 Public organization political party "Revival of Agrarian Russia"
Общественная организация политическая партия «Возрождение аграрной России»
Revival of Agrarian Russia RAR (ВАР) Agrarianism Vasily Krylov 2015 2015 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
35 Political party "Alternative for Russia (Party of Socialist Choice)"
Политическая партия «Альтернатива для России (Партия Социалистического выбора)»
Alternative for Russia AfR (АДР) Socialism Left Antonina Serova 2015 2015 DNP DNP MJ profile
36 Public organization – political party "Parents of Future Party"
Общественная организация – политическая партия «Партия родителей будущего»
Parents of Future Party PFP (ПРБ) Marina Voronova 2015 2015 DNP DNP MJ profile
37 Political party "Party of Small Business of Russia"
Политическая партия «Партия малого бизнеса России»
Party of Small Business PSB (ПМБ) Yury Sidorov 2016 2016 DNP DNP MJ profile Website
38 Political party "People's Patriotic Party of Russia – Power to the People"
Политическая партия «Народно-патриотическая партия России – Власть Народу»
People's Patriotic Party PPPR (НППР) Vladimir Miloserdov 2018 2018 DNP New MJ profile Website
39 Political party "New People"
Политическая партия «Новые люди»
New People NP (НЛ) Communitarism
Progressivism
Centre-right Alexey Nechayev 2020 2020 New New MJ profile
40 Political party "For Truth"
Политическая партия «За правду»
For Truth FT (ЗП) Conservatism Left-wing Zakhar Prilepin 2020 2020 New New MJ profile Website
41 Political party "Green Alternative"
Политическая партия «Зелёная альтернатива»
Green Alternative GA (ЗА) Environmentalism
Green politics
Ruslan Khvostov 2020 2020 New New MJ profile Website
42 Political party "Party of Direct Democracy"
Политическая партия «Партия прямой демократии»
Party of Direct Democracy PDD (ППД) Direct democracy
E-democracy
Vyacheslav Makarov 2020 2020 New New MJ profile Website

Historical parties (1992–present)Edit

Banned parties in RussiaEdit

Soviet parties, 1917–1992Edit

Parties of the Russian Empire, 1721–1917Edit

Other historical partiesEdit

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Currently, the party is in the process of renaming to the "Party of Changes". The new name has not yet been approved by the Ministry of Justice.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Russia Analytical Digest" (PDF) (102). University of Basel, Center for Security Studies Zürich, Forschungsstelle Osteuropa Bremen. 26 November 2011: 2–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ Yevgeny Utkin. Seven parties, one virtually certain outcome Russia Beyond the Headlines. (2011-11-23)
  3. ^ "Список зарегистрированных политических партий - Минюст России". minjust.ru.

Further readingEdit

  • Gel′man, Vladimir (2013). Party Politics in Russia: From Competition to Hierarchy. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. pp. 273–289.
  • Hale, Henry E. (2006). Why Not Parties in Russia?: Democracy, Federalism, and the State. Cambridge University Press.
  • Smyth, Regina (2012). Political parties. Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society. Routledge. pp. 115–128.
  • White, Stephen (2013). Russia's Client Party System. Politics In Russia: A Reader. CQ Press. pp. 306–330.

External linksEdit