List of political parties in Greece

Prior to the 2012 elections the characteristic Greek political system was a two-party system. The historically dominant parties have been New Democracy and the Panhellenic Socialist Movement. Under the electoral system a party needs to surpass a 3% threshold in the popular vote in order to enter parliament. The largest party gets a 50-seat bonus (out of 300 seats) ostensibly to ensure elections return viable governing majorities.

In the Parliamentary elections held in 2009, five parties entered parliament: New Democracy (ND), the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK), the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA) and the Popular Orthodox Rally (LA.O.S.). In the 2012 elections, seven parties entered the parliament: ND, SYRIZA, PASOK, Independent Greeks (ANEL), KKE, and Democratic Left (DIMAR).

Parties represented in the current Parliament and European ParliamentEdit

Name Acronym Leader or Chairman People's representatives Elected representatives Ideology Political position National affiliation International affiliation European affiliation European Parliament Group
New Democracy
Νέα Δημοκρατία
ND Kyriakos Mitsotakis, president Centre-right,

Current Government

Parliament:
158 / 300
MEPs:
8 / 21
Liberal conservatism[1]
Christian democracy[2]
Pro-Europeanism[3]
Centre-right[4] None International Democratic Union
Centrist Democrat International
European People's Party EPP Group
221 / 751
Coalition of the Radical Left
Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς
SYRIZA Alexis Tsipras, leader Left-wing Opposition Parliament:
86 / 300
MEPs:
6 / 21
Democratic socialism[5]
Left-wing populism[6][7]
Social democracy[8]
Eco-socialism[5][9]
Alter-globalisation[10]
Secularism[11]
Soft Euroscepticism[12]
Left-wing
(big tent)
None None Party of the European Left GUE/NGL
52 / 751
Movement for Change
Κίνημα Αλλαγής
KINAL Fofi Gennimata, president Centre-left opposition Parliament:
22 / 300
MEPs:
2 / 21
Social democracy
Pro-Europeanism
Social liberalism
Democratic socialism[13][14]
Centre-left None
Socialist International
Progressive Alliance
Party of European Socialists S&D
191 / 751
Communist Party of Greece
Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
KKE Dimitris Koutsoumpas, general secretary Far-left opposition Parliament:
15 / 300
MEPs:
2 / 21
Communism
Marxism–Leninism
Far-left None IMCWP Initiative of Communist and Workers' Parties Non-Inscrits
Greek Solution
Ελληνική Λύση
EL Kyriakos Velopoulos, president Right-wing

opposition

Parliament:
10 / 300
MEPs:
1 / 21
Ultranationalism
Social conservatism
Religious conservatism
Right-wing populism
Right-wing to far-right None None European Conservatives and Reformists ECR
62 / 751
MeRA25
ΜέΡΑ25
MERA Yanis Varoufakis, general secretary Left-wing

opposition

Parliament:
9 / 300
MEPs:
0 / 21
Democratic Socialism
Progressivism
Pro-Europeanism
Left-wing None Progressive International DiEM25 No seats

Minor partiesEdit

Name Acronym Position Ideology Leader National affiliation European affiliation MPs MEPs
Cynical Party of Greece-Diogenis
Κυνικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος-Διογένης
KKE-D
ΚΚΕ-Δ
Centre Political satire Megistoi Arhidiahiristes None None 0 0
Popular Unity
Λαϊκή Ενότητα
LAE
ΛΑ.Ε.
Left-wing to
far-left
Democratic socialism[15]
Hard Euroscepticism[15][16]
Left-wing populism
Panagiotis Lafazanis None None 0 0
Ecologist Greens
Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι
OP
ΟΠ
Centre-left Green politics Six-member committee Ecologist GreensPirate Party of Greece (2014)
SYRIZA (2015)
EGP, G-EFA 0 0
Democratic Left
Δημοκρατική Αριστερά
DIMAR
ΔΗΜΑΡ
Centre-left Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Pro-Europeanism
Thanasis Theocharopoulos [el] SYRIZA S&D 0 0
Christian Democratic Party of the Overthrow
Χριστιανοδημοκρατικό Κόμμα Ανατροπής
XPIKA
ΧΡΙΚΑ
Centre-right
Right wing
Christian Democracy
Conservatism
Nikolaos Nikolopoulos Union for the Homeland and the People (2014)
Independent Greeks (2015)
none 0 0
Greeks for the Fatherland
Έλληνες για την Πατρίδα
EGTP

ΕΓΤΠ

Right-wing Greek nationalism Ilias Kasidiaris none Identity and Democracy 0 0
United Popular Front
Ενιαίο Παλλαϊκό Μέτωπο
EPAM
ΕΠΑΜ
Right-wing Patriotism
Euroscepticism
Dimitris Kazakis none none 0 0
National Unity
Εθνική Ενότητα
Right-wing National conservatism Giorgos Karatzaferis none none 0 0
New Right
Νέα Δεξιά
ΝD

ΝΔ

Right-wing National conservatism Failos Kranidiotis none Identity and Democracy 0 0
Greece, Another Path [el]
Ελλάδα, ο άλλος δρόμος
Right-wing National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Notis Marias none European Conservatives and Reformists 0 0
Radical National Rally [el]
Ριζοσπαστικός Εθνικός Συναγερμός
RIZ.ES
ΡΙΖ.Ε.Σ.
Right-wing National conservatism
Euroscepticism
Vasilis Kapernaros none none 0 0
Smoking Groups for Art and Visual Art
Καπνιστικές Ομάδες για την Τέχνη και την Εικαστική Συγκρότηση
K.O.T.E.S.
Κ.Ο.Τ.Ε.Σ
Left-wing Legalization of smoking Nikos Louvros none none 0 0
Democratic Responsibility [el]
Δημοκρατική Ευθύνη
Centre Liberalism Vasilis Pavlidis none none 0 0
Society – Political Party of the Successors of Kapodistrias
Κοινωνία – Πολιτική παράταξη συνεχιστών του Καποδίστρια
Koinonia
ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑ
Right-wing Social conservatism
Euroscepticism
National conservatism
Michalis Iliadis none none 0 0
Union for the Homeland and the People
Ένωση για την Πατρίδα και τον Λαό
EPAL
ΕΠΑΛ
Right-wing National conservatism
Christian democracy
Vyron Polydoras none none 0 0
Reformers for Democracy and Development
Μεταρρυθμιστές για τη Δημοκρατία και την Ανάπτυξη
Reformers
Μεταρρυθμιστές
Centre-left Social Democracy Spyros Lykoudis The River none 0 0
Course of Freedom
Πλεύση Ελευθερίας
Left-wing Socialism
Euroscepticism
Zoe Konstantopoulou Popular Unity none 0 0
Society First
Η Κοινωνία Πρώτα
H.K.P
Η.Κ.Π
Left wing Democratic Socialism
Socialism
Stefanos Katsaras SYRIZA none 0 0
Popular Unions of Bipartisan Social Groups
Λαϊκές Ενώσεις Υπερκομματικών Κοινωνικών Ομάδων
LEFKO
ΛΕΥΚΟ
Centre-left Social Democracy
Populism
Konstantinos Dalios Independent Greeks None 0 0
Drassi
Δράση
Drassi
Δράση
Centre Liberalism
Classical Liberalism
Theodoros Skylakakis Bridges [el] (2014)
The River (2015)
ALDE 0 0
Democratic National Reform Union [el]
Ένωση Δημοκρατικής Εθνικής Μεταρρύθμισης
EDEM
Ε.Δ.Ε.Μ.
Centre Liberalism Apostolos Pontas Democratic Alignment None 0 0
Society of Values [el]
Κοινωνία Αξιών
Centre Liberalism Stelios Fenekos [el] The River None 0 0
Popular Orthodox Rally
Λαικός Ορθόδοξος Συναγερμός
LAOS
Λα.Ο.Σ
Right wing
Far-right
Greek nationalism
Conservatism
Georgios Karatzaferis National Unity MELD 0 0
Movement of Democratic Socialists
Κίνημα Δημοκρατών Σοσιαλιστών
KIDISO
ΚΙ.ΔΗ.ΣΟ.
Centre-left Social democracy George Papandreou None None 0 0
Greens
Πράσινοι
Greens
Πράσινοι
Centre-left Green politics
Environmentalism
Nikos Chrysogelos None 0 0
New Reformist Radical Reconstruction
Νέα Μεταρρυθμιστική Ριζοσπαστική Ανασυγκρότηση
NEA MERA
ΝΕΑ ΜΕΡΑ
Centre-right National Conservatism
Liberal Conservatism
Christos Zois Union for the Homeland and the People none 0 0
Recreate Greece
Δημιουργία Ξανά
DX
Δ.Ξ.
Centre Liberalism
Pro-Europeanism
Thanos Tzimeros [el] Bridges [el] ALDE 0 0
Liberal Alliance
Φιλελεύθερη Συμμαχία
FS
Φ.Σ.
Centre Neoliberalism
Progressivism
Makis Spyratos none none 0 0
Democrats
Δημοκρατικοί
Dem
Δημ
Centre Social Liberalism
Economic Liberalism
Theodoros Polyzoidis [el] None None 0 0
Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow
Αντικαπιταλιστική Αριστερή Συνεργασία για την Ανατροπή
ANTARSYA
ΑΝΤΑΡΣΥΑ
Far-left Revolutionary socialism
Anti-capitalism
21 member committee None None 0 0
Social Agreement
Κοινωνική Συμφωνία
KOISY
ΚΟΙ.ΣΥ.
Centre-left
Left wing
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
Louka Katseli SYRIZA None 0 0
National Unity Association
Σύνδεσμος Εθνικής Ενότητας
SEE
Σ.Ε.Ε.
Right wing Patriotism
National Conservatism
Nikos Alikakos None None 0 0
Pirate Party of Greece
Κόμμα Πειρατών Ελλάδας
KPP
Κ.Π.Π.
Freedom of information
Direct democracy
Has no leader, but a management board. Ecologist GreensPirate Party of Greece (2014) PPEU,
supported G-EFA
0 0
Left Radical Movement [el]
Αριστερή Ριζοσπαστική Κίνηση
ARK
ΑΡΚ
Left-wing
Far-left
Socialism None 0 0
Communist Party of Greece (Marxist–Leninist)
Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας (Μαρξιστικό – Λενινιστικό)
KKE(m–l)
Κ.Κ.Ε.(μ-λ)
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Maoism
Grigoris Konstantopoulos Marxist–Leninist Communist Parties of Greece None 0 0
Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Greece
Μαρξιστικό-Λενινιστικό Κομμουνιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
M-L KKE
Μ-Λ Κ.Κ.Ε.
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Maoism
Antonis Papadopoulos Marxist–Leninist Communist Parties of Greece None 0 0
Movement for the Reorganization of the Communist Party of Greece 1918–55
Κίνηση για την Ανασύνταξη του ΚΚΕ 1918–55
Anasintaxi
Ανασυνταξη
Far-left Marxism–Leninism
Anti-Revisionism
Stalinism
None None 0 0
Workers Revolutionary Party
Εργατικό Επαναστατικό Κόμμα
EEK
ΕΕΚ
Far-left Communism
Trotskyism
Savas Matsas None None 0 0
Democratic Revival
Δημοκρατική Αναγέννηση
Diman
Δημαν
Centre-right
Right wing
National Conservatism
Christian Socialism
Stelios Papathemelis None None 0 0
Drachmi Greek Democratic Movement Five Stars
Δραχμή, Δημοκρατική Κίνηση Πέντε Αστέρων
Drachma Five Stars
Δραχμή Πέντε Αστέρων
Centre
Centre-right
Liberal Conservatism
Patriotic Socialism
Theodore Katsanevas None None 0 0
Fighting Socialist Party of Greece
Αγωνιστικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας
ASKE
Α.Σ.Κ.Ε.
Centre-Left Democratic socialism
Left-wing nationalism
Nikos Kargopoulos None None 0 0
National Front
Eθνικό Mέτωπο
EM
Ε.Μ.
Far-right Ultranationalism
Greek nationalism
Emmanouil Konstas None None 0 0
National Hope
Εθνική Ελπίδα
EE
E.E.
Right wing
Far-right
National conservatism
Monarchism
Yiorgos Papadopoulos None None 0 0
Greek Ecologists
Έλληνες Οικολόγοι
EO
E.O.
Centre-left Ecologism
Social progressivism
Dimosthenis Vergis None None 0 0
Liberal Party
Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων
KF
Κ.Φ.
Centre Liberalism
Venizelism
Manolis Kalligiannis None None 0 0
Party of Greek Hunters
Κόμμα Ελλήνων Κυνηγών
KK
Κ.Κ.
Centre-right Conservatism
Hunting
Giorgos Tsagkanelias None None 0 0
I Don't Pay Movement
Κίνημα Δεν Πληρώνω
Left-wing Socialism
Euroscepticism
Vasilis Papadopoulos None Popular Unity 0 0
Organization for the Reconstruction of the Communist Party of Greece
Οργάνωση για την Ανασυγκρότηση του Κομουνιστικού Κόμματος Ελλάδας
OAKKE
Ο.Α.Κ.Κ.Ε.
Far-left Communism
Marxism-Leninism-Maoism
Elias Zafiropoulos None None 0 0
Organisation of Internationalist Communists of Greece
Οργάνωση Κομμουνιστών Διεθνιστών Ελλάδας
OKDE
Ο.Κ.Δ.Ε.
Far-left Communism
Trotskyism
None None 0 0
Greek Unity
Ελληνική Ενότητα
EL.EN
ΕΛ.ΕΝ.
Right-wing
Far-right
Greek nationalism Vasilis Protopapas None None 0 0
Ecologists of Greece
Οικολόγοι Ελλάδας
Centre-right Green politics
Green conservatism
Konstantinos Papanikolas None None 0 0
Free Citizens
Ελεύθεροι Πολίτες
Centre-left Social democracy Michalis Nikitakis None None 0 0
Party of Friendship, Equality and Peace
Κόμμα Ισότητας, Ειρήνης και Φιλίας
Dostluk-Eşitlik-Barış Partisi
KIEF
Κ.Ι.Ε.Φ
DEBP
Centre Turkish minority interests
Centre
Çiğdem Asafoğlu None None 0 0
Rainbow
Ουράνιο Τόξο
Виножито
Centre Slavic Macedonian minority rights
Regionalism
Collective leadership None European Free Alliance 0 0
Panhellenic Citizen Chariot
Πανελλήνιο Άρμα Πολιτών
PAP
ΠΑΠ
Centre
Centre-left
Social democracy
Democratic Socialism
Giannis Dimaras [el] None None 0 0

Defunct partiesEdit

Parties during the reign of King Otto (1833–1862)Edit

Parties during the reign of King George I (1863–1913)Edit

  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal) (1910–1961)
  • Nationalist Party (Greek: Κόμμα Εθνικόφρονων, K.E.) – Komma Ethnikofronon, KE (conservative, nationalist) (1865–1909)
  • Modernist Party (Greek: Νεωτεριστικόν Κομμα, Ν.Κ.) – Neoteristikon Komma, ΝΚ (Liberal, Liberal Nationalist) (1875–1910)

Parties during the reign of King Constantine I - Alexander – George II (1913–1924)Edit

  • Freethinkers' Party (Greek: Κόμμα των Ελευθερόφρονων K.E.) – Komma Eleftherofronon (Nationalist, Royalist) (1922–1936)
  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal,Liberal Nationalist) (1910–1961)
  • People's Party (Greek: Λαϊκόν Κόμμα Λ.Κ.) LK – Laiko Komma (Conservative, Royalist) (1920–1958)

Parties during the Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)Edit

  • Agrarian Party (Greek: Άγροτικό Κόμμα A.K.) – Agrotikon Komma AK (1926–1956)
  • Conservative Democratic Party (Greek: Συντιριτικό Δημοκρατικόν Κόμμα Σ.Δ.Κ.) – Syntiritiko Demokratikon Komma SDK (1932–1936)
  • Democratic Union (Greek: Δημοκρατική Ένωσις Δ.E.) – Demokratiki Enosis (Liberal) (1926–?)
  • Democratic Socialist Party of Greece (Greek: Δημοκρατικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος, ΔΣΚ) – DSK (Democratic Socialist) (1935–1950)
  • Farmers’ and Workers’ Party (Greek: Άγροτικόν και Έργατικόν Κόμμα Α.Ε.Κ.) – Agrotikon kai Ergatikon Komma/Agrotergatiko Komma AEK (Rural radical) (1932–1936)
  • General People's Radical Union (Greek: Γενική Λαïκή Ριζοσπαστική Ένωση Γ.Λ.Ρ.Ε) – Geniki Laiki Rizospastiki Enosis GLRE (??) (1932–1936)
  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal, Liberal Nationalist) (1910–1961)
  • Greek National Socialist Party (Greek: Ελληνικό Εθνικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα) – Elliniko Ethniko Sosialistiko Komma (National Socialist) (1932)
  • Jewish Political Union (Greek: Εβραϊκή Πολιτική Ένωση) – Evraiki Politiki Enosi (1926–1932)
  • Macedonian Union (Greek: Μακεδονική Ένωση) – Makedoniki Enosi (Conservative) (1935)
  • National Radical Party (Greek: Εθνική Ριζοσπαστική Κόμμα E.Ρ.K.) – Ethnikon Rizospastikon Komma ERK (Conservative) (1932–1936)
  • National Unionist Party (Greek: Εθνικόν Ενωτικόν Κόμμα Ε.Ε.Κ.)– Ethnikon Enotikon Komma EEK (1935–1950)
  • People's Party (Greek: Λαϊκόν Κόμμα Λ.Κ.) LK – Laiko Komma (Conservative, Royalist) (1920–1958)
  • Progressive Party (Greek: Προοδευτικόν Κόμμα Π.Κ.) – Proodeftikon Komma PK (1928–1964, 1981)
  • Refugees' Liberal Party (Greek: Φιλελευθέρων Προσφιγικόν Κόμμα Φ.Π.Κ.) – Fileleftheron Prosfijikon Komma FPK (1926–?)
  • Socialist Party of Greece (Greek: Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας ΣΚΕ)- Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδας, ΣΚΕ (Socialist, Svolist) (1920–1953)
  • Union of Royalists (Greek: Ένωσις Βασιλικών EB) – Enosis Vasilikon (Monarchist-Conservative) (1935)

Parties during the restoration of King George II (1936–1946)Edit

  • Agrarian Party (Greek: Άγροτικό Κόμμα A.K.) – Agrotikon Komma AK (1926–1956)
  • Conservative Democratic Party (Greek: Συντιριτικό Δημοκρατικόν Κόμμα Σ.Δ.Κ.) – Syntiritiko Demokratikon Komma SDK (1932–1936)
  • Democratic Socialist Party of Greece (Greek: Δημοκρατικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα Ελλάδος, ΔΣΚ) – DSK (Democratic Socialist) (1935–1950)
  • Democratic Union (Greek: Δημοκρατική Ένωσις Δ.E.) – Demokratiki Enosis (Liberal) (1926–?)
  • Farmers’ and Workers’ Party (Greek: Άγροτικόν και Έργατικόν Κόμμα Α.Ε.Κ.) – Agrotikon kai Ergatikon Komma/Agrotergatiko Komma AEK (Rural radical) (1932–1936)
  • General People's Radical Union (Greek: Γενική Λαïκή Ριζοσπαστική Ένωση Γ.Λ.Ρ.Ε) – Geniki Laiki Rizospastiki Enosis GLRE (??) (1932–1936)
  • Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων) (Liberal, Liberal Nationalist) (1910–1961)
  • National Party of Greece (Greek: Εθνικόν Κόμμα 'Ελλάδος E.Κ.E.) – Ethnikon Komma Ellados E.K.E. (Monarchist-Conservative) (1946–1967)
  • National People's Party (Greek: Εθνικόν Λαϊκόν Κόμμα E.Λ.Κ.) – Ethniko Laiko Komma E.L.K. (1936)
  • National Political Union E.P.E. (Greek: Εθνική Πολιτική Ένωσις Ε.Π.Ε.) – Ethniki Politiki Enosis, E.P.E. (Liberal) (1946)
  • National Radical Party (Greek: Εθνική Ριζοσπαστική Κόμμα E.Ρ.K.) – Ethnikon Rizospastikon Komma ERK (Conservative) (1932–1936)
  • National Unionist Party (Greek: Εθνικόν Ενωτικόν Κόμμα Ε.Ε.Κ.)– Ethnikon Enotikon Komma EEK (1935–1950)
  • People's Party (Greek: Λαϊκόν Κόμμα Λ.Κ.) LK – Laiko Komma (Conservative, Royalist) (1920–1958)
  • Progressive Party (Greek: Προοδευτικόν Κόμμα Π.Κ.) – Proodeftikon Komma PK (1928–1964, 1981)
  • Reform Party (Greek: Μεταρρυθμιστικόν Κόμμα M.K.) – Metarrythmistikon Komma MK (1936)
  • Union of Agrarian Parties (Greek: Ένωσις Άγροτικόν Κομμάτων Ε.Α.Κ.) – Enosis Agrotikon Kommaton EAK (Agrarian) (1946)
  • Union of the Nationally Minded (Greek: Ένωσις Εθνικοφρόνων Ε.Ε.) – Enosis Ethnikofronon, ΕΕ (Monarchist-Conservative) (1946)
  • United Order of Patriot-Thinkers (Greek: Ηνωμένη Παράταξις Εθνικοφρόνων Η.Π.Ε.) – Inomeni Parataxis Ethnikofronon I.P.E. (Conservative) (1946)

Parties during the reigns of Kings Paul and Constantine II (1946–1973)Edit

Parties during the Third Hellenic Republic (1974–present)Edit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Lyrintzis, Christos (March 2005). "The Changing Party System: Stable Democracy, Contested 'Modernisation'". West European Politics. 28 (2): 242–259. doi:10.1080/01402380500058845.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ José M. Magone (2003). The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration Into the European Union. Praeger. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-275-97787-0.
  2. ^ Norman Schofield; Gonzalo Caballero (11 June 2011). Political Economy of Institutions, Democracy and Voting. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 320. ISBN 978-3-642-19519-8.
  3. ^ Kalaitzidis, Akis (2009), Europe's Greece: A Giant in the Making, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 29
  4. ^ Robert Thomson (2011). Resolving Controversy in the European Union: Legislative Decision-Making before and after Enlargement. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-139-50517-8.
  5. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "Greece". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  6. ^ Cas Mudde (2017). SYRIZA: The Failure of the Populist Promise. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 11, 15.
  7. ^ Katsambekis, Giorgos. "Left-wing Populism in the European Periphery: The Case of SYRIZA". academia.edu.
  8. ^ https://thecaller.gr/callers-choice/marantzidis-o-siriza-metatrepetai/
  9. ^ Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (2008), Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 571–575
  10. ^ Sheehan, Helena (2016). Syriza Wave: Surging and Crashing with the Greek Left. Monthly Review Press. p. 22.
  11. ^ "Tsipras and the Atheists: The Role of Secularism in Greece's Financial Crisis". The Humanist. 14 July 2015.
  12. ^ http://theconversation.com/what-britain-should-learn-from-syriza-and-greek-eurosceptics-40653
  13. ^ Μητρόπουλος, Αλέξης Π. [1] Το... μέλλον του ΠΑΣΟΚ [The... future of PASOK], Ελευθεροτυπία, 20 November 2011.
  14. ^ Νταβανέλλος, Αντώνης [2] Η σοσιαλδημοκρατία στην εποχή του σοσιαλφιλελευθερισμού: Ποιο μέλλον έχει το ΠΑΣΟΚ; [Social democracy in the age of social liberalism: What is the future of PASOK?], Διεθνιστική Εργατική Αριστερά, 25 January 2012.
  15. ^ a b "Introducing Popular Unity". Jacobin Magazine. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  16. ^ "Lafazanis: Greek rebel with a eurosceptic cause". EUBusiness. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.