List of oldest buildings in the United Kingdom

This article lists the oldest extant freestanding buildings in the United Kingdom. In order to qualify for the list a structure must:

  • be a recognisable building
  • either incorporate features of building work from the claimed date to at least 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in height and/or be a listed building.
  • incorporate features of building work of the above nature that date from no later than 1300 AD.

Roads are excluded although other structures such as bridges may be included if they otherwise fulfil the above criteria.

Before 500 BCEdit

Building Location Date built Notes
Knap of Howar   Papa Westray, Orkney, Scotland 3700 BC[1] A Neolithic farmstead, probably the oldest preserved stone house in northern Europe.[2][3]
West Kennet Long Barrow   Wiltshire, England 3650 BC Passage grave located near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[4]
Midhowe Chambered Cairn   Rousay, Orkney, Scotland 3500 BC A well-preserved example of the Orkney-Cromarty type of chambered cairn.[5]
Pentre Ifan   Nanhyfer, Pembrokeshire, Wales 3500 BC The largest and best preserved Neolithic dolmen in Wales.
Tomb of the Eagles   South Ronaldsay, Orkney, Scotland 3150 BC This chambered tomb was in use for 800 years or more. 16,000 human bones were found here, as well as 725 bird bones, predominantly white-tailed sea eagle.[6]
Skara Brae   Bay of Skaill, Mainland Orkney, Scotland 3100 BC A large stone-built Neolithic village Mainland, Orkney, Scotland 3180 BC–2500 BC. Europe's most complete Neolithic village with a high level of preservation and sophistication.[7] A Neolithic village in Scotland with a high degree of sophistication including furnishings and drainage
Unstan Chambered Cairn   Stenness, Mainland Orkney, Scotland 3400–2800 BC An Orkney-Cromarty chambered cairn.
Belas Knap   Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, England, UK 3000BC A Neolithic long barrow with what appears to be the main entrance, with intricate dry-stone walling and large limestone jambs and lintels is, in fact, a false one. The actual burial chambers are down the long east and west sides of the barrow and at its southern foot. There are four burial chambers, two on opposite sides near the middle, one at the south-east angle and one at the south end. These are formed of upright stone slabs, linked by dry-stone walling and originally had corbelled roofs.[8]
Maeshowe   Stenness, Mainland Orkney, Scotland 2700 BC A large and unique chambered cairn and passage grave, aligned so that its central chamber is illuminated on the winter solstice.[9]
Barnhouse Settlement   Stenness, Mainland Orkney, Scotland 2600 BC A Neolithic settlement.[10]

500 BC to 500 ADEdit

Building Location Date built Notes
Jarlshof   Sumburgh, Shetland, Scotland 200 BC A complex of preserved wheelhouses, amongst the remains of a variety of much older and more recent buildings.[11][12]
Broch of Mousa   Mousa, Shetland, Scotland 1st century BC Located on a small island in Shetland, this is the best preserved of numerous brochs from this period.[13]
Bartlow Hills   Bartlow Hills in Ashdon Parish Essex near Bartlow, Cambridgeshire. 1st–2nd Century A Roman tumuli cemetery. There were originally seven Bartlow mounds. The tallest at 15 metres in height is the largest barrow north of the Alps.[14]
Wroxeter   Wroxeter Shropshire 1st–2nd Century Remains of Roman masonry including a substantial freestanding element.
Temple of Claudius, Colchester   Colchester, Essex, England c. 60 The substantial podium and vaults are of the Roman temple (of Camulodunum, capital of Roman Britain). The Norman castle above dates from c. 1076.[15]
Caerleon Roman Amphitheatre   Caerleon, Newport, Wales c. 80 A well preserved Roman amphitheatre, oval in shape with eight entrances, used during the Roman settlement period at Isca Augusta for events with a capacity of around six thousand. Accompanied by other features from the period including the Caerleon Roman baths and other recovered items preserved at the Welsh National Roman Legion Museum in the town.
Balkerne Gate   Colchester, Essex, England c. 80 The remainder of the gateway through the Roman wall of Colchester is the largest surviving gateway in Roman Britain.[16]
Roman lighthouse at Dover Castle   Dover, Kent 1st century One of the three remaining Roman lighthouses in the world, from the ancient port of Dubris.
'Walls Castle'   Ravenglass, Cumbria c. 120 Remains of Roman bathhouse: one of the largest remaining Roman structures in Britain
Jewry Wall   Leicester, Leicestershire, England c. 125 The Jewry Wall is a substantial ruined wall of 2nd-century Roman masonry, with two large archways, in Leicester, England. It formed the west wall of a public building in Ratae Corieltauvorum (Roman Leicester), alongside public baths, the foundations of which were excavated in the 1930s and are also open to view.
Edin's Hall Broch   Duns, Berwickshire, Scotland c. 140 Substantial broch, sited on a much earlier hill fort. One of a very few built south of the Highlands and Islands.[17]
London Wall   London, England c. 200 Significant remains of Roman wall at various locations in Londinium (modern-day London)
Painted House   Dover, Kent, England c. 200 Also one of the best preserved Roman houses in Britain
Portchester Castle   Portchester, Hampshire 285–290 Complete remains of large Roman walled fort. The best preserved Roman fort north of the Alps
Pevensey Castle   Pevensey, East Sussex 280's The outer curtain wall is the remains of the Roman fort called Anderitum.
Cardiff Castle   Cardiff, Wales c. 290 The outer curtain wall incorporates sections of the Cardiff Roman Fort.
Newport Arch   Lincoln 3rd century Intact arch of the former Roman gate. Part of the Roman fortifications around Lindum Colonia (modern-day Lincoln).
Multangular Tower and wall   York 4th century Surviving parts of the Roman fortifications around Eboracum (modern-day York).
Calleva Atrebatum surviving walls   Silchester, Hampshire, England 4th century Surviving walls and amphitheater of the Roman city of Calleva Atrebatum (modern-day Silchester).

500 AD to 1000 ADEdit

Building Location Earliest extant structure date Notes
Beehive cells   Eileach an Naoimh, Argyll, Scotland 6th century The monastic centre on this island was founded by St. Brendan the Navigator in 542. The oldest remains include a double beehive cell and a grave and cross-slab associated with Eithne the mother of Columba. These are the oldest extant church buildings in Scotland and possibly Britain.[18][19][20]
St Martin's Church, Canterbury   Canterbury, Kent 597 The oldest church building in England, still functioning as an Anglican parish church. St Martin's was the private chapel of Queen Bertha of Kent in the 6th century before Augustine arrived from Rome.
Nendrum Monastery mill Mahee Island in Strangford Lough, Down, Northern Ireland 619 The tide mill is part of the Nendrum Monastery site. The wood from the mill has been dated to 619, making it one of the oldest excavated tide mills in the world.
Church of St Peter-on-the-Wall   Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex, England 654 The Chapel is assumed to be that of "Ythanceaster" (Bede, book III, chapter XXII), originally constructed as an Anglo-Celtic Church for the East Saxons in 654 AD by St Cedd, astride the ruins of the abandoned Roman fort of Othona incorporating the Roman bricks and stones.
Escomb Church   Escomb, County Durham, England 670
Ripon Cathedral   Ripon, North Yorkshire, England 672 Only the crypt survives at all – the earliest part of the cathedral itself is 1069
Hexham Abbey   Hexham, Northumberland, England 674 St. Wilfred's 7th-century crypt survives, built largely out of stones from the Roman city of Coria (modern-day Corbridge). The main part of the abbey church dates to the 12th and 13th centuries.
St Peter's Church   Monkwearmouth, Sunderland, England 674 Founded as part of the Benedictine double monastery of Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey.
St Mary Magdalene Church, Hart   Hart, County Durham, England 675
St Paul's Church   Jarrow, Tyne and Wear, England 680 The Saxon chancel survives.
Anglian Tower   York 7th century Surviving part of the Northumbrian fortifications around York
St Laurence's Church   Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire, England 7th century One of the oldest unaltered Anglo-Saxon churches in England. May have been founded by St. Aldhelm.
St Mary the Virgin Church   Prittlewell, Essex, England Pre-conquest (pre-1066) north wall, incorporating probably 7th century arch[21]
All Saints Church   Brixworth, Northamptonshire, England 650–870
Abbey Church of St Mary the Virgin   Sherborne, Dorset 705 Saxon cathedral 705 - 1075. Benedictine abbey 998 - 1539
Saint Helen's Chapel   Colchester, Essex, England 8th century In the middle of the 8th century, Offa visited Colchester and built a chapel dedicated to St. Helen. This small chapel is now an Antiochian Orthodox church.
St Peter's Church   Conisbrough, South Yorkshire, England 8th century
Greensted Church   Greensted, Essex, England 845 The oldest wooden church in the world
St Nicholas' Church, Leicester   Leicester, Leicestershire, England c. 900
St Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber   Barton-upon-Humber, North Lincolnshire 9th (baptistery) and 10th centuries One of the best-known Anglo-Saxon buildings, owing to its role in Thomas Rickman's identification of the style.
St Nicholas' Church   Worth, Crawley, England c. 950 / 1050
St Mary's Church   Sompting, West Sussex, England c. 960
All Saints' Church, Earls Barton   Earls Barton, Northamptonshire c. 970 Even though only the tower survives from the original church, this is one of the best examples of later Anglo-Saxon architecture.
Stow Minster   Stow, Lincolnshire 975 Cathedral church of the ancient Diocese of Lindsey. On site of earlier 7th-century building.
Nendrum Monastery   Mahee Island in Strangford Lough, Down, Northern Ireland 9th or 10th century Pre-Norman monastic site, the church dates to the 9th or 10th century. When the site was rediscovered, a sun dial dating to around 900 AD was found.
St Mary's Church   Northchurch Hertfordshire. Late Anglo-Saxon. The south and part of the west wall are Saxon. The church was probably the pre-conquest (pre-1066) parish church of Berkhamsted.[22][23][24]

11th centuryEdit

Building Location Earliest extant structure date Notes
St Bene't's Church Cambridge, Cambridgeshire c.1000 The tower is believed to have been built around c.1000, although the bell louvers were added in 1586. The tower contains 6 bells, the oldest of which was cast in 1588
Holy Trinity Church Colchester, Essex, England 1020 Oldest building in Colchester, which has an Anglo-Saxon tower with an arrow head doorway. Burial place of William Gilbert and madrigal composer John Wilbye. Grade I listed building.
Corhampton Church Corhampton, Hampshire, England c. 1020 This is one of the few remaining Saxon churches in regular use and in good repair, surviving substantially unaltered. It dates to the first quarter of the eleventh century and probably before 1020.
St Andrews Church Ashingdon, Essex, England 1020 The parish church which lies on Ashingdon Hill, one of the parish's three hills, was built in 1020, 4 years after the Battle of Assandun, by the order of the king, Canute the Great of Denmark. The grade II listed parish church of Saint Andrew's is also called "Ashingdon Minster".
St Martin's Church, Wareham Wareham, Dorset, England 1030 Anglo-Saxon features include a tall, narrow nave and chancel, late Anglo-Saxon wall-arcading in the north west aisle and traces of a Saxon door.
St Michael at the North Gate Oxford, England 1040 The tower dates from 1040. Probably Oxford's oldest building.
St George's Tower, Oxford Castle Oxford, England Uncertain, perhaps mid-11th century Although Oxford Castle is Norman, it incorporates St George's tower which may be part of the town's late Saxon defences.
Holy Trinity Church Great Paxton, Cambridgeshire, England 1050 One of only three Anglo-Saxon aisled churches to be found today in England
St Chad's Church Stafford, Staffordshire, England 1050
Berkhamsted Castle Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England 1067 (A fossarius – a specialised ditch digger – was recorded as being in the town in the Domesday book 1086. Radiocarbon dating of organic remains from within the castle's motte indicates a post 1066 construction date.[25][26]) After William the Conqueror defeated and killed Harold II at the Battle of Hastings in October 1066, the Anglo-Saxons submitted to him at Berkhamsted in early December 1066.[27][28] William granted the "Honour of Berkhamsted" to his half-brother, Robert, Count of Mortain, who built a wooden fortification. The castle was substantially expanded in the mid-12th century, probably by Thomas Becket, in the 13th-century Richard Earl of Cornwall added a palace complex and Edward III further developed the castle in the 14th century. The castle was abandoned in 1496 and today only earthworks and ruins remain.

In 1833 the castle became the first historic site in England to be protected by statute, though the new railway line in 1834 did demolish the castle's gatehouse and outer earthworks to the south.[29]

Chepstow Castle Chepstow, Monmouthshire, Wales 1067 Part of fortifications built in the Welsh Marshes by William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford. Used in the Norman invasion of Wales.
Norwich Castle Norwich, East Anglia, England 1067 Constructed on the orders of William the Conqueror during the Norman conquest of England to cement control over East Anglia.
Lincoln Castle Lincoln 1068 (completed) Ordered built by William the Conqueror. One of the best preserved Norman castles in England. Continues to be used as a prison and law court.
Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury, Kent, England 1070 Founded in 597. Rebuilt in the 11th century under Archbishop Lanfranc, St. Anselm of Canterbury, and Prior Ernulf based on the Abbey of Saint-Étienne, Caen.
St. Michael's Church, Southampton Southampton, Hampshire, England 1070 The west wall has one of the original Norman pilaster buttresses.
Richmond Castle Richmond, North Yorkshire, England Constructed from 1071 Norman castle constructed by Alan Rufus.
Lincoln Cathedral Lincoln 1072 Constructed in 1072 by Bishop Remigius de Fécamp. Largely destroyed by the 1185 East Midlands earthquake, after which it was rebuilt. Parts of the west end remain of the original.
Durham Castle Durham, England 1072 started Norman castle constructed by Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria.
Tower of London London, England 1078 Constructed by William the Conqueror.
Hereford Cathedral Hereford, England 1079 Construction started by Bishop Robert of Lorraine.
Rochester Cathedral Rochester, Kent, England 1080 Gundulf of Rochester's tower and the core of the nave piers.[30]
Ely Cathedral Ely, Cambridgeshire, England 1083 started
Shrewsbury Abbey Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England 1083 Founded by Roger de Montgomery. Important pilgrimage site in medieval England.
Hedingham Castle Castle Hedingham, Essex c.1086 The manor of Hedingham was awarded to Aubrey de Vere I by William the Conqueror by 1086. The castle was constructed by the de Veres in the late 11th to early 12th century and the keep in the 1130s and 1140s.
St Albans Cathedral St Albans, Hertfordshire, England 1089
St Nicholas Church Iford, East Sussex, England c. 1090[31]
Durham Cathedral Durham, England 1093 started Building commenced in 1093 and was largely completed within 40 years. Durham Cathedral is the only cathedral in England to retain almost all of its Norman craftsmanship, and one of few to preserve the unity and integrity of its original design. The nave, quire and transepts are all Norman.
Winchester Cathedral Winchester, Hampshire, England 1079 started 1093 consecrated Constructed by Bishop Walkelin.
Norwich Cathedral Norwich, Norfolk, England 1096 Constructed by Bishop Herbert de Losinga.
Westminster Hall City of Westminster, England 1097[32][33] Oldest existing part of the Palace of Westminster. The roof was possibly originally supported by pillars, giving three aisles, but during the reign of King Richard II, this was replaced by a hammerbeam roof in 1393. However, recent archaeological explorations found no evidence of these pillars, and the roof may have been self-supporting from the beginning.
Lancaster Castle Lancaster, Lancashire, England Speculated 11th century although exact date is unknown. Constructed by Roger de Poictou, the holder of the Honour of Lancaster.
Borley Church Borley, Essex 11th century A small 11th century church. Later renovations have resulted in the mainly perpendicular style of the mid-14th to 16th centuries.[34]
Conisbrough Castle Conisbrough, South Yorkshire 11th Century Originally built by William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey.
St Botolph's Church Botolphs, West Sussex 11th Century A small parish church among the South Downs.

12th centuryEdit

Building Location Earliest extant structure date Notes
St Marys Church, Little Abington Little Abington, Cambridgeshire c.1100 (nave only) The nave has got a very fine example of a rounded arched doorway.
St Laurence and All Saints Church, Eastwood Eastwood, Essex, England c. 1100 nave[21]
Church of St Martin of Tours Detling, Kent, England c. 1100[35]
St Andrew's Church South Shoebury, Essex, England c. 1100–1140 nave and chancel[21]
Church of St Andrew, Stogursey Stogursey, Somerset, England 1107[36]
Merton Priory Colliers Wood, London, England 1117[37] The priory was a centre of learning, including entrants; Nicholas Breakspeare in 1125 (who became Adrian IV, the first English Pope, in 1154), Thomas Becket in 1130 and Walter de Merton, Lord Chancellor, Bishop of Rochester, and founder of Merton College, Oxford.
St Margaret's Chapel Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland 1124
St Andrew's Church Haughton-le-Skerne, Darlington, County Durham 1125[citation needed]
Furness Abbey Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, England 1127 Abbey founded in 1123, construction of the church began in 1127 and some of this early fabric survives.[38]
St Mary's Church, West Chiltington West Chiltington, West Sussex, England 1100–1150 A Saxon building is recorded in the Domesday book, almost certainly on the same site. It is not known whether or not any of the older building was incorporated into the Norman structure.
Carlisle Castle Carlisle, Cumbria, England c. 1122–1135[39]
Cambridge Leper Chapel Cambridge, Cambridgeshire c.1125 Built in 1125, The Leper Chapel was part of the buildings of a leprosy hospital that once stood on a road going to Bury St Edmunds and is one of the oldest buildings in Cambridge.
Rochester Castle Rochester, Kent, England 1127
St Rule's Tower St Andrews, Fife, Scotland 1127
Holyrood Abbey Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland 1128

Originally an abbey of the canons regular founded by King David I. Expanded into the royal palace during the Scottish Reformation.

Dunfermline Abbey Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland 1128
Church of Our Lady Warnford, Hampshire, England c. 1130 Norman west tower of c. 1130, Early English single-cell nave and chancel of c. 1190
Church of the Holy Sepulchre Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England c. 1130 Also known as The Round Church. The congregation moved to nearby St. Andrew the Great church in 1994.
Romsey Abbey Romsey, Hampshire c. 1130[40] Elements of the 10th-century Saxon church remain.
Dover Priory Dover, Kent, England 1131 One of the oldest monastic refectories, still in use today by Dover College
Exeter Cathedral Exeter, England 1133 Commenced building 1112, consecrated in 1133, and completed in 1170. Completely rebuilt between 1272 and 1342 except for the two transept towers.
Kirkstead Abbey Kirkstead, Woodhall Spa, Lincolnshire, England 1139 (founded) Destroyed during the English Reformation; only a single part remains
Egremont Castle Egremont, Cumbria, England c. 1140 The present castle was built by William de Meschines about 1130-1140, but there was an earlier Norman mound near this site. Further additions were made in the 13th century. In the 16th century there was an attempt to put Mary Queen of Scots on the Throne, and several northern nobles took part. Eight years later the castle was reported to be ruined and decayed.
Ancient Ram Inn Wotton Under Edge, Gloucester c. 1145 Once a part of a medieval manor, The Ancient Ram Inn is said to be one of the oldest houses in existence today. Built around 1145, it is considered the most haunted house in England.
Cubbie Roo's Castle Wyre, Orkney, Scotland c. 1145 The ruins include a small square keep still extant to 2.4 metres (8 ft) in height.[41]
Saint Michael's and All Angels Church Stewkley, Buckinghamshire, England c. 1150 Very well preserved Norman Church, complete with font, and with minimal and very complimentary additions.

All Saints Church, East Meon East Meon, Hampshire, England c. 1150 One of the finest Norman churches in Hampshire. This cruciform church has a square, central Norman tower with decoration similar to that of Winchester Cathedral.
Temple Bruer Preceptory Temple Bruer, Lincolnshire c.1150
Birkenhead Priory Birkenhead, Wirral, England 1150
Holy Trinity Church Southchurch, Essex, England c. 1150 nave of original church, now part of the south aisle[21]
Jew's House Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England c. 1150

Townhouse on Steep Hill.

Adel St John the Baptist Church Adel, Leeds, Yorkshire, England 1150
Windsor Castle Windsor, Berkshire, England 1154
Bradwell Abbey Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England 1155 The Grade I Listed Chapel still remains, the inside of the chapel is often open to the public
Saltford Manor House Saltford, Somerset, England c. 1160 Winner of a Country Life contest in 2003 to find the "oldest continuously inhabited [private] house in Britain".
Warwick Castle Warwick, Warwickshire, England c. 1160 A "Burh" was built on the site in 914,[42] replaced by a motte and bailey, in turn replaced by a stone keep by King Henry II (1154–89).
Newcastle Castle Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, England 1172 The Castle Keep, which constitutes the oldest of the surviving structures, was built between 1172 and 1177 on the site of an older wooden castle.
Carrickfergus Castle Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland 1177 Built by John de Courcy
Inch Abbey Downpatrick, Down, Northern Ireland 1177 Built by John de Courcy
Prittlewell Priory Prittlewell, Essex, England c.1180 north wall of the refectory[21]

Founded by Cluniac monks of St. Pancras Priory.

Killyleagh Castle Killyleagh, Down, Northern Ireland c.1180

Built as part of fortifications around Strangford Lough.

Church of St Nicholas, Eythorne Kent, England Circa 1180[43] A small Romanesque church, with fine 12th-century carvings reminiscent of work done at Canterbury Cathedral in the 1170s.
Malmesbury Abbey Malmesbury, Wiltshire, England c. 1180 About a third of the original building remains, and is still in use
Quintin Castle County Antrim, Northern Ireland 1184 Built by John de Courcy
Oakham Castle Oakham, Rutland, England 1180–1190 The great hall remains and is Grade I listed. Entrance is free
Pembroke Castle Pembroke, Pembrokeshire, Wales c. 1189 Concentric stone castle built by William Marshall from 1189.[44]
Newark Priory Pyrford, Surrey, England c. 1189–1199 Established in the late 12th century by Rauld de Calva and his wife Beatrice de Sandes for Augustinian canons. Still exists as ruins today and is listed as a Grade I Ancient Monument.
Holy Cross Church Sarratt, Hertfordshire, England c. 1190[45] The Victoria County History suggests that 'the main fabric of the chancel dates to the last decade of the 12th Century, with no architectural indication of an earlier date'. Contained within the church is believed to be the original 12th-century font and a 13th-century sarcophagus lid. Also notable is a rare survivor of High Medieval wall painting dated to c. 1370 AD.
Cleeve Abbey Washford, Somerset, England 1198[46]
St Laurence's Church Ludlow, Shropshire, England 1199[47]
St Michael and All Angels Church Creaton, Northamptonshire, England Early 12th century Norman parish church which is still attended today. Construction possibly started late 11th century.[48]
Holywood Priory Holywood, Down, Northern Ireland c. 12th century
St Oran's Chapel Iona, Argyll, Scotland 12th century Incorporates a 12th-century door.[49] Could have been built by Óláfr Guðrøðarson, Guðrøðr Óláfsson, Somairle mac Gilla Brigte, or Ragnall mac Somairle.
Sketrick Castle Whiterock, Down, Northern Ireland Late 12th century
St Laurence's Church Northfield, Birmingham, England 12th century The church contains Early English gothic architecture.[50]
Dalmeny Kirk (St Cuthbert's) Dalmeny, Edinburgh, Scotland 12th century Norman/Romanesque parish church, still in use.

13th centuryEdit

Building Location Earliest extant structure date Notes
Easaigh Church Ensay, Na h-Eileanan Siar, Scotland 12th century[citation needed]
Aberdour Castle Aberdour, Fife, Scotland c. 1200 Base of a late 12th- or early 13th-century hall house incorporated into later buildings[51]
Dundrum Castle Dundrum, Down, Northern Ireland 1205 or earlier Originally constructed by John de Courcy.
Icomb Place Icomb, Gloucestershire, England At least 1200–40 The first documented activity in the house was a "restoration" in 1200. The episcopal manor of Blockley owned the estate in 1086
Coleraine Castle Coleraine, Londonderry, Northern Ireland Built 1214 Built by Thomas fitz Roland in 1214. Destroyed by Hugh de Lacy and Aodh Méith Ó Néill. Reconstructed by Thomas fitz Roland in 1228.
Salisbury Cathedral Salisbury, Wiltshire, England 1220–1258
St Mary the Virgin Church North Shoebury, Essex, England c.1230 chancel and possibly nave[21]
St. Leonard's Without Kirkstead, Woodhall Spa, Lincolnshire, England 1230–40
St Andrew the Apostle (Wells Cathedral) Wells, Somerset, England 1175-1239 Opened in 1239, this replaced an earlier church on the site since 705. Construction continued until 1490. Stands next to the oldest purely residential street in Europe.
Ancient Chapel of St.Andrew Maghull, Merseyside, England. 13th Century. Grade II* listed chapel sits alongside the Victorian church of St.Andrew.
St Nicolas' Church Kings Norton, Birmingham, England Early 13th century[52]
St Peters Church Maidstone, Kent, England 1261 (at least) The original charter for the chapel is lost, but a confirmation charter exists from this year.[53]
York Castle York, Yorkshire, England 1265
Caerphilly Castle Caerphilly, South Wales 1268–1271 A concentric stone castle surrounded by lakes, the second largest fortress in Britain.[54]
Tintern Abbey Tintern, Monmouthshire, Wales 1269–1301[55] The existing ruins of the great church date from this period.
All Hallows Church Wellingborough, Northants. c. 1280 Construction of the existing tower began c. 1280 and took 20 years to complete.[56]
173, High Street, Berkhamsted Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, England c. 1277–97 The oldest known extant jettied timber-framed building in Great Britain, dated by dendrochronology of structural timbers to between 1277 and 1297, currently in use as an estate agent and flat.[57][58][59][60]
Dunluce Castle County Antrim, Northern Ireland c. 1271–1300
White Island Monastic site Lough Erne, Fermanagh, Northern Ireland 13th century? Carvings used in the ruined church building are thought to be dated to around 800 AD. The monastery itself was probably destroyed by Viking raiders in 837. Around 400 years later, a Romanesque style church was built on the site.
Holy Trinity Church (Hull Minster) Kingston Upon Hull, East Yorkshire 1285 Built on instruction of Edward I, fine example of medieval brick and stone Church, still in use today as a Church.
St Edburgha's Church Yardley, Birmingham, England 13th century

Ancient chapel of St.Andrew, Maghull, Merseyside. Built in 13th Century. Grade II* listed.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 40.
  2. ^ "Knap of Howar" Historic Scotland. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  3. ^ "The Knap o' Howar, Papay". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  4. ^ "West Kennet Long Barrow, Avebury" English Heritage. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  5. ^ "The Midhowe Stalled Cairn, Rousay". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  6. ^ "Tomb of the Eagles" Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  7. ^ Hawkes 1986, p. 262
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Maeshowe". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  10. ^ "Barnhouse Settlement". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  11. ^ "Jarlshof Prehistoric & Norse Settlement" Historic Scotland. Retrieved 2 August 2008.
  12. ^ Armit, Ian (1991) The Atlantic Scottish Iron Age: five levels of chronology. Proc Soc Antiq Scot 121 page 193
  13. ^ Fojut, Noel (1981)"Is Mousa a broch?" Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. 111 pp. 220–228.
  14. ^ "Bartlow Hills are a hidden Cambridgeshire treasure". BBC. 20 May 2010.
  15. ^ Colchester Castle, Essex Archived 11 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved 2011-11-21.
  16. ^ M. R. Hull, "Short Guide to Roman Colchester"
  17. ^ RCAHMS Canmore. Retrieved 30 August 2012
  18. ^ Pallister, Marian (2005) Lost Argyll: Argyll's Lost Heritage. Edinburgh. Birlinn. Pages 120 and 133.
  19. ^ "Garvellachs, Eileach An Naoimh" Canmore. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  20. ^ "Jura National Scenic Area" Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine (2010) (pdf) Extract from: The special qualities of the National Scenic Areas. SNH Commissioned Report No.374. Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Ian Yearsley (15 April 2016). Southend in 50 Buildings. Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-1-4456-5189-7.
  22. ^ Thompson & Bryant 2005, p. 5.
  23. ^ Williamson 2010, p. 152.
  24. ^ Semmelmann, Karin (July 2004). "343–351 High Street, Berkhamsted Herts. Desk-Based Archaeological Assessment" (PDF). Heritage Network. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  25. ^ Jim Leary, Elaine Jamieson and Phil Stastney (2018). "Normal for Normans? Exploring the large round mounds of England". Current Archaeology (published April 2018) (337). Retrieved 4 March 2018.
  26. ^ "Radiocarbon dates from 10 castle mounds – results of year 1". The Round Mounds Project. University of Reading. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  27. ^ Presenter: Sam Willis, Director: Ben Southwell (4 December 2014). "1. Instruments of Invasion". Castles: Britain's Fortified History. 5.05 – 6.20 minutes in. BBC. BBC 4.
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