List of oil spills

This is a reverse-chronological list of oil spills that have occurred throughout the world and spill(s) that are currently ongoing. Quantities are measured in tonnes of crude oil with one tonne roughly equal to 308 US gallons, 256 Imperial gallons, 7.33 barrels, or 1165 litres. This calculation uses a median value of 0.858 for the specific gravity of light crude oil; actual values can range from 0.816 to 0.893, so the amounts shown below are inexact. They are also estimates, because the actual volume of an oil spill is difficult to measure exactly.

Confirmed spillsEdit

Spill / Vessel Location Dates Min Tonnes Max Tonnes Owner Link(s)
El Palito Refinery   Venezuela, Golfo Triste 8 August 2020 2,700 2,700 Petróleos de Venezuela [1]
2020 Pointe D'Esny
MV Wakashio oil spill
  Mauritius, Ile Aux Aigrettes and Mahebourg 25 July 2020 1,300 4,300 Wakashio Suisan Company Limited, Kagoshima, Japan [2] [3]
Trans Mountain oil spill   Canada, British Columbia, Abbotsford 14 June 2020 118.5 184.87 Trans Mountain [4]
Norilsk diesel fuel spill   Russia, Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai 29 May 2020 17,500 17,500 Nornickel [5][6]
Tanker truck pumping out sludge from a vessel   New Zealand, Tauranga, Bay of Plenty 30 March 2020 1.7 1.7 [7][8]
T.G. Williams Well No. 1 tank battery   United States, Oakland Creek, Longview 30 March 2020 unknown unknown Fortune Resources [9]
Greka Energy oil facility   United States, Santa Maria 30 March 2020 Greka [10]
True Oil pipeline   United States, North Dakota, Red Wing Creek 27 March 2020 unknown unknown True Oil LLC [11]
Tanker truck rollover   United States, Santa Maria, Cuyama River 21 March 2020 14.6 19.5 [12][13]
Keystone Pipeline 2019 spill   United States, Walsh County, North Dakota 29 October 2019 1,240 1,240 TransCanada Corporation [14]
Willowton Oil   South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, near Pietermaritzburg and Durban August 2019 unknown unknown Willowton Group [15]
North East Brazil oil spill (suspected source: NM Bouboulina)   Brazil, 733 km from Paraiba 29 July 2019 unknown unknown Delta Tankers Ltd. [16]
Guarello Island iron ore export terminal diesel spill   Chile, Guarello Island, Magallanes Region 27 July 2019 35.4 35.4 Compañía de Acero del Pacífico [17][18]
MV Chrysanthi S bunkering spill at sea   South Africa, Algoa Bay, Port of Ngqura 6 July 2019 0.2 0.4 SA Marine Fuels (bunkering service company) [19][20]
MV Solomon Trader fuel oil spill   Solomon Islands, Rennell Island 5 February 2019 75 80 South Express Ltd [21][22]
SeaRose FPSO production ship spill   Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador 16 November 2018 219 219 Husky Energy [23][24]
Ulysse-Virginia collision North of Corsica (international waters) October 2018 [25]
Port Erin diesel spill (source unknown)   Isle of Man 23 July 2018 unknown unknown unknown [26]
Doon, Iowa derailment   United States, Lyon County, Iowa 22 June 2018 520 520 BNSF Railway [27]
Sanchi oil tanker collision with CF Crystal East China Sea 6 January 2018 138,000 138,000 National Iranian Tanker Company [28]
Keystone Pipeline 2017 spill   United States, Marshall County, South Dakota 16 November 2017 1,322 1,322 TransCanada Corporation [29]
Delta House floating production platform spill   United States, Gulf of Mexico, near Louisiana 11 October 2017 – 12 October 2017 1,080 1,280 LLOG Exploration [30][31]
Agia Zoni II   Greece, Saronic Gulf, Salamis 10 September 2017 2,500 2,500 Fos Petroleum SA [32]
East River insulating oil spill   United States, New York 7 May 2017 97 101 Con Edison [33]
Energy Transfer Partners Dakota Access Pipeline Leak   United States, North Dakota 4 April 2017 0.27 0.27 Energy Transfer Partners [34]
Ennore oil spill   India, Chennai, Ennore Port 28 January 2017 251 251 Darya Shipping Solutions [35][36][37]
Belle Fourche pipeline leak   United States, North Dakota, Billings County, Ash Coulee Creek 5 December 2016 571 571 Belle Fourche Pipeline Company [38]
Fox Creek pipeline leak   Canada, Alberta, Fox Creek 6 October 2016 240 240 Trilogy Energy [39]
BP Clair production platform, North Sea   United Kingdom, Shetland, Clair platform 2 October 2016 105 105 BP [40]
2016 Colonial Pipeline Leak   United States, Shelby County, Alabama 12 September 2016 1,092 1,092 Colonial Pipeline Co [41]
North Battleford pipeline spill   Canada, Saskatchewan, North Battleford 21 July 2016 170 210 Husky Energy [42]
ConocoPhillips Canada pipeline spill   Canada, Alberta, Grande Cache 9 June 2016 323 323 ConocoPhillips [43]
2016 Union Pacific oil train fire   United States, Oregon, Mosier 3 June 2016 152 152 Union Pacific Railroad [44]
Denbury Resources Bowman County Oil SPill   United States, North Dakota Bowman County 18 May 2016 44 44 Denbury Resources [45]
Shell Gulf of Mexico oil spill, Brutus offshore platform   United States, Gulf of Mexico, near Louisiana 12 May 2016 316 316 Royal Dutch Shell [46]
Keystone Pipeline 2016 spill   United States, Menno, South Dakota 2 April 2016 55 55 TransCanada Corporation [47]
Refugio oil spill   United States, California, near Refugio State Beach 19 May 2015 330 330 Plains All American Pipeline [48]
MV Marathassa bunker fuel spill   Canada, British Columbia, English Bay (Vancouver) 13 April 2015 2.3 2.3 Alassia NewShips Management Inc. [49]
Illinois train derailment   United States, Illinois, near Galena 5 March 2015 1,300 1,300 BNSF Railway [50]
2015 Yellowstone River oil spill   United States, Montana, near Glendive 17 January 2015 41 160 Bridger Pipeline LLC [51][52]
Black Sea oil pipeline spill   Russia, Tuapse, near Black Sea 24 December 2014 unknown unknown Transneft [53]
Trans-Israel Pipeline   Israel, Eilat, Trans-Israel pipeline 6 December 2014 1,948 4,300 Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company [54]
Mid-Valley Pipeline   United States, Louisiana, Mooringsport 13 October 2014 546 546 Sunoco [55]
Lake Michigan oil spill   United States, Indiana, Whiting refinery 24 March 2014 2 5 BP [56][57][58]
MV Miss Susan/MV Summer Wind   United States, Texas, Houston Ship Channel 22 March 2014 546 546 Kirby Corporation [59][60]
North Dakota pipeline spill   United States, North Dakota, Hiland 21 March 2014 110 110 Hiland Crude LLC [61]
North Dakota train collision   United States, North Dakota, Casselton 30 December 2013 1,300 1,300 BNSF Railway [62]
Bullenbaai   Curaçao, Bullenbaai, Isla refinery 1 November 2013 unknown unknown Petróleos de Venezuela [63]
North Dakota pipeline spill   United States, North Dakota, Tioga 25 September 2013 – 29 September 2013 2,810 2,810 Tesoro [64][65]
Rayong oil spill   Thailand, Rayong/Ko Samet, Gulf of Thailand 27 July 2013 43 163 PTT Global Chemical [66][67]
Lac-Mégantic derailment   Canada, Québec, Lac-Mégantic 6 July 2013 4,830 4,830 [68]
Cushing storage terminal   United States, Oklahoma, Cushing 18 May 2013 340 340 Enbridge Energy Partners [69][70]
Mayflower   United States, Arkansas, Mayflower 30 March 2013 680 950 ExxonMobil [71]
Magnolia refinery   United States, Arkansas, Magnolia 9 March 2013 680 760 Delek Logistics [72][73]
Bullenbaai   Curaçao, Bullenbaai 7 November 2012 unknown unknown Petróleos de Venezuela [63][74]
Arthur Kill storage tank diesel spill (Hurricane Sandy)   United States, New Jersey, Sewaren 29 October 2012 1,090 1,130 Exxon [75][76]
Curaçao   Curaçao, Isla refinery and Jan Kok nature preserve 17 August 2012 unknown unknown Petróleos de Venezuela [77][78]
Sundre, Alberta   Canada, Sundre 8 June 2012 410 410 [79]
Guarapiche River   Venezuela, Maturín, Monagas 4 February 2012 680 41,000 PDVSA [80][81]
Nigeria   Nigeria, Bonga Field 21 December 2011 5,500 5,500 Royal Dutch Shell [82]
TK Bremen   France, Brittany, Erdeven 16 December 2011 220 220 Blue Atlantic Shipping [83]
Campos Basin   Brazil, Campos Basin, Frade Field 7 November 2011 – 15 November 2011 89 400 Chevron Corporation [84]

[85]

Rena oil spill   New Zealand, Tauranga, Bay of Plenty 5 October 2011 – August 2012 350 350 Costamare [86]

[87]

Gannet Alpha platform, North Sea   United Kingdom, North Sea, Gannet Alpha platform 10 August 2011 – 13 August 2011 216 216 Royal Dutch Shell [88]
Yellowstone River   United States, Billings, Montana, Yellowstone River 1 July 2011 105 140 ExxonMobil [89]
Bohai Bay oil spill   China, Bohai Bay 4 June 2011 – 19 June 2011 204 204 ConocoPhillips [90][91]
Little Buffalo oil spill   Canada, Alberta 29 April 2011 3,800 3,800 Plains All American Pipeline [92][93]
Mumbai-Uran pipeline spill   India, Mumbai, Arabian Sea 21 January 2011 40 55
Fiume Santo power station   Italy, Sardinia, Porto Torres 11 January 2011 15 15 [94]
Mumbai oil spill / MV MSC Chitra and MV Khalijia 3   India, Mumbai, Arabian Sea 7 August 2010 – 9 August 2010 400 800 [95][96][97]
Barataria Bay oil spill   United States, Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico 27 July 2010 – 1 August 2010 23 45 Cedyco Corp. [98][99][100][101]
Kalamazoo River oil spill   United States, Kalamazoo River, Calhoun County, Michigan 26 July 2010 2,800 3,250 Enbridge [102][103]
Xingang Port oil spill   China, Yellow Sea 16 July 2010 – 21 July 2010 1,500 90,000 [104]

[105]

Jebel al-Zayt oil spill   Egypt, Red Sea 16 June 2010 – 23 June 2010 unknown unknown [106]
Red Butte Creek oil spill   United States, Salt Lake City, Utah 11 June 2010 – 12 June 2010 65 107 [107][108]
Trans-Alaska Pipeline   United States, Anchorage, Alaska 25 May 2010 400 1,200 [109]
MT Bunga Kelana 3   Singapore, Singapore Strait 25 May 2010 2,000 2,500 [110][111][112]
ExxonMobil   Nigeria, Niger Delta 1 May 2010 3,246 95,500 ExxonMobil [113][114][115]
Deepwater Horizon   United States, Gulf of Mexico 20 April 2010 – 15 July 2010 492,000 627,000 BP [116]
Great Barrier Reef / MV Shen Neng 1   Australia Great Keppel Island 3 April 2010 3 4 Shenzhen Energy [117][118][119]
Lambro and Po rivers   Italy, Lombardy, Monza 23 February 2010 15 15 [120]
Port Arthur oil spill   United States, Port Arthur, Texas 23 January 2010 1,500 1,500 [121]
Yellow River oil spill   China, Chishui River (Shaanxi) 5 January 2010 130 130 [122]
Montara oil spill   Australia, Timor Sea 21 August 2009 4,000 30,000 PTT Exploration and Production [123][124]
Full City   Norway, Rognsfjorden near Såstein south of Langesund 31 July 2009 200 200 COSCO [125]
Lüderitz oil spill   Namibia, Southern coast 8 April 2009 unknown unknown unknown [126]
Pacific Adventurer   Australia, Queensland 10 March 2009 230 260 Swire Shipping [127]
West Cork oil spill   Ireland, Southern coast February 2009 300 300 [128]
2008 New Orleans oil spill   United States, New Orleans, Louisiana 28 July 2008 8,800 8,800 [129]
Shell Bodo pipeline oil spill   Nigeria 1 August 2008 1,000 1,000 Royal Dutch Shell [130]
Syros / Seabird collision   Uruguay, near the Rio de la Plata, Montevideo 4 June 2008 140 140 [131][132]
Supe   Peru, off Zorritos 31 January 2008 35 35 [133]
Statfjord oil spill   Norway, Norwegian Sea 12 December 2007 4,000 4,000 Statoil Petroleum, ExxonMobil, Centrica [134]
Korea oil spill   South Korea, Yellow Sea 7 December 2007 10,800 10,800 [135][136]
Kerch Strait oil spill   Ukraine
  Russia, Strait of Kerch
11 November 2007 1,000 1,000 [137]
COSCO Busan oil spill   United States, San Francisco, California 7 November 2007 188 188 [138]
Kab 101   Mexico, Bay of Campeche 23 October 2007 – 17 December 2007 1,869 1,869 [139]
Genmar Progress Spill   Puerto Rico, Guayanilla, Puerto Rico 30 August 2007 151 151 General Maritime Corporation (GMC) Progress LLC [140]
Burnaby spill   Canada, Burnaby, British Columbia 24 July 2007 201 201 Kinder Morgan Energy Partners [141]
Guimaras oil spill   Philippines, Guimaras Strait 11 August 2006 172 1,540 [142]
Jiyeh power station oil spill   Lebanon 14 July 2006 – 15 July 2006 20,000 30,000 [142]
Citgo refinery   United States, Lake Charles, Louisiana 19 June 2006 6,500 6,500 [143]
Prudhoe Bay oil spill   United States, Alaska North Slope, Alaska 2 March 2006 653 689 [144]
Eider   Chile, Antofagasta 31 October 2005 200 200 [145][146][147][148]
Bass Enterprises Oil Spill (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Cox Bay, Louisiana 30 August 2005 12,000 12,000 [149]
Shell (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Pilottown, Louisiana 30 August 2005 3,400 3,400 Royal Dutch Shell [149]
Chevron (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Empire, Louisiana 30 August 2005 3,200 3,200 [149]
Murphy Oil USA refinery spill (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Meraux and Chalmette, Louisiana 30 August 2005 2,660 3,410 [149]

[150]

Bass Enterprises (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Pointe à la Hache, Louisiana 30 August 2005 1,500 1,500 [149]
Chevron (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Port Fourchon, Louisiana 30 August 2005 170 170 [149]
Venice Energy Services Company (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Venice, Louisiana 30 August 2005 81 81 [149]
Shell Pipeline Oil (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, Nairn, Louisiana 30 August 2005 44 44 Royal Dutch Shell [149]
Sundown Energy (Hurricane Katrina)   United States, West Potash, Louisiana 30 August 2005 42 42 [149]
MV Selendang Ayu   United States, Unalaska Island, Alaska 8 December 2004 1,560 1,560 [151]
Athos 1   United States, Delaware River, Paulsboro, New Jersey 26 November 2004 831 860 [152][153]
MP-80 Delta 20" pipeline (Hurricane Ivan)   United States, Louisiana 16 September 2004 – 19 September 2004 963 963 [154]
MP-69 Nakika 18" & MP-151 Nakika 18" pipeline (Hurricane Ivan)   United States, Louisiana 16 September 2004 – 6 October 2004 618 618 [154]
Chevron-Texaco tank collapse (Hurricane Ivan)   United States, Louisiana 16 September 2004 – 17 September 2004 423 423 [154]
Taylor oil spill   United States, Gulf of Mexico near Louisiana 16 September 2004 – present 970 490,000 Taylor Energy [155][156][157][158]
Berge Nice   Chile, 5 miles east of Punta Delgada, Strait of Magellan 14 May 2004 160 160 [148][159]
Tasman Spirit   Pakistan, Karachi 28 July 2003 28,000 30,000 Polembros Shipping [160][161]
Bouchard No. 120   United States, Buzzards Bay, Bourne, Massachusetts 27 April 2003 320 320 [162]
Prestige   Spain, Galicia 13 November 2002 63,000 63,000 Mare Shipping Inc. [163][164][165]
Limburg (bombing)   Yemen, Gulf of Aden 6 October 2002 12,200 12,200 [166][167]
Manguinhos refinery   Brazil, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro 23 November 2001 34 97 Peixoto de Castro, Repsol YPF [168]
Trans-Alaska Pipeline gunshot spill   United States, Alaska 4 October 2001 932 932 Alyeska Pipeline Service Company [169]
Jose Fuchs   Chile, Moraleda Channel 2001 150 150 [148]
Shell Ogbodo   Nigeria 25 June 2001 9,500 9,500 Royal Dutch Shell [170]
2001 Shell Ogoniland oil spill   Nigeria May 2001 unknown unknown Royal Dutch Shell [171]
Petrobras 36   Brazil, Roncador Oil Field, Campos Basin 15 March 2001 274 274 [172]
Amorgos oil spill   Taiwan, Southern coast 14 January 2001 1,150 1,150 [173]
Jessica   Ecuador, Galapagos Islands January 2001 568 568 [174]

[175]

Pine River   Canada, Chetwynd, British Columbia 1 August 2000 850 850 [176]
Project Deep Spill   Norway, Helland Hansen ridge June 2000 100 100 [177]
Treasure   South Africa, Cape Town June 2000 1,400 1,400 [174]
Petrobras pipeline   Brazil, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro January 2000 1,100 1,100 [168][174]
Erika   France, Bay of Biscay 12 December 1999 15,000 25,000 Total S.A. [151][174]
Chanda   Port Stanvac, South Australia 28 June 1999 220 230 Essar Shipping [178]
MV New Carissa   United States, Coos Bay, Oregon 4 February 1999 – 9 March 1999 230 230 [179]
Mobil Nigeria oil spill   Nigeria 12 January 1998 5,500 5,500 [151]
Nakhodka   Japan, Sea of Japan December 1997 6,240 6,240 [180]
Julie N.   United States, Portland, Maine 27 September 1996 586 586 [181]
Sea Empress   United Kingdom, Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire 15 February 1996 40,000 72,000 Seatankers Management [151][163]
North Cape   United States, Rhode Island 19 January 1996 2,500 2,500 [182]
MV Iron Baron (1985)   Hebe Reef, Tasmania 10 July 1995 – 30 July 1995 300 325 BHP Shipping [183]
Irene   Namibia, near Walvis Bay 1995 700 700 [184]
Komi oil pipeline   Russia, Usinsk, Komi Republic June 1994 - October 1994 100,000 251,763 Lukoil [185][186][187]
Apollo Sea   South Africa, Cape Town June 1994 2,400 2,400 [188]
Seki   United Arab Emirates 31 March 1994 15,900 15,900 World-Wide Shipping Agency [151]
Morris J. Berman   Puerto Rico 7 January 1994 2,600 2,600 New England Marine Services [189]
MV Braer   United Kingdom, Shetland 5 January 1993 85,000 85,000 [163]
Aegean Sea   Spain, A Coruña 3 December 1992 74,000 74,000 Coulouthros Ltd [163]
Port Bonython oil spill, Era   Australia, Spencer Gulf, South Australia 30 August 1992 296 296 BP [190]
Katina P   Mozambique, Maputo 19-26 April 1992 72,000 72,000 [191][163]
Fergana Valley   Uzbekistan 2 March 1992 285,000 285,000 [151]
Kirki   Australia, Indian Ocean, off the coast of Western Australia 21 July 1991 17,280 17,280 BP [192]
ABT Summer   Angola, 700 nmi (1,300 km; 810 mi) offshore 28 May 1991 260,000 260,000 National Iranian Tanker Company [163]
MT Haven   Italy, Mediterranean Sea near Genoa 11 April 1991 144,000 144,000 Amoco [163]
MB Vesta Bella  , Saint Kitts and Nevis, Nevis, 12 miles northeast of island 6 March 1991 1,762 1,814 Offshore Marine Ltd [193]
Sanko Harvest   Australia, Western Australia, near Hood Island, 33 km from Esperance 14 February 1991 717 717 Sanko Steamship Co [194]
Gulf War oil spill   Iraq, Persian Gulf 23 January 1991 270,000 820,000 [195]

[196]

Apex barges oil spill   United States, Texas, Houston Ship Channel near Galveston 28 July 1990 2,200 2,200 Apex Towing Company [197]
Mega Borg oil spill   United States, Gulf of Mexico, 57 mi (92 km) SE of Galveston, Texas 8 June 1990 16,499 16,501 [198]
American Trader   United States, Bolsa Chica State Beach, California 7 February 1990 979 981 [151]

[199]

Arthur Kill pipeline   United States, New Jersey, Sewaren 1 January 1990 1,840 1,840 [200]

[201]

Khark 5   Spain, 350 nmi (650 km; 400 mi) off Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 19 December 1989 70,000 80,000 [151][163]
Pacificos   South Africa, East London 4 October 1989 10,000 10,000 [202]
Presidente Rivera   United States, Delaware River, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania 24 June 1989 993 993 [203]
World Prodigy   United States, Aquidneck Island, Rhode Island 23 June 1989 974 3,246 [204][205]
Exxon Valdez   United States, Prince William Sound, Alaska 24 March 1989 37,000 104,000 Exxon Shipping Company [163][206]
Bahía Paraíso Antarctica, Bismarck Strait 28 January 1989 1,200 1,200 Argentine Navy [207]
Odyssey   Canada, 700 nmi (1,300 km; 810 mi) off Nova Scotia 10 November 1988 132,000 132,000 [163]
Ashland oil spill   United States, Floreffe, Pennsylvania 2 January 1988 10,000 10,000 Ashland Oil Company [208][209]
Cabo Pilar   Chile, Punta Davis, Strait of Magellan 8 October 1987 4,900 7,500 [210][148][211]
Ship grounding   United States, St Johns River mouth, Florida February 1987 346 346 [212]
Tanker Barge Apex Houston   United States, California Coast from Marin County to Big Sur, San Francisco, California 28 January 1986 98 98 Apex Towing Company [213][214]
Nova   Iran, Gulf of Iran, Kharg Island 6 December 1985 70,000 70,000 [163]
Grand Eagle   United States, Delaware River, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania 28 September 1985 1,400 1,400 [215]
Coral Sea / Napo collision Cuba 11 April 1985 [216]
Puerto Rican   United States, Golden Gate, San Francisco, California 31 October 1984 3,411 4,775 [217]
Alvenus   United States, Calcasieu Channel, Louisiana 30 July 1984 9,160 9,160 [218]
SS Mobil Oil   United States, Columbia River, Longview, Washington 19 March 1984 550 650 [219][220]
Castillo de Bellver   South Africa, Saldanha Bay 6 August 1983 252,000 252,000 [163]
Nowruz Field Platform   Iran, Persian Gulf 4 February 1983 260,000 260,000 [221]
Globe Asimi [lt]   Soviet Union, Lithuanian SSR, Klaipėda 21 November 1981 17,000 17,000 Cantabria Shipping Ltd [222][223]
Druzhba pipeline   Czechoslovakia, Bartoušov 3 November 1980 6,000 6,000 [224]
Production Well D-103   Libya, Tripoli 1 August 1980 140,000 140,000 [225]
Tanio oil spill   France, Brittany 7 March 1980 13,500 13,500 [226]
Irenes Serenade   Greece, Pylos 23 February 1980 100,000 100,000 [163]
MT Independenţa   Turkey, Bosphorus 15 November 1979 95,000 95,000 [163]
Burmah Agate   United States, Galveston Bay, Texas 1 November 1979 8,440 8,440 [227]
Aphrodite   Port Stanvac, South Australia 20 July 1979 unknown unknown [228]
Atlantic Empress / Aegean Captain   Trinidad and Tobago 19 July 1979 287,000 287,000 [163][229][230]
Ixtoc I oil spill   Mexico, Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico 3 June 1979 – 23 March 1980 454,000 480,000 Pemex [231][232][233]
Betelgeuse   Ireland, Bantry Bay 8 January 1979 64,000 64,000 [234]
Peck Slip Spill   Puerto Rico, Cabo San Juan, Puerto Rico 19 December 1978 1,550 1,550 Sun Oil Company [235]
Cabo Tamar   Chile, San Vincente Bay 1978 12,500 12,500 [210]
Amoco Cadiz   France, Brittany 16 March 1978 223,000 227,000 Amoco [151][151][163][236][237]
Trans-Alaska Pipeline sabotage by explosives   United States, Alaska 15 February 1978 2,162 2,162 [238]
Brazilian Marina   Brazil, Sao Sebastiao Channel, São Paulo 9 January 1978 10,039 10,039 [239]
Venpet / Venoil collision   South Africa, Cape St. Francis 16 December 1977 26,600 30,500
Unknown ship   United States, Key Largo, Florida 1 May 1977 [240]
Ekofisk oil field   Norway, North Sea 22 April 1977 27,600 27,600 [241][242]
MV Hawaiian Patriot   United States, 300 nmi (560 km; 350 mi) off Honolulu, Hawaii 26 February 1977 95,000 95,000 [151][163]
Borag   Taiwan, Northern coast 7 February 1977 34,000 34,000 [243]
Argo Merchant   United States, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts 15 December 1976 25,000 28,000 [244][245]
NEPCO 140   United States, Saint Lawrence River 23 June 1976 1,000 1,000 [246][247]
Urquiola   Spain, A Coruña 12 May 1976 100,000 100,000 [163]
St. Peter   Colombia, Cabo Manglares 5 February–November 1976 38,056 38,056 [248]
Niger Delta   Nigeria, Niger Delta 1976 – 1996 258,000 328,000 Royal Dutch Shell [249]
Olympic Bravery   France, Ushant 24 January 1976 900 900 Onassis [250]
Epic Colocotronis Spill   Puerto Rico, Rincon, Puerto Rico 13 May 1975 61,000 61,000 Colocotronis brothers of Greece and Great Britain [251]
Tarik Ibn Ziyad   Brazil, Sao Sebastiao terminal, Santos 26 March 1975 10,000 20,000 [252][253][254]
Liberian tanker   United States, Florida 1975 135 135 [240]
Corinthos   United States, Delaware River, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania 31 January 1975 36,000 36,000
Jakob Maersk   Portugal, Oporto 29 January 1975 88,000 88,000 [163]
Afran Zodiac   Ireland, Bantry Bay 10 January 1975 451 451 [255][256]
VLCC Metula   Chile, Strait of Magellan 9 August 1974 50,000 51,000 [257]
Oriental Pioneer   South Africa, Struisbaai 22 July 1974 200 200 [258][259]
Jawachta   Sweden, Smygehuk 20 December 1973 3,000 16,000 [260]
Trinimar Marine Well 327   Venezuela, Gulf of Paria 8 August 1973 1,091 1,091 [261]
Napier   Chile, Guamblin Island June 1973 30,000 30,000 [262]
S.S. Zoe Colocotronis Spill   Puerto Rico, Lajas, Puerto Rico 18 March 1973 5,170 5,170 Colocotronis brothers of Greece and Great Britain [263]
Irish Stardust   Canada, Vancouver Island, British Columbia January 1973 450 450 [264]
Sea Star   Iran, Gulf of Oman 19 December 1972 115,000 115,000 Samyang Navigation [151][163]
Oswego-Guardian / Texanita collision   South Africa, Stilbaai 21 August 1972 10,000 10,000 [265]
Texaco Denmark   Belgium, North Sea 7 December 1971 107,000 107,000 [266]
Navy tanker Towle   United States, New York City, New York, Gravesend Bay 14 July 1971 123 123 [267][268]
Texaco Oklahoma   United States 27 March 1971 25,700 31,500 [260][269]
Trinity Navigator   United Kingdom, Devonshire 2 March 1971 unknown unknown [270]
Wafra   South Africa, Cape Agulhas 21 February 1971 27,000 27,000 [271][272]
Arizona Standard / Oregon Standard collision   United States, San Francisco Bay 17 January 1971 2,700 2,700 [273][274][275]
Othello   Sweden, Trälhavet Bay 20 March 1970 50,000 60,000 [151][174]
Platform Charlie   United States, Louisiana 10 February 1970 unknown unknown [276]
SS Arrow   Canada, Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia 4 February 1970 10,330 10,330 [277]
Hamilton Trader   United Kingdom, Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea 30 April 1969 546 546 [278]
Santa Barbara   United States, Santa Barbara, California 28 January 1969 6,000 14,000 [279]
Witwater   Panama, Canal Zone, Galeta Island 13 December 1968 1,910 1,910 [280]
World Glory   South Africa, 65 miles ENE of Durban 13 June 1968 44,058 46,000 World Tankers Co. Inc. [281][282][283]
Genevieve   United States, Corpus Christi, Texas 25 April 1968 unknown unknown Lykes Brothers Steamship Co. Ltd. [284]
Andron   Namibia, between Luderitz and Walvis Bay 8 May 1968 [285][286]
Esso Essen   South Africa April 1968 4,092 4,092 [285]
General Colocotronis   Bahamas, Eleuthera 7 March 1968 5,047 5,047 [287]
Ocean Eagle   Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 3 March 1968 12,000 12,500 Transocean Tankers Inc. [288][289]
R.C. Stoner   United States, Pacific Ocean, Wake Island 1967 20,000 20,000 [260]
Torrey Canyon   United Kingdom, Cornwall and Isles of Scilly 18 March 1967 80,000 119,000 [151][163]
Mississippi River oil spill (1962–1963)   United States, Savage and Mankato, Minnesota 8 December 1962 – 23 January 1963 11,000 15,000
African Queen   United States, Ocean City, Maryland 30 December 1958 21,000 21,000 [290][291]
Avila Beach pipeline   United States, Avila Beach, California 1950's – 1996 1,300 1,300 [292]
Guadalupe Oil Field   United States, Guadalupe, California 1950's – 1994 29,000 29,000 [292]
Sliedrecht   South Africa, Cape Town, Table Bay November 1953 1,000 1,000 [293]
SS Jacob Luckenbach   United States, Gulf of the Farallons National Marine Sanctuary, San Francisco, California 14 July 1953 – present 1,484 1,484 [294]
Esso Wheeling   South Africa, Quoin Point near Cape Town 4 November 1948 [295]
Lincoln   South Africa, Quoin Point near Cape Town 1946 [295]
Greenpoint, Brooklyn   United States, Newtown Creek, Greenpoint, Brooklyn, New York 1940s – 1950s 55,200 97,400 [296]
Seria Field 14 wells   Brunei 12 June 1945 – September 1945 unknown unknown [297][298][299]
Scuttled tanker El Grillo Iceland, Seyðisfjörður February 1944 – present unknown unknown [300]
SS Frank H. Buck / SS President Coolidge collision   United States, San Francisco Bay, California 6 March 1937 8,870 8,870 [273][301]
Lakeview Gusher   United States, Kern County, California 14 March 1910 – 10 September 1911 1,230,000 1,230,000 [302]
Thomas W. Lawson   United Kingdom, Isles of Scilly 14 December 1907 7,400 7,400 [303]
SS Petriana   Australia, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria 30 November 1903 1,300 1,300 Asiatic Petroleum Company [304]

Investigation underwayEdit

Spill / vessel Location Dates Estimated flow rate (tonnes/day) Full cargo (tonnes) Spilled (min tonnes) Spilled (max tonnes) Link Notes
Northeast Brazil oil spill   Brazil September 2019 – present n/a n/a 1,000 unknown [305]
Lizama River oil spill   Colombia, Barrancabermeja 2 March 2018 - n/a n/a 3,690 unknown [306] Lizama 158 oil well spilled into Lizama River, contaminating Sogamoso River, a tributary to Colombia's largest river, the Magdalena.
OT Southern Star 7   Bangladesh, Sundarbans, Khulna Division 9 December 2014 n/a 350 300 300 [307][308][309][310] Leak caused by collision of the oil tanker with a cargo vessel.
Napocor
Power Barge 103
  Philippines, Estancia, Iloilo 8 November 2013 n/a 1200 170 520 [311][312][313][314] Leaks caused by Typhoon Haiyan.
Taylor Energy wells
Platform 23051
  United States, Gulf of Mexico 16 September 2004 to present (16 years) 0.03–0.05 n/a unknown unknown [315][316][317][318] Leaks resulting from Hurricane Ivan have been largely contained, but not entirely. Ocean Saratoga is periodically onsite servicing and attempting to seal the leaks.

Note: The "flow rate" column applies to leaking wells, pipelines, etc., and is often used to estimate the total amount of oil spilled. The "full cargo" column applies to vessels, vehicles, etc., and represents the maximum amount of oil that could be spilled. The "spilled" columns indicate the total amount of oil that has been released to the environment so far, and should be based on official estimates found in referenced sources whenever possible. When official estimates vary, use the "min tonnes" and "max tonnes" columns to show the range of estimates (minimum and maximum) in metric tonnes (i.e. 1 tonne = 1,000 kg).

Oil spills in the United StatesEdit

 
Largest Oil Spills Affecting U.S. Waters Since 1969

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sociedad de Ecología estima derrame en El Palito de 20.000 barriles". Efecto Cocuyo. 12 August 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  2. ^ Bhuckory, Kamlesh. "Mauritius Bars Access to Beach as Oil Leaks from Stranded Vessel". Bloomberg. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  3. ^ Jiang, Jason. "Salvage team deployed to refloat bulk carrier off Mauritius". Splash247. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  4. ^ "Trans Mountain Pipeline spill in Abbotsford estimated at up to 190,000 litres of crude oil". British Columbia, Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  5. ^ "Diesel fuel spill in Norilsk in Russia's Arctic contained". Moscow, Russia. TASS. 5 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  6. ^ Ilyushina, Mary. "Putin declares emergency over huge oil spill". CNN. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  7. ^ "SunLive - Oil spill at Sulphur Point in Tauranga - The Bay's News First". sunlive.co.nz. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  8. ^ "Oil spill: Oily sludge slushes into Tauranga Harbour". The New Zealand Herald. 30 March 2020. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  9. ^ reports, From staff. "Crews work to clean up oil spill near Longview trail". Longview News-Journal. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Small Oil Spill in Santa Maria Valley | Edhat". www.edhat.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  11. ^ Gray, Brian. "Crude oil spill reported in McKenzie County". kfyrtv.com. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  12. ^ 24 Mar, Jean Yamamura Tue; 2020 | 3:29pm (24 March 2020). "Tanker Spills over 4,000 Gallons of Crude Oil into Cuyama River". The Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  13. ^ "Overturned Tanker Yields Large Oil Spill Near California Dam, Cleanup Needed". Insurance Journal. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  14. ^ "EGEB: Keystone oil spill in ND, US green energy grows - Electrek". 1 November 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  15. ^ "KZN Environmental Affairs awaiting report regarding oil spill". SABC News - Breaking news, special reports, world, business, sport coverage of all South African current events. Africa's news leader. 17 August 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  16. ^ "Oil has been washing up along 2,100 kilometres of Brazilian coastline for months. We finally know why". ABC News. 2 November 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "Chile oil spill: 40,000 litres of diesel spilled into sea off Patagonia". The Guardian. London. Associated Press. 29 July 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  19. ^ "Probe launched after huge oil spill near Port Elizabeth". 8 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Penguins in South Africa rescued after 400 liters of oil spilled during refueling". The France 24 Observers. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Australia sends more help for oil spill". The Sydney Morning Herald. 3 March 2019. Archived from the original on 3 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  22. ^ Martin, Eddie Osifelo Lisa (6 March 2019). "'We cannot swim, we cannot eat': Solomon Islands struggle with nation's worst oil spill". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  23. ^ "Newfoundland Oil Spill Now Impossible To Clean Up: Watchdog, HuffPost Canada". 20 November 2018. Archived from the original on 22 November 2018. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  24. ^ "White Rose Oilfield Comprehensive Study" (PDF). Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board. St John's, Newfoundland: Husky Oil Operations. 2000. p. 35. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  25. ^ "Where and When Will Oil Spills Reach the Beach?". Applied Sciences from Technology Networks. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  26. ^ https://www.manxradio.com/news/isle-of-man-news/more-water-pollution-in-the-west-of-the-island/[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ "Less oil spilled in derailment than previously thought". Des Moines Register. 10 July 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  28. ^ Bland, Ben (8 January 2018). "Rescuers battle toxic oil blaze off China coast". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 17 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  29. ^ "Keystone Pipeline spill in South Dakota twice as big as first thought", Associated Press, 7 April 2018
  30. ^ "Gulf Coast Oil Spill May Be Largest Since 2010 BP Disaster". 16 October 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  31. ^ "Oil Spill In U.S. Gulf Of Mexico Could Be Biggest Since Deepwater Horizon Disaster". 17 October 2017. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  32. ^ "Greek oil spill threatens popular Athens beaches". BBC. 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  33. ^ Brown, Nicole (11 May 2017). "East River oil spill: Thousands of gallons seeped into water, Coast Guard estimates". amNewYork. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  34. ^ Egan, Matt (10 May 2017). "Dakota Access Pipeline suffered a minor oil spill in April". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  35. ^ "Chennai oil spill: As it happened - Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  36. ^ "Clean-up operations on at beaches across Chennai". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  37. ^ "Report pegs Ennore oil spill at 251 tonnes". The Hindu. Madras. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  38. ^ DiChristopher, Tom (12 December 2016). "Pipeline spills 176,000 gallons of crude into creek about 150 miles from Dakota Access protest camp". CNBC. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  39. ^ "Alberta pipeline spilled about 250K litres of oil and water: Trilogy". Global News. 25 October 2016. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  40. ^ Vaughan, Adam (4 October 2016). "BP platform leaks 95 tonnes of oil into North Sea". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  41. ^ "EPA says it is 'not known' how long Alabama pipeline leaked gas prior to discovery of break". 24 September 2016. Archived from the original on 1 November 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  42. ^ Trimble, Ken (22 July 2016). "North Battleford shuts down water intake due to oil slick". North Battleford. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
  43. ^ "Pipeline leak fouls creek near grizzly bear protection area in northwestern Alberta". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 14 June 2016. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  44. ^ Mesh, Aaron (6 June 2016). "Oil Train Spilled 42,000 Gallons of Crude in Columbia River Gorge Crash". Willamette Week. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  45. ^ "Oil Field Environmental Incident Summary" (PDF). North Dakota Department of Health. 18 May 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 January 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  46. ^ "Shell Oil Spill Dumps Thousands Of Barrels Of Crude Into Gulf Of Mexico". HuffPost. 12 May 2016. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  47. ^ "Keystone Pipeline leaks 210,000 gallons of oil in South Dakota". 17 November 2017. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  48. ^ "California oil spill sparks state of emergency". BBC News. 21 May 2015. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  49. ^ Johnson, Lisa; Luk, Vivian (13 April 2015). "Vancouver oil spill: Coast guard fires back at criticism of response". CBC News. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  50. ^ "Freight train carrying crude oil derails near Illinois city". MSN News. 6 March 2015. Archived from the original on 8 March 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  51. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (20 January 2015). "Traces Of Oil Found In Montana Town's Water Supply After Spill". The Two-Way. NPR. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  52. ^ "Cleanup after 'unfortunate incident' in Yellowstone". CBS News. 19 January 2015. Archived from the original on 29 June 2017. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  53. ^ Nazarov, Maxim; Gorodyankin, Gleb (24 December 2014). "Oil spills into Black Sea near Russian port after pipeline leak." Archived 6 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine Reuters. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  54. ^ Benson, Thor (6 December 2014). "Oil spill one of the worst environmental events in Israel's history, official says". United Press International. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  55. ^ Andrew Maykuth (22 October 2014). "2,550 barrels of crude recovered from oil spill". Philadelphia Daily News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  56. ^ Eyder Peralta (25 March 2014). "BP Says Oil Spill In Lake Michigan Has Been Contained". NPR. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  57. ^ Angie Jackson (25 March 2014). "Report: Oil spills into Lake Michigan after malfunction at BP refinery in Indiana". Mlive. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  58. ^ Angie Jackson (27 March 2014). "Lake Michigan oil spill estimate doubles in size, possibly up to 1,600 gallons, BP reports". Mlive. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  59. ^ Kuo, Vivian (25 March 2014). "Dead, oiled birds sighted 3 days into Texas oil spill cleanup". CNN. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  60. ^ John Bacon (24 March 2014). "Cleanup of Texas oil spill blocks ships". USA Today. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  61. ^ "Hiland Crude Pipeline Spills Oil Near Alexander, ND". Huffington. 23 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  62. ^ "400,000 gallons of crude oil spilled in North Dakota train crash". Los Angeles Times. 13 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
  63. ^ a b "Maximum penalty for Bullenbaai oil spill is 5000 guilders". Curacao Chronicle. Willemstad: Core Communications. 5 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  64. ^ Selam Gebrekidan, Reuters (11 October 2013). "Corrosion may have led to North Dakota pipeline leak, regulators say". NBC News. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  65. ^ James MacPherson, Associated Press (11 October 2013). "ND Farmer Finds Oil Spill While Harvesting Wheat". ABC News. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  66. ^ "Oil spill threatens Rayong beaches". Bangkok Post. 28 July 2013. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  67. ^ Post Publishing PCL. "No slick explanation for huge PTT oil spill". Archived from the original on 4 August 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  68. ^ "Lac-Mégantic: What we know and what we don't". The Gazette. Montreal. 9 August 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
  69. ^ "Enbridge spill at Cushing terminal mostly contained". 21 May 2013. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  70. ^ "Enbridge: Pipelines Operating Normally Following Cushing Spill". 20 May 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  71. ^ "Exxon Oil Spill Could Be 40% Larger Than Company Estimates, EPA Figures Show". InsideClimate News. USA. 5 April 2013. Archived from the original on 9 April 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  72. ^ "Refiner Delek Cleaning Up 5,000-Barrel Spill in Arkansas Bayou". 13 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  73. ^ "Cause of Mayflower Exxon-Mobil Oil Spill Still a Mystery". 27 May 2013. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  74. ^ "Isla denies blame for recent oil spill Bullenbaai". Curacao Chronicle. Willemstad: Core Communications. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  75. ^ "336K Gallons of Diesel Fuel Leak in Arthur Kill". NBC. USA. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  76. ^ "Arthur Kill Oil Spill: Hurricane Sandy's Surge Dumps Diesel Into New Jersey Waterway". HuffPost. USA. 1 November 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  77. ^ "Latin American Herald Tribune - PDVSA Confirms Oil Spill at Curacao Refinery". Latin America Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  78. ^ "Largest Environmental Disaster in Curacao History". 30 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  79. ^ "Alberta Oil Spill: Up To 3,000 Barrels Spill Near Red Deer River Reports Plains Midstream Canada". HuffPost. Canada. 8 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  80. ^ Stabroek editor (12 February 2012). "Venezuela says Guarapiche oil spill under control". Stabroek News. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  81. ^ "PDVSA Oil Spill Exposes Fissures in Chavez's Socialist Party". 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
  82. ^ Vidal, John (22 December 2011). "Nigeria on alert as Shell announces worst oil spill in a decade". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
  83. ^ "Oil leaks from cargo ship beached on French coast". 16 December 2011. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  84. ^ "Chevron Oil Spill Spurs Lawsuit to Freeze 17% of Brazil's Rigs". Bloomberg. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  85. ^ "Brazil police to prove Chevron drilling, spill". Reuters. 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  86. ^ "Rena Owners Charged in New Zealand Grounding, Aft Section Sinks". Environment News Service. 9 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  87. ^ Matt Bowen (9 January 2013). "Shipwreck, damaged reputations and a broke DOC". Waikato Times. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
  88. ^ "Shell North Sea oil spill 'more than 200 tonnes'". BBC. 15 August 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  89. ^ "Ruptured pipeline sends oil coursing down the Yellowstone River". Billings Gazette. 2 July 2011. Archived from the original on 5 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2011.
  90. ^ Frederic J. Brown. "China Oil Spill Six Times Size of Singapore: Govt". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
  91. ^ Andrew Jacobs (5 July 2011). "China Admits Extent of Spill From Oil Rig". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  92. ^ "Alberta pipeline spill: Rainbow Pipeline spill near Peace River". Calgary Herald. 3 May 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  93. ^ Vanderklippe, N. (4 May 2011). "Cost for oil companies pile up after spill." Archived 5 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Globe and Mail.
  94. ^ Redazione Tiscali (19 January 2011). "Nuovo disastro ambientale nel polo industriale di Porto Torres, in pericolo il "Santuario dei Cetacei"". Tiscali (in Italian). Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  95. ^ Correspondent, NDTV (9 August 2010). "Oil leak off Mumbai coast has stopped: Coast Guard sources". NDTV. Archived from the original on 11 September 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
  96. ^ J Dey (8 August 2010). "Ships collide near Mumbai". Mid-Day. MiD DAY Infomedia Ltd. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2010.
  97. ^ Sukhada Tatke (15 January 2011). "Oil spill damage to soil irreversible: Report". The Times of India. Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  98. ^ "Louisiana Oil Geyser: 20-Foot Oil Leak Shooting Up In Plaquemines Parish After Hit By Tugboat". HuffPost. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. Archived from the original on 29 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  99. ^ Rong-Gong Lin II (27 July 2010). "Gulf oil spill: New spill in Gulf area after barge crashes into abandoned oil well". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 30 July 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  100. ^ "Crews work to shut-in damaged wellhead". United States Coast Guard. 1 August 2010. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  101. ^ "Leaking Barataria Bay oil well capped". CNN. 2 August 2010. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  102. ^ Jaclyn Gallucci (28 July 2010). "Michigan Oil Spill Update: Oil in Kalamazoo River". The Long Island Press. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  103. ^ Sarah Lambert (30 July 2010). "Air quality spurs evacuations in oil spill area". The Battle Creek Enquirer. Archived from the original on 20 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  104. ^ "China Oil Spill Grows, Official Warns Of 'Severe Threat'". HuffPost. Associated Press. 21 July 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  105. ^ "China Oil Spill Far Bigger Than Stated, U.S. Expert Says". HuffPost. Associated Press. 30 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
  106. ^ Karin Kloosterman (24 June 2010). "Egypt Eco-Group HEPCA Reports Red Sea Spill is Capped, Beaches Cleaned". Green Prophet. Archived from the original on 27 June 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  107. ^ Amy Joi O'Donoghue; Josh Smith (12 June 2010). "Oil spill in Red Butte Creek threatens waters, wildlife". The Deseret News. Archived from the original on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
  108. ^ Derek P. Jensen (17 June 2010). "Chevron: We won't be difficult on oil-spill cleanup costs". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  109. ^ AP News/Huffington Post (26 May 2010). "Alaska Oil Spill: Trans-Alaska Pipeline Shuts Down 800 Mile Area In North Slope". AP/Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
  110. ^ "Oil leaks from tanker collision off Singapore". BBC News. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  111. ^ "Oil spill threatens Singapore coast". ABC News. 25 May 2010. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  112. ^ "Singapore closes popular beaches after oil spill hits coast". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 27 May 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  113. ^ Dulue Mbachu (6 June 2010). "Exxon Nigerian Unit Oil Spill Caused by Corrosion". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  114. ^ Joe Brock (18 May 2010). "Africa's oil spills are far from U.S. media glare". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010. 100,000 bpd of oil had leaked for a week from a pipeline that has since been mended
  115. ^ Vidal, John (30 May 2010). "Nigeria's agony dwarfs the Gulf oil spill. The US and Europe ignore it". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 15 December 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  116. ^ U.S. Coast Guard; U.S. Geological Survey (2 August 2010). "Deepwater Horizon MC252 Gulf Incident Oil Budget" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  117. ^ "Coal carrier Shen Neng 1 oil spill dispersed, says Queensland Government". 6 April 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  118. ^ "Battle to stabilise ship aground near Barrier Reef". BBC News. 5 April 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  119. ^ "Chinese coal ship runs aground, leaks oil". United Press International. 5 April 2010. Archived from the original on 7 June 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  120. ^ "Archived copy". Corriere della Sera. 24 February 2010. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  121. ^ Gonzalez, Angel (24 January 2010). "Collision Causes Crude Oil Spill in Texas". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 January 2010.
  122. ^ Mu Xeuquan (5 January 2010). "Diesel spill contaminates Yellow River tributaries". Xinhua News. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  123. ^ "WA oil spill 'one of Australia's worst'". ABC News. 24 August 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  124. ^ "Oil leaking 'five times faster' than thought". ABC News. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original on 5 November 2009. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  125. ^ "Reuters". 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  126. ^ "The Namibian". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011.
  127. ^ "Oil spill: Qld beaches declared disaster zones". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 13 March 2009. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  128. ^ Siggins, Lorna (18 February 2009). "Oil slick drifts towards Irish coast as polluter silence hurts clean-up efforts". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2009.
  129. ^ Kirkham, Chris; Ramon Antonio Vargas (24 July 2008). "Oil spill shuts down 80 miles of river". New Orleans Times-Picayune. pp. A1.
  130. ^ "The Land is Dead". Süddeutsche Zeitung. 8 January 2014. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  131. ^ "Uruguay - ITOPF". itopf.org. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  132. ^ Hern, Marcelo; AP, ez / (12 June 2008). "Oil spill kills migrating penguins in Uruguay". MSNBC. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  133. ^ "M/V Supe | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  134. ^ Oil Spill in North Sea Off Norway http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7140645.stm Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  135. ^ "Tanker oil spill off S Korea coast". Al Jazeera. 8 December 2007. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  136. ^ "S Korea declares slick 'disaster'". BBC News. 9 December 2007. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  137. ^ "Fuel spill disaster reported in waters near Russia". CNN International. 11 November 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  138. ^ Curiel, Jonathan; Kay, Jane; Fagan, Kevin (9 November 2007). "Spill closes bay beaches as oil spreads, kills wildlife". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  139. ^ "Usumacinta and Kab 101 Blowout". Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  140. ^ The Associated Press (22 March 2016). "US, Puerto Rico Reaches $2.7M Settlement in Oil Spill". Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  141. ^ "Burnaby Oil Spill". Ministry of Environment (British Columbia). Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  142. ^ a b "Oil spills – Philippines, Indian Ocean and Lebanon". Greenpeace. 18 August 2006. Archived from the original on 30 July 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  143. ^ "CITGO Oil Spill" (PDF). Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality. 25 July 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  144. ^ Loy, Wesley (10 March 2006). "Spill the largest in Slope's history". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  145. ^ "Turtle pulled from oil spill (Chile, 2005)". The Dispatch. 3 November 2005. p. 17. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  146. ^ Hofer, Tobias N. (2008). Marine Pollution: New Research. Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60456-242-2.
  147. ^ "Oil spill at Antofagasta City in northern Chile". birdlife.org. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  148. ^ a b c d "Chile - ITOPF". itopf.org. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  149. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miguel Llanos (19 September 2005). "44 oil spills found in southeast Louisiana". NBC News. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
  150. ^ Response and Prevention Branch Oil Team (May 2006). "Murphy Oil USA Refinery Spill, Chalmette & Meraux, LA Presentation" (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  151. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Oil Spill History". The Mariner Group. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  152. ^ University of Delaware Sea Grant Program. "Athos 1 Oil Spill". Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  153. ^ "M/V Athos I | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  154. ^ a b c Research Planning, Inc. (2005). Preassessment Data Report, The MP-69 / Hurricane Ivan Oil Discharges, Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana (pp. 10, 18) (PDF) (Report). Damage Assessment Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
  155. ^ Sarah Josephine Harrison (2017). "Lessons from the Taylor Energy oil spill: history, seasonality, and nutrient limitation". Thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Georgia. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  156. ^ Darryl Fears (21 October 2018). "A 14-year-long oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico verges on becoming one of the worst in U.S. history". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  157. ^ Greenpeace (23 February 2016). "The Biggest Oil Leak You've Never Heard Of, Still Leaking After 12 Years". EcoWatch. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  158. ^ Tim Donaghy (19 February 2016). "This Oil Leak Could Last for 100 Years — and the Company Involved Refuses to Fix It". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  159. ^ "Collision and oil spill in Magellan Strait". MercoPress. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  160. ^ ITOPF. "ITOPF Case History: Tasman Spirit". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  161. ^ Hans van de Veen (2004). "Saving Pakistan's Green Gold" (PDF). DGIS-ICD Programme, WWF International: 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  162. ^ "Buzzards Bay Oil Spill: Bouchard Barge No. 120". Buzzards Bay National Estuary Program. 6 April 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  163. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Major Oil Spills". International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  164. ^ Raul Garcia (November 2003). "The Prestige: one year on, a continuing disaster" (PDF). WWF-Spain. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  165. ^ Wout Broekema (April 2015). "Crisis-induced learning and issue politicization in the EU". Public Administration. doi:10.1111/padm.12170.
  166. ^ "A Synopsis of the Terrorist Threat Facing the O&G Industry". Oil and Gas Industry Terrorism Monitor. Archived from the original on 7 February 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  167. ^ "International Terrorism: The Threat". United Kingdom Home Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  168. ^ a b "Oil spills at Guanabara Bay". Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  169. ^ "Trans-Alaska Pipeline Shot By A Drunk". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  170. ^ "The Land is Dead". Urhobo Historical Society. 30 July 2001. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  171. ^ "Alarm at oil spill in Ogoniland". BBC News. 2 May 2001. Archived from the original on 7 April 2003. Retrieved 11 June 2010.
  172. ^ "Petrobras P-36". Oil Rig Disasters. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2010.
  173. ^ Cabinet frees Greek crew Archived 14 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine at the Taipei Times
  174. ^ a b c d e "Major Oil Spills". Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  175. ^ Oil Spills Archived 24 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine at thinkquest.org
  176. ^ "Pine River Oil Spill". Ministry of Environment (British Columbia). Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  177. ^ LaBelle, Robert. "Technology Assessment and Research". Minerals Management Service. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  178. ^ Julian, Michael (14 April 2000). "Response to the oil spill at Port Stanvac on 28 June 1999 – Report of the Incident Analysis Team – April 2000" (PDF). AMSA. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  179. ^ "Environmental Global Issues Map: New Carissa Oil Spill on the Oregon Coast". McGraw-Hill. March 1999. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 4 February 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  180. ^ "Nakhodka". Centre de Documentation de Recherche et d'Expérimentations. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  181. ^ How do oil spills impact Casco Bay? Archived 27 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine report by the Casco Bay Estuary Partnership
  182. ^ Rhode Island Oil Spill Is More Serious Than Initially Thought Archived 14 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine, New York Times, 22 January 1996
  183. ^ "Iron Baron, Hebe Reef, Tasmania, 10 July 1995 – Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA)". amsa.gov.au. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  184. ^ "Namibia - ITOPF". itopf.org. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  185. ^ Luhn, Alec (5 August 2016). "The town that reveals how Russia spills two Deepwater Horizons of oil each year". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  186. ^ "Russia & West disagree on severity of oil spill (1994)". Dayton Daily News. 29 October 1994. p. 5. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  187. ^ Owens, Edward H. "Komi pipeline crude oil spill" (PDF). US EPA Archive. Polaris Applied Sciences Inc. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  188. ^ Konings, Chris (1997). "Coastal Oil Spill: Apollo Sea Shipping Disaster Ð June 1994". Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. 5 (2): 118–122. doi:10.1111/1468-5973.00043.
  189. ^ "Fact Sheet: Morris J. Berman Oil Spill". Retrieved 5 January 2010.[permanent dead link]
  190. ^ "Oily absolutions" The Canberra Times, Australian Capital Territory (16 December 1992). Retrieved 2013-11-20.
  191. ^ "Katina P | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  192. ^ "Major Oil Spills – Kirki". 20 March 2012. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  193. ^ "M/B Vesta Bella". IncidentNews. NOAA. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  194. ^ Filor, Christopher William (1 November 1991). "Grounding of bulk carrier Sanko Harvest" (PDF). Canberra: Australian Transport Safety Bureau. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  195. ^ Hosny Khordagui; Dhari Al-Ajmi (July 1993), "Environmental impact of the Gulf War: An integrated preliminary assessment", Environmental Management, Springer New York, 17 (4), pp. 557–562, Bibcode:1993EnMan..17..557K, doi:10.1007/BF02394670, ISSN 0364-152X, S2CID 153413376
  196. ^ "ENVIRONMENTAL WARFARE: 1991 PERSIAN GULF WAR". Archived from the original on 5 March 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  197. ^ "Apex Barges Oil Spill" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 29 May 1997. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  198. ^ "M/V Mega Borg". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
  199. ^ American Trader Oil Spill Archived 27 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, California Office of Spill Prevention and Response
  200. ^ Dvarskas, Anthony (Autumn 2008). "Restoring Injured Natural Resources in the Harbor" (PDF). The Tidal Exchange. New York – New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program (22): 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  201. ^ Desvousges, William H.; Dunford, Richard W.; Mathews, Kristy E. (1992). "Natural Resource Damages Valuation: Arthur Kill Oil Spill" (PDF). Association of Environmental and Resource Economists Workshop, Snowbird, Utah. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  202. ^ Dent, Patricia (22 October 2013). Year Book 1990: Advisory Committee on Pollution of the Sea. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4832-9381-3.
  203. ^ "Presidente Rivera Spill – June 24, 1989". University of Delaware Sea Grant Program. 2004. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  204. ^ "Tanker Strikes Reef Off Newport, Spilling Oil in Narragansett Bay". The New York Times. 24 June 1989. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  205. ^ "Captain and owners plead guilty to World Prodigy oil spill". United Press International. 16 August 1989. Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  206. ^ Riki Ott (18 June 2010). "How Much Oil Really Spilled From the Exxon Valdez?". On The Media (audio/transcript). Interviewed by Brooke Gladstone. NPR. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  207. ^ "Argentina denies major oil spill". Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995). 3 February 1989. p. 7. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  208. ^ Oil Spills Archived 19 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine report from the Air and Waste Management Association
  209. ^ Nightmare on The Monongahela Archived 9 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Time Magazine, 18 January 1988
  210. ^ a b Pizarro, Francisco (February–March 1995). "Contingency Planning in Chile". International Oil Spill Conference Proceedings. 1995 (1): 501–502. doi:10.7901/2169-3358-1995-1-501. ISSN 2169-3366.
  211. ^ "Cabo Pilar | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  212. ^ "Major oil spill bound to occur UF report says (Florida, 1990)". The Miami Herald. 3 October 1990. p. 88. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  213. ^ California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Apex Houston https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/OSPR/NRDA/Apex-Houston
  214. ^ "Apex Houston". wildlife.ca.gov. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  215. ^ University of Delaware Sea Grant Program. "1985 Grand Eagle Oil Spill". Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  216. ^ "Carrier Coral Sea readied for repairs, ship collision Cuba (oil spill 1985)". The Independent-Record. 18 April 1985. p. 16. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  217. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, Screening Level Risk Assessment Package, Puerto Rican https://nmssanctuaries.blob.core.windows.net/sanctuaries-prod/media/archive/protect/ppw/pdfs/puerto_rican.pdf Archived 15 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine March 2013
  218. ^ Colten C. E.; Hay J.; Giancarlo A. (2012). "Community resilience and oil spills in coastal Louisiana". Ecology and Society. 17 (3): 5. doi:10.5751/ES-05047-170305.
  219. ^ "Oil spills and near-misses in Northwest waters". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Hearst Seattle Media, LLC. 21 November 2002. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
  220. ^ Douglas Helton; Tony Penn (1999). "Putting Response And Natural Resource Damage Costs In Perspective" (PDF). International Oil Spill Conference: 21. Paper ID #114. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
  221. ^ "Oil Spills and Disasters". Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  222. ^ Shabad, Theodore (31 January 1982). "Vast Damage Cited in Baltic Oil Spill". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  223. ^ Projektas "Aplinkosauga" (13 May 2014). "Trys didžiausios katastrofos Lietuvoje, kurių padarinius dar jaučiame" (in Lithuanian). Delfi (web portal). Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  224. ^ "Příklady významných vodohospodářských havárií od r. 1964". cizp.cz. Česká inspekce životního prostředí. 2008. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  225. ^ "Oil Spills Fast Facts". Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
  226. ^ ITOPF. "ITOPF: TANIO (France, 1980)". Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  227. ^ "Burmah Agate". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 22 September 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  228. ^ "Oil-spill fine". The Canberra Times. 26 August 1980. p. 10. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  229. ^ "Atlantic Empress". Centre de Documentation de Recherche et d'Expérimentations. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
  230. ^ "Tanker Incidents". Archived from the original on 23 June 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2009.
  231. ^ "Oil still spewing into Gulf of Mexico (Ixtoc 1, 1979)". The Ithaca Journal. 10 July 1979. p. 7. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  232. ^ "IXTOC I". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2008.
  233. ^ Patton, John S.; Rigler, Mark W.; Boehm, Paul D.; Fiest, David L. (1981). "Ixtoc 1 oil spill: flaking of surface mousse in the Gulf of Mexico". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 290 (5803): 235–238. Bibcode:1981Natur.290..235P. doi:10.1038/290235a0. S2CID 4312522.
  234. ^ "Betelgeuse". Centre de Documentation de Recherche et d'Expérimentations. Archived from the original on 25 November 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
  235. ^ "Peck Slip". NOAA. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  236. ^ "Amoco Cadiz". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 27 October 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  237. ^ "AMOCO CADIZ (France, 1978)". International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation. 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  238. ^ "The Trans-Alaska Pipeline". The Lay of the Land. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. 32. Spring 2009. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  239. ^ "Brazilian Marina | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  240. ^ a b "Maine-to-Texas dragnet seeks Florida oil spill ship (1977)". Des Moines Tribune. 2 May 1977. p. 13. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  241. ^ "Amoco Cadiz". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  242. ^ "Ekofisk Bravo". Oil Rig Disasters. 14 April 2008. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  243. ^ Fingas, Merv (2000). The Basics of Oil Spill Cleanup (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers. ISBN 1-56670-537-1.
  244. ^ ITOPF. "ITOPF: Argo Merchant (USA, 1976)". Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  245. ^ "Argo Merchant". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 4 August 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
  246. ^ "Albert T. McKINNEY v. US – 30 April 1979= 2009-07-01" (PDF).
  247. ^ "Save The River Report= 2009-07-01" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  248. ^ "St. Peter | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  249. ^ "Shell And The N15bn Oil Spill Judgement Debt". The Daily Independent (Lagos). 19 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2010. between 1976 and 1996, a total of 4,835 incidents resulted in the spillage of at least 2.4 million barrels of oil, of which an estimated 1.89 million barrels were lost to the environment in the Niger Delta
  250. ^ "Ground tanker dispute flows on, Olympic Bravery (France, 1976)". The Guardian. 7 April 1976. p. 2. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  251. ^ "OIL TANKER, ABLAZE, SINKING OFF SAN JUAN". 14 May 1975. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  252. ^ "Tarik Ibn Ziyad oil spill, Brasil (1975)". Hartford Courant. 10 August 1975. p. 121. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  253. ^ "Tarik Ibn Ziyad | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  254. ^ "Oil Slick Mars Rio de Janeiro (Tarik Ibn Ziyad, 1975)". Detroit Free Press. 1 April 1975. p. 6. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  255. ^ "January 1975 oil spill in bantry bay". Public Library of US Diplomacy. Wikileaks. 27 January 1975. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  256. ^ "Supertanker Afran Zodiac spills oil off Ireland, chemical dispersant use (1975) - on Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  257. ^ ITOPF. "ITOPF: METULA (Chile, 1974)". Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  258. ^ "MV Oriental Pioneer [+1974]". Wreck Site.
  259. ^ García-Borboroglu, P (2008). "PETROLEUM POLLUTION AND PENGUINS: Marine Conservation Tools to Reduce the Problem" (PDF). Marine Pollution New Research.
  260. ^ a b c Beer, Tom (2013). Environmental Oceanography: An Introduction to the Behaviour of Coastal Waters. Elsevier. p. 162. ISBN 9781483279671.
  261. ^ "Trinimar Marine Well 327 | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  262. ^ SIGWEB Sistemas integrados de Gestión, Carlos Saldivia, Las desconocidas historias de los tres derrames de petróleo en Chile Archived 21 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 18 September 2013
  263. ^ Jane Baird (19 August 1978). "Ship Firm Ordered to Pay Pueto Rico $6 Million". Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  264. ^ "Captain charged in oil spill from Irish Stardust ship (Canada 1973)". Retrieved 7 July 2020 – via newspapers.com.
  265. ^ Jack Devanney (21 April 2010). "The Strange History of Tank Inerting" (PDF). Center for Tankship Excellence. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  266. ^ Fingas, Merv (5 December 2012). The Basics of Oil Spill Cleanup. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-6247-6.
  267. ^ "NY oil slick to be countered with chemicals". The Bridgeport Post. Bridgeport, Connecticut. Associated Press. 18 July 1971. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  268. ^ William Fulton (22 July 1971). "Coney Island Oil Spill Spurs Action". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  269. ^ "Black tides: the worst oil spills in history". Google Earth files. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  270. ^ "Grounded ship starts leaking oil (Trinity Navigator oil spill, 1971)". Jefferson City Post-Tribune. 2 March 1971. p. 2. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  271. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  272. ^ "Major Oil Spill Fouls South Africa Shores (Wafra, 1971)". The Daily Journal. 2 March 1971. p. 1. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  273. ^ a b "After 30 years, tankers safer but spills still a threat". Associated Press. 19 January 2001. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  274. ^ Wood, Roger Holmes (2006). When Tankers Collide, a Preview. AuthorHouse. ISBN 978-1-4259-5598-4. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
  275. ^ "Huge oil spill in San Francisco Bay - tanker collision under Golden Gate bridge, California (1971) - on Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  276. ^ "Case Study Example for Oil Spill Movement and Fate – Notable oil spills". University of Alabama – College of Engineering. 23 October 2002. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  277. ^ "On the rocks – Find a wreck – Arrow 1970". Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  278. ^ "Hamilton Trader | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  279. ^ Brief Oil and Gas History of Santa Barbara County Archived 18 April 2011 at WebCite from the County of Santa Barbara, California
  280. ^ "Witwater | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  281. ^ "Wrecked Tanker's Oil Slick Threatens South Africa Shore - 4 Dead, 22 Missing in Raging Sea Tragedy". Boston Globe. 16 June 1968. p. 6. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  282. ^ "World Glory | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  283. ^ "Search Dropped for 21 Missing in Ship Fire (World Glory, 1968)". Arizona Republic. 15 June 1968. p. 2. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  284. ^ "Chemical Applied – Oil Spillage in Port Is Contained by Boom". The Corpus Christi Caller-Times. 25 April 1968. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  285. ^ a b "Corexit - Clearing the seas of spilled oil". The Kansas City Times. 6 December 1968. p. 48. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  286. ^ "Greek tanker Andron sinks of African coast (Walvis Bay, 1968)". The Sacramento Bee. 9 May 1968. p. 57. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  287. ^ "General Colocotronis | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  288. ^ Pedro A. Gelabert. "Puerto Rico's Oil Spill Relationship with Environmental Law" (PDF). Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  289. ^ "Ocean Eagle | IncidentNews | NOAA". incidentnews.noaa.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  290. ^ "The African Queen Shipwreck". ShipwreckExpo. 2010. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  291. ^ Howard (Delmar, Delaware) (30 December 2007). "African Queen". Delmar DustPan. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  292. ^ a b Phuong Le (10 August 1999). "Beach town forced to scrape away oil leak – and a chunk of its past". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Hearst Seattle Media, LLC.
  293. ^ "Ship Oil Kills Fish, Penguins". Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954). 3 November 1953. p. 8. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  294. ^ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuaries Program (31 July 2017). "The Shipwreck Jacob Luckenbach". Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  295. ^ a b "Hope is abandoned for sticken tanker Esso Wheeling (1948)". The Daily Oklahoman. 7 November 1948. p. 101. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  296. ^ Russell Berman (18 November 2005). "Greenpoint, Maspeth Residents Lobby To Get 55-Year-Old Oil Spill Cleaned Up". The New York Sun. Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  297. ^ "14 Brunei oil wells ablaze". Dundee Evening Telegraph. 30 June 1945. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
  298. ^ "Japs fire west Borneo's rich Seria oil field". Del Rio News Herald. 13 June 1945. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  299. ^ "Last oil field fire out". Victor Harbour Times. Victor Harbor, South Australia, Australia. 19 October 1945. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  300. ^ "From Iceland — Efforts To Stem Oil Spill From British WW2 Tanker Wrecked In Seyðisfjörður". The Reykjavik Grapevine. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  301. ^ Harry R. Carter (2003). "Oil and California's Seabirds: An Overview" (PDF). Marine Ornithology. 31: 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  302. ^ Rintoul, William; Hodgson, Susan F. (1990). Drilling Through Time: 75 Years with California's Division of Oil and Gas. Sacramento: Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas. pp. 13–15. ISBN 0-9627124-0-X.
  303. ^ Larn, Richard (1992). Shipwrecks of the Isles of Scilly. Nairn: Thomas & Lochar.
  304. ^ "Petriana, 28 November 1903". Australian Maritime Safety Authority. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  305. ^ "Marinha notifica dez países sobre vazamento de óleo no mar nordestino". Correio do Povo. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  306. ^ Katz, Brigit. "Oil Spill in Colombia Kills 2,400 Animals". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  307. ^ "Fears for rare wildlife as oil 'catastrophe' strikes Bangladesh". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  308. ^ "India on alert after oil spill in Sundarbans". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  309. ^ "Bangladesh begins oil clean-up after spill". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 12 February 2015.
  310. ^ "TK 100 cr. loss feared from Sundarban oil spill". The Daily Ittefaq. Archived from the original on 15 December 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  311. ^ "DOH: Air pollution in Iloilo oil spill site at critical level". Rappler. Archived from the original on 31 October 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  312. ^ "Napocor president assures Iloilo oil spill cleanup to abide by DOH recommendations". InterAksyon.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  313. ^ "Group urges Iloilo fishermen to sue Napocor for oil leak". Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
  314. ^ "Benzene from Iloilo oil spill reaches alarming level". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  315. ^ David Wethe & Edward Klump (9 June 2010). "Taylor Gulf Wells Leaks for Years; Diamond Drills Relief Wells". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  316. ^ Paul Rioux (8 June 2010). "Second Gulf oil spill releasing small amounts, federal officials say". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
  317. ^ John Amos (22 March 2011). "Questions Remain About Last Weekend's Gulf Of Mexico Oil Spill". Business Insider. Business Insider, Inc. SkyTruth. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
  318. ^ David Hammer (16 November 2016). "Oil and Water: 11,700 Gulf oil spills since BP raise new fears". WWLTV. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.

External linksEdit