List of geological features on Titan

This is a list of named geological features on Saturn's moon Titan. Official names for these features have only been announced very recently, as Titan's surface was virtually unknown before the arrival of the Cassini–Huygens probe.[1][2] Some features were known by informal nicknames beforehand; these names are noted where appropriate. Note that some features with a physical size given by "diameter" may not be circular and actually refers to its length.[note 1]

Global map of Titan – with IAU labels (August 2016).
Titan − the surface under the haze (December 2018)

Albedo featuresEdit

 
Titan – infrared views (2004–2017)

Albedo features on Titan are named after sacred or enchanted places in world mythologies and literature.[3]

Bright albedo featuresEdit

Albedo feature Coordinates Named after
Adiri 10°S 210°W / 10°S 210°W / -10; -210 (Adiri) Adiri, Melanesian paradise[4]
Dilmun 15°N 175°W / 15°N 175°W / 15; -175 (Dilmun) Dilmun, Sumerian heaven
Quivira 0°N 15°W / 0°N 15°W / 0; -15 (Quivira) Quivira, legendary city in southwestern America
Tsegihi 40°S 10°W / 40°S 10°W / -40; -10 (Tsegihi) Tsegihi, Navajo sacred place
Xanadu 15°S 100°W / 15°S 100°W / -15; -100 (Xanadu) Xanadu, an imaginary palace in Coleridge's Kubla Khan

Dark albedo featuresEdit

Albedo feature Coordinates Named after Informal name
Aaru 10°N 340°W / 10°N 340°W / 10; -340 (Aaru) Aaru, Egyptian paradise
Aztlan 10°S 20°W / 10°S 20°W / -10; -20 (Aztlan) Aztlán, mythical Aztec homeland Southern part of 'Lying H'
Belet 5°S 255°W / 5°S 255°W / -5; -255 (Belet) Belet, Malay paradise
Ching-tu 30°S 205°W / 30°S 205°W / -30; -205 (Ching-tu) Ching-tu, Chinese Buddhist paradise
Fensal 5°N 30°W / 5°N 30°W / 5; -30 (Fensal) Fensalir, Norse heavenly mansion Northern part of 'Lying H'
Mezzoramia 70°S 0°W / 70°S -0°E / -70; -0 (Mezzoramia) Mezzoramia, African oasis of happiness from Italian legend
Senkyo 5°S 320°W / 5°S 320°W / -5; -320 (Senkyo) Senkyo, Japanese paradise
Shangri-La 10°S 165°W / 10°S 165°W / -10; -165 (Shangri-La) Shangri-La, Tibetan paradise

ArcūsEdit

Titanean arcūs (arc-shaped features) are named after deities of happiness.[5]

Albedo feature Coordinates Named after
Hotei Arcus 28°S 79°W / 28°S 79°W / -28; -79 (Hotei Arcus) Hotei, Japanese god

CollesEdit

Colles are small hills or knobs which are named after characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth.[6]

Collis Coordinates Diameter (km) Named after
Arwen Colles[6] 7°30′S 250°00′W / 7.5°S 250.0°W / -7.5; -250.0 (Arwen) 64 Arwen, character from Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy
Bilbo Colles[6] 4°12′S 38°36′W / 4.2°S 38.6°W / -4.2; -38.6 (Bilbo) 164 Bilbo Baggins, titular character of Tolkien's The Hobbit
Faramir Colles[6] 4°00′N 153°48′W / 4.0°N 153.8°W / 4.0; -153.8 (Faramir) 82 Faramir, character from Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy
Gandalf Colles[6] 14°36′N 209°30′W / 14.6°N 209.5°W / 14.6; -209.5 (Gandalf) 102 Gandalf, character from Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy
Handir Colles[6] 10°00′N 356°42′W / 10.0°N 356.7°W / 10.0; -356.7 (Handir) 100 Handir, character from Tolkien's The Silmarillion
Nimloth Colles[6] 11°54′N 151°18′W / 11.9°N 151.3°W / 11.9; -151.3 (Nimloth) 90 Nimloth, name of a character and a tree from Tolkien's Middle-earth

CratersEdit

Craters on Titan are named after deities of wisdom.[7]

Crater Coordinates Diameter (km) Named after Informal name
Afekan 25°48′N 200°18′W / 25.8°N 200.3°W / 25.8; -200.3 (Afekan) 115.0 Afekan, New Guinean creator goddess
Beag 34°42′S 169°36′W / 34.7°S 169.6°W / -34.7; -169.6 (Beag) 145.0 Beag, Irish/Celtic goddess
Forseti 25°30′N 10°24′W / 25.5°N 10.4°W / 25.5; -10.4 (Forseti) 115.0 Forseti, Norse god
Hano 40°18′N 14°54′E / 40.3°N 14.9°E / 40.3; 14.9 (Hano) 100.0 Hano, Bella Coola (northwestern USA and western Canada) goddess of education knowledge and magic. She manifested as a shaman so she could teach the people
Ksa 14°00′N 65°24′W / 14.0°N 65.4°W / 14.0; -65.4 (Ksa) 29.0 Ksa, Lakota/Oglala spirit
Menrva 20°06′N 87°12′W / 20.1°N 87.2°W / 20.1; -87.2 (Menrva) 392.0 Menrva, Etruscan goddess 'Circus Maximus'
Momoy 11°36′N 44°36′W / 11.6°N 44.6°W / 11.6; -44.6 (Momoy) 40.0 Momoy, Chumash ancestor shaman and goddess of magic
Mystis 0°06′N 194°54′W / 0.1°N 194.9°W / 0.1; -194.9 (Mystis) 20.0 Mystis, Greek nymph
Selk crater [fr; ru; it] 7°00′N 199°00′W / 7.0°N 199.0°W / 7.0; -199.0 (Selk) 80.0 Selk, Egyptian goddess
Sinlap 11°18′N 16°00′W / 11.3°N 16.0°W / 11.3; -16.0 (Sinlap) 80.0 Sinlap, Kachin spirit
Soi 24°18′N 140°54′W / 24.3°N 140.9°W / 24.3; -140.9 (Soi) 75.0 Soi, Melanesian (New Ireland Island Papua New Guinea) god of wisdom

FaculaeEdit

Faculae (bright spots) are named after islands on Earth that are not politically independent.[8] Groups of faculae are named after archipelagos on Earth.

Facula Coordinates Named after Informal name
Antilia Faculae 11°00′S 187°00′W / 11.0°S 187.0°W / -11.0; -187.0 (Antilia Faculae) Antillia, mythical Atlantic archipelago
Bazaruto Facula 11°36′N 16°06′W / 11.6°N 16.1°W / 11.6; -16.1 (Bazaruto Facula) Bazaruto, Mozambique island
Coats Facula 11°06′S 29°12′W / 11.1°S 29.2°W / -11.1; -29.2 (Coats Facula) Coats Island, Canada
Crete Facula 9°24′N 150°06′W / 9.4°N 150.1°W / 9.4; -150.1 (Crete Facula) Crete, Greek island
Elba Facula 10°48′S 1°12′W / 10.8°S 1.2°W / -10.8; -1.2 (Elba Facula) Elba, Italian island
Kerguelen Facula 5°24′S 151°00′W / 5.4°S 151.0°W / -5.4; -151.0 (Kerguelen Facula) Kerguelen Islands, French subantarctic island
Mindanao Facula 6°36′S 174°12′W / 6.6°S 174.2°W / -6.6; -174.2 (Mindanao Facula) Mindanao, Philippine island 'Ireland'
Nicobar Faculae 2°00′N 159°00′W / 2.0°N 159.0°W / 2.0; -159.0 (Nicobar Faculae) Nicobar Islands, Indian archipelago
Oahu Facula 5°00′N 166°42′W / 5.0°N 166.7°W / 5.0; -166.7 (Oahu Facula) Oahu, Hawaiian island
Santorini Facula 2°24′N 145°36′W / 2.4°N 145.6°W / 2.4; -145.6 (Santorini Facula) Santorini, Greek island
Shikoku Facula 10°24′S 164°06′W / 10.4°S 164.1°W / -10.4; -164.1 (Shikoku Facula) Shikoku, Japanese island 'Great Britain'
Sotra Facula 12°30′S 39°48′W / 12.5°S 39.8°W / -12.5; -39.8 (Sotra Facula) Sotra, Norwegian island 'The Rose'
Texel Facula 11°30′S 182°36′W / 11.5°S 182.6°W / -11.5; -182.6 (Texel Facula) Texel, Dutch island 'Manhattan'
Tortola Facula 8°48′N 143°06′W / 8.8°N 143.1°W / 8.8; -143.1 (Tortola Facula) Tortola, British Virgin Islands 'The Snail'
Vis Facula 7°00′N 138°24′W / 7.0°N 138.4°W / 7.0; -138.4 (Vis Facula) Vis, Croatian island

FluctūsEdit

The term "fluctus" refers to flow terrain. Fluctūs on Titan are named after mythological figures associated with beauty.[9]

Fluctus Coordinates Named after
Ara Fluctus 39°48′N 118°24′W / 39.8°N 118.4°W / 39.8; -118.4 (Ara Fluctus) Ara the Beautiful, Armenian legendary figure
Leilah Fluctus 50°30′N 77°48′W / 50.5°N 77.8°W / 50.5; -77.8 (Leilah Fluctus) Layla, Persian goddess
Mohini Fluctus 11°47′S 38°32′W / 11.78°S 38.53°W / -11.78; -38.53 (Mohini) Mohini, Indian goddess of beauty and magic
Rohe Fluctus 47°18′N 37°45′W / 47.3°N 37.75°W / 47.3; -37.75 (Rohe Fluctus) Rohe, Māori goddess
Winia Fluctus 49°00′N 46°00′W / 49.0°N 46.0°W / 49.0; -46.0 (Winia Fluctus) Winia, Indonesian first woman

FluminaEdit

A flumen is a feature that looks like a channel carved by liquid. Flumina refers to a network of rivers. They are named after mythical or imaginary rivers.[10]

Flumina Coordinates Length (km)[note 1] Named after
Apanohuaya Flumen 84°17′N 297°14′W / 84.29°N 297.24°W / 84.29; -297.24 (Apanohuaya Flumen) 64 Apanohuaya,[11] mythological river in the Aztec Underworld
Celadon Flumina 73°42′S 28°48′W / 73.7°S 28.8°W / -73.7; -28.8 (Celadon Flumina) 160 Celadon, river in Homer's Iliad
Elivagar Flumina 19°18′N 78°30′W / 19.3°N 78.5°W / 19.3; -78.5 (Elivagar Flumina) 260 The Élivágar, a group of ice rivers in Norse mythology
Hubur Flumen 70°12′S 192°54′W / 70.2°S 192.9°W / -70.2; -192.9 (Hubur Flumen) 84 Hubur, river of the underworld in Mesopotamian mythology
Karesos Flumen 70°54′S 194°48′W / 70.9°S 194.8°W / -70.9; -194.8 (Karesos Flumen) 83 River in Homer's Iliad
Saraswati Flumen 74°36′S 193°30′W / 74.6°S 193.5°W / -74.6; -193.5 (Saraswati Flumen) 2.9 Saraswati, river in Hindu mythology
Vid Flumina 72°54′N 242°30′W / 72.9°N 242.5°W / 72.9; -242.5 (Vid Flumina) 158 One of the rivers in Élivágar.
Xanthus Flumen 83°28′N 242°46′W / 83.47°N 242.76°W / 83.47; -242.76 (Xanthus Flumina) 78 Name of the Gods of the river Skamandros in the Iliad.

FretaEdit

A fretum is a strait of liquid connecting two larger liquid bodies. Freta refers to multiple straits. They are named after characters from the Foundation series of science fiction novels by Isaac Asimov.[12]

Fretum Coordinates Length (km)[note 1] Named after Informal name
Bayta Fretum 73°00′N 311°12′W / 73°N 311.2°W / 73; -311.2 (Bayta Fretum) 165 Bayta Darell, fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, wife of the Trader Toran Darell and grandmother of famous author Arcadia Darell.
Hardin Fretum 57°18′N 317°48′W / 57.3°N 317.8°W / 57.3; -317.8 (Hardin Fretum) 246 Salvor Hardin, fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, first Mayor of the planet Terminus.
Seldon Fretum 66°00′N 316°36′W / 66°N 316.6°W / 66; -316.6 (Seldon Fretum) 67 Hari Seldon, the fictional, intellectual hero of Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, First Minister of the Galactic Empire. 'Throat of Kraken'[13]
Trevize Fretum 74°24′N 269°54′W / 74.4°N 269.9°W / 74.4; -269.9 (Trevize Fretum) 173 Golan Trevize, fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, councilman of the planet Terminus.

InsulaeEdit

Insulae are islands within Titan's seas. They are named after legendary islands.[14]

Insula Coordinates Liquid body Named after
Bermoothes Insula 67°06′N 317°06′W / 67.1°N 317.1°W / 67.1; -317.1 (Bermoothes Insula) Kraken Mare Bermoothes, an enchanted island in Shakespeare's Tempest
Bimini Insula 73°18′N 305°24′W / 73.3°N 305.4°W / 73.3; -305.4 (Bimini Insula) Kraken Mare Bimini, island in Arawak legend said to contain the fountain of youth.
Bralgu Insula 76°12′N 251°30′W / 76.2°N 251.5°W / 76.2; -251.5 (Bralgu Insula) Ligeia Mare Baralku, in Yolngu culture, the island of the dead and the place where the Djanggawul, the three creator siblings, originated.
Buyan Insula 77°18′N 245°06′W / 77.3°N 245.1°W / 77.3; -245.1 (Buyan Insula) Ligeia Mare Buyan, a rocky island in Russian folk tales located on the south shore of Baltic Sea
Hufaidh Insulae 67°00′N 320°18′W / 67°N 320.3°W / 67; -320.3 (Hufaidh Insulae) Kraken Mare Hufaidh, legendary island in the marshes of southern Iraq
Krocylea Insulae 69°06′N 302°24′W / 69.1°N 302.4°W / 69.1; -302.4 (Kocylea Insulae) Kraken Mare Crocylea, mythological Greek island in the Ionian Sea, near Ithaca
Mayda Insula 79°06′N 312°12′W / 79.1°N 312.2°W / 79.1; -312.2 (Mayda Insula) Kraken Mare Mayda, legendary island in the northeast Atlantic
Penglai Insula 72°12′N 308°42′W / 72.2°N 308.7°W / 72.2; -308.7 (Penglai Insula) Kraken Mare Penglai, mythological Chinese mountain island where immortals and gods lived.
Planctae Insulae 77°30′N 251°18′W / 77.5°N 251.3°W / 77.5; -251.3 (Planctae Insulae) Ligeia Mare Symplegades, the "clashing rocks" in Bosphorus which only Argo was said to have successfully passed.
Royllo Insula 68°18′N 297°12′W / 68.3°N 297.2°W / 68.3; -297.2 (Royllo Insula) Kraken Mare Royllo, legendary island in the Atlantic, on verge of unknown, near Antilla and Saint Brandan.

LabyrinthiEdit

Labyrinthi (complexes of intersecting valleys or ridges)[15] on Titan are named after planets from the fictional Dune universe created by Frank Herbert.[16][17]

Labyrinthus Coordinates Named after
Anbus Labyrinthus 39°12′N 215°00′W / 39.2°N 215°W / 39.2; -215 (Anbus Labyrinthus) Anbus
Ecaz Labyrinthus 83°00′S 36°42′W / 83.0°S 36.7°W / -83.0; -36.7 (Ecaz Labyrinthus) Ecaz[18]
Gamont Labyrinthus 56°48′N 75°00′W / 56.8°N 75°W / 56.8; -75 (Gamont Labyrinthus) Gamont
Ginaz Labyrinthus 83°00′N 261°42′W / 83°N 261.7°W / 83; -261.7 (Ginaz Labyrinthus) Ginaz
Kaitain Labyrinthus 52°22′N 348°40′W / 52.37°N 348.66°W / 52.37; -348.66 (Kaitain Labyrinthus) Kaitain[19]
Lankiveil Labyrinthus 48°12′S 149°30′W / 48.2°S 149.5°W / -48.2; -149.5 (Lankiveil Labyrinthus) Lankiveil
Richese Labyrinthus 41°48′N 199°00′W / 41.8°N 199.0°W / 41.8; -199.0 (Richese Labyrinthus) Richese[20]
Sikun Labyrinthus 77°54′S 28°54′W / 77.9°S 28.9°W / -77.9; -28.9 (Sikun Labyrinthus) Sikun[21]
Tleilax Labyrinthus 48°S 16°W / 48°S 16°W / -48; -16 (Tleilax Labyrinthus) Tleilax
Tupile Labyrinthus 80°30′S 32°12′W / 80.5°S 32.2°W / -80.5; -32.2 (Tupile Labyrinthus) Tupile[22]

LacunaeEdit

Lacunae are dark areas with the appearance of dry lake beds, which are named after intermittent lakes on Earth.[23]

Lacunae Coordinates Length (km) Named after
Atacama Lacuna 68°12′N 227°36′W / 68.2°N 227.6°W / 68.2; -227.6 (Atacama Lacuna) 35.9 Salar de Atacama, intermittent lake in Chile
Eyre Lacuna 72°36′N 225°06′W / 72.6°N 225.1°W / 72.6; -225.1 (Eyre Lacuna) 25.4 It is named after Lake Eyre, an intermittent lake in Australia.[24]
Jerid Lacuna 66°42′N 221°00′W / 66.7°N 221°W / 66.7; -221 (Jerid Lacuna) 42.6 Chott el Djerid, intermittent lake in Tunisia
Kutch Lacuna 88°24′N 217°00′W / 88.4°N 217°W / 88.4; -217 (Kutch Lacuna) 175 Great Rann of Kutch, intermittent lake on Pakistani-Indian border
Melrhir Lacuna 64°54′N 212°36′W / 64.9°N 212.6°W / 64.9; -212.6 (Melrhir Lacuna) 23 Chott Melrhir, intermittent lake in Algeria
Nakuru Lacuna 65°49′N 94°00′W / 65.81°N 94°W / 65.81; -94 (Nakuru Lacuna) 188 Lake Nakuru, intermittent lake in Kenya
Ngami Lacuna 66°42′N 213°54′W / 66.7°N 213.9°W / 66.7; -213.9 (Ngami Lacuna) 37.2 It is named after Lake Ngami, in Botswana,[25] and like its terrestrial namesake is considered to be endorheic.
Racetrack Lacuna 66°06′N 224°54′W / 66.1°N 224.9°W / 66.1; -224.9 (Racetrack Lacuna) 9.9 Racetrack Playa, intermittent lake in California, USA
Uyuni Lacuna 66°18′N 228°24′W / 66.3°N 228.4°W / 66.3; -228.4 (Uyuni Lacuna) 27 Salar de Uyuni, intermittent lake and world's largest salt flat in Bolivia
Veliko Lacuna 76°48′S 33°06′W / 76.8°S 33.1°W / -76.8; -33.1 (Veliko Lacuna) 93 Veliko Lake, intermittent lake in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Woytchugga Lacuna 68°53′N 109°00′W / 68.88°N 109.0°W / 68.88; -109.0 (Woytchugga Lacuna) 449 Indications are that it is an intermittent lake and so was named in 2013 after Lake Woytchugga near Wilcannia, Australia.[26][27]

LacūsEdit

 
Lakes of liquid methane on Titan. View from Bolsena Lacus (lower right) to Mackay Lacus (upper left).

Lacūs (plural form of lacus used in Titan geological nomenclature) are hydrocarbon lakes.[28]

Large ringed featuresEdit

Large ring features are named after deities of wisdom in world mythology.[29]

Ring feature Coordinates Named after
Guabonito 10°54′S 150°48′W / 10.9°S 150.8°W / -10.9; -150.8 (Guabonito) Guabonito, Taíno sea goddess
Nath 30°30′S 7°42′W / 30.5°S 7.7°W / -30.5; -7.7 (Nath) Irish goddess of wisdom
Paxsi 5°00′N 341°12′W / 5.0°N 341.2°W / 5.0; -341.2 (Paxsi) Aymara goddess of the moon and wisdom
Veles 2°00′N 137°18′W / 2.0°N 137.3°W / 2.0; -137.3 (Veles) Veles, Slavic god

MaculaeEdit

Titanean maculae (dark spots) are named after deities of happiness, peace, and harmony in world mythology.[30]

Macula Coordinates Named after
Eir Macula 24°00′S 114°42′W / 24.0°S 114.7°W / -24.0; -114.7 (Eir Macula) Eir, Norse goddess.
Elpis Macula 31°12′N 27°00′W / 31.2°N 27.0°W / 31.2; -27.0 (Elpis Macula) Elpis, Greek god
Ganesa Macula 50°00′N 87°18′W / 50.0°N 87.3°W / 50.0; -87.3 (Ganesa Macula) Ganesa, Hindu god
Genetaska Macula 23°30′N 196°18′W / 23.5°N 196.3°W / 23.5; -196.3 (Genetaska Macula) Genetaska, Peace Queen of the Iroquois
Omacatl Macula 17°36′N 37°12′W / 17.6°N 37.2°W / 17.6; -37.2 (Omacatl Macula) Omacatl, Aztec god.
Polaznik Macula 41°06′S 280°24′W / 41.1°S 280.4°W / -41.1; -280.4 (Polaznik Macula) Polaznik, Slavic god
Polelya Macula 50°00′N 56°00′W / 50.0°N 56.0°W / 50.0; -56.0 (Polelya Macula) Polelya, Slavic god

MariaEdit

Maria (plural of mare) are hydrocarbon seas.[31]

MontesEdit

Mountains are named after mountains from the fictional Middle-Earth created by J.R.R. Tolkien.[32]

Mons Coordinates Named after
Angmar Montes 10°00′S 221°00′W / 10.0°S 221.0°W / -10.0; -221.0 (Angmar Montes) Mountains of Angmar
Dolmed Montes 11°36′S 216°48′W / 11.6°S 216.8°W / -11.6; -216.8 (Dolmed Montes) Mount Dolmed
Doom Mons 14°39′S 40°25′W / 14.65°S 40.42°W / -14.65; -40.42 (Doom Mons) Mount Doom
Echoriat Montes 7°24′S 213°48′W / 7.4°S 213.8°W / -7.4; -213.8 (Echoriat Montes) Echoriath
Erebor Mons 4°58′S 36°14′W / 4.97°S 36.23°W / -4.97; -36.23 (Erebor Mons) Erebor, the Lonely Mountain
Gram Montes 9°54′S 207°54′W / 9.9°S 207.9°W / -9.9; -207.9 (Gram Montes) Mount Gram
Irensaga Montes 5°41′S 212°43′W / 5.68°S 212.71°W / -5.68; -212.71 (Irensaga Montes) Irensaga
Merlock Montes 8°54′S 211°48′W / 8.9°S 211.8°W / -8.9; -211.8 (Merlock Montes) Merlock Mountains
Mindolluin Montes 3°18′S 208°58′W / 3.3°S 208.96°W / -3.3; -208.96 (Mindolluin Montes) Mindolluin
Misty Montes 56°48′N 62°26′W / 56.8°N 62.44°W / 56.8; -62.44 (Misty Montes) Misty Mountains
Mithrim Montes 2°10′S 127°25′W / 2.16°S 127.42°W / -2.16; -127.42 (Mithrim Montes) Mountains of Mithrim
Moria Montes 15°06′N 190°30′W / 15.1°N 190.5°W / 15.1; -190.5 (Moria Montes) Mountains of Moria
Rerir Montes 4°48′S 212°06′W / 4.8°S 212.1°W / -4.8; -212.1 (Rerir Montes) Mount Rerir
Taniquetil Montes 3°40′S 213°16′W / 3.67°S 213.26°W / -3.67; -213.26 (Taniquetil Montes) Taniquetil

PlanitiaeEdit

Planitiae (low plains) on Titan are named after planets from the fictional Dune universe created by Frank Herbert.[16][33]

Planitia Coordinates Named after
Arrakis Planitia 78°24′S 117°00′W / 78.4°S 117.0°W / -78.4; -117.0 (Arrakis Planitia) Arrakis[34]
Buzzell Planitia 66°18′S 262°42′W / 66.3°S 262.7°W / -66.3; -262.7 (Buzzell Planitia) Buzzell
Caladan Planitia 31°00′N 226°00′W / 31.0°N 226.0°W / 31.0; -226.0 (Caladan Planitia) Caladan[35]
Chusuk Planitia 5°00′S 23°30′W / 5.0°S 23.5°W / -5.0; -23.5 (Chusuk Planitia) Chusuk[36]
Giedi Planitia 5°13′N 357°01′W / 5.22°N 357.02°W / 5.22; -357.02 (Giedi Planitia) Giedi[37]
Hagal Planitia 60°36′S 345°00′W / 60.6°S 345.0°W / -60.6; -345.0 (Hagal Planitia) Hagal[38]
Poritrin Planitia 48°00′N 24°00′W / 48.0°N 24.0°W / 48.0; -24.0 (Poritrin Planitia) Poritrin[39]
Romo Planitia 82°48′S 201°00′W / 82.8°S 201.0°W / -82.8; -201.0 (Romo Planitia) Romo[40]
Rossak Planitia 71°00′S 355°00′W / 71.0°S 355°W / -71.0; -355 (Rossak Planitia) Rossak[41]

RegionesEdit

Regiones (regions distinctly different from their surroundings) are named after deities of peace and happiness.[42]

Regio Coordinates Named after
Concordia Regio 20°00′S 241°00′W / 20.0°S 241.0°W / -20.0; -241.0 (Concordia Regio) Concordia, the Roman goddess of divinity and harmony
Hetpet Regio 22°00′S 292°00′W / 22.0°S 292.0°W / -22.0; -292.0 (Hetpet Regio) Hetpet, the Egyptian personification of happiness
Hotei Regio 26°00′S 78°00′W / 26.0°S 78.0°W / -26.0; -78.0 (Hotei Regio) Budai, Chinese/Japanese god
Ochumare Regio 10°24′N 348°06′W / 10.4°N 348.1°W / 10.4; -348.1 (Ochumare Regio) Ochumare, Puertan Rican goddess of happiness and weather
Tui Regio 24°30′S 124°54′W / 24.5°S 124.9°W / -24.5; -124.9 (Tui Regio) Tui, Chinese goddess.

SinūsEdit

Sinus (bays) within seas or lakes are named after terrestrial bays, coves, fjords or inlets.[43]

Name Coordinates Liquid body Length (km)[note 1] Source of name
Arnar Sinus 72°36′N 322°00′W / 72.6°N 322°W / 72.6; -322 (Arnar Sinus) Kraken Mare 101 Arnar, fjord in Iceland
Avacha Sinus 82°52′N 335°26′W / 82.87°N 335.43°W / 82.87; -335.43 (Avacha Sinus) Punga Mare 51 Avacha Bay in Kamchatka, Russia
Baffin Sinus 80°21′N 344°37′W / 80.35°N 344.62°W / 80.35; -344.62 (Baffin Sinus) Kraken Mare 110 Baffin Bay between Canada and Greenland
Boni Sinus 78°41′N 345°23′W / 78.69°N 345.38°W / 78.69; -345.38 (Boni Sinus) Kraken Mare 54 Gulf of Boni in Indonesia
Dingle Sinus 81°22′N 336°26′W / 81.36°N 336.44°W / 81.36; -336.44 (Dingle Sinus) Kraken Mare 80 Dingle Bay in Ireland
Flensborg Sinus 64°54′N 295°18′W / 64.9°N 295.3°W / 64.9; -295.3 (Flensborg Sinus) Kraken Mare 115 Flensburg Firth, fjord between Denmark and Germany
Fundy Sinus 83°16′N 315°38′W / 83.26°N 315.64°W / 83.26; -315.64 (Fundy Sinus) Punga Mare 91 Bay of Fundy in Canada that hosts the world's largest tides[44]
Gabes Sinus 67°36′N 289°36′W / 67.6°N 289.6°W / 67.6; -289.6 (Gabes Sinus) Kraken Mare 147 Gabes, or Syrtis minor, a bay in Tunisia
Genova Sinus 80°07′N 326°37′W / 80.11°N 326.61°W / 80.11; -326.61 (Genova Sinus) Kraken Mare 125 Gulf of Genoa in Italy
Kumbaru Sinus 56°48′N 303°48′W / 56.8°N 303.8°W / 56.8; -303.8 (Kumbaru Sinus) Kraken Mare 122 Bay in India
Lulworth Sinus 67°11′N 316°53′W / 67.19°N 316.88°W / 67.19; -316.88 (Lulworth Sinus) Kraken Mare 24 Lulworth Cove in southern England
Maizuru Sinus 78°54′N 352°32′W / 78.9°N 352.53°W / 78.9; -352.53 (Maizuru Sinus) Kraken Mare 92 Maizuru Bay in Japan
Manza Sinus 79°17′N 346°06′W / 79.29°N 346.1°W / 79.29; -346.1 (Manza Sinus) Kraken Mare 37 Manza Bay in Tanzania
Moray Sinus 76°36′N 281°24′W / 76.6°N 281.4°W / 76.6; -281.4 (Moray Sinus) Kraken Mare 204 Moray Firth in Scotland
Nicoya Sinus 74°48′N 251°12′W / 74.8°N 251.2°W / 74.8; -251.2 (Nicoya Sinus) Ligeia Mare 130 Gulf of Nicoya in Costa Rica
Okahu Sinus 73°42′N 282°00′W / 73.7°N 282°W / 73.7; -282 (Okahu Sinus) Kraken Mare 141 Okahu Bay near Auckland, New Zealand
Patos Sinus 77°12′N 224°48′W / 77.2°N 224.8°W / 77.2; -224.8 (Patos Sinus) Ligeia Mare 103 Patos, fjord in Chile
Puget Sinus 82°24′N 241°06′W / 82.4°N 241.1°W / 82.4; -241.1 (Puget Sinus) Ligeia Mare 93 Puget Sound in Washington, United States
Rombaken Sinus 75°18′N 232°54′W / 75.3°N 232.9°W / 75.3; -232.9 (Rombaken Sinus) Ligeia Mare 92.5 Rombaken, fjord in Norway
Skelton Sinus 76°48′N 314°54′W / 76.8°N 314.9°W / 76.8; -314.9 (Skelton Sinus) Kraken Mare 73 Skelton Glacier near Ross Sea, Antarctica
Trold Sinus 71°18′N 292°42′W / 71.3°N 292.7°W / 71.3; -292.7 (Trold Sinus) Kraken Mare 118 Trold Fiord Formation in Nunavut, Canada
Tunu Sinus 79°12′N 299°48′W / 79.2°N 299.8°W / 79.2; -299.8 (Tunu Sinus) Kraken Mare 134 Tunu, fjord in Greenland
Wakasa Sinus 80°42′N 270°00′W / 80.7°N 270°W / 80.7; -270 (Wakasa Sinus) Ligeia Mare 146 Wakasa Bay in Japan
Walvis Sinus 58°12′N 324°06′W / 58.2°N 324.1°W / 58.2; -324.1 (Walvis Sinus) Kraken Mare 253 Walvis Bay in Namibia

TerraeEdit

Terrae are extensive landmasses. As with the albedo features, they are named after sacred and enchanted locations from cultures across the world.[45]

Terra Coordinates Named after
Garotman Terra 13°30′S 348°00′W / 13.5°S 348.0°W / -13.5; -348.0 (Garotman Terra) Garotman, the Iranian paradise that the souls of faithful men inhabit
Tollan Terra 6°24′N 322°42′W / 6.4°N 322.7°W / 6.4; -322.7 (Tollan Terra) Tollan, the Aztec paradise where crops never wilt
Tsiipiya Terra 2°50′N 340°07′W / 2.83°N 340.12°W / 2.83; -340.12 (Tsiipiya Terra) Tsiipiya, the Hopi name for Mount Taylor in New Mexico, USA
Yalaing Terra 19°30′S 324°00′W / 19.5°S 324.0°W / -19.5; -324.0 (Yalaing Terra) Yalaing, the Australian spirit land for good souls with clean water and game

UndaeEdit

Undae are dune fields. On Titan they are named after Greek deities of wind.[46]

Undae Coordinates Diameter (km) Named after
Aura Undae 13°47′N 226°52′W / 13.79°N 226.86°W / 13.79; -226.86 (Aura Undae) 490 Aura, Titanis goddess of the morning wind.
Boreas Undae 6°S 215°W / 6°S 215°W / -6; -215 (Boreas Undae) 260 Boreas, Greek god of the north wind.
Eurus Undae 7°30′S 210°18′W / 7.5°S 210.3°W / -7.5; -210.3 (Eurus Undae) 220 Eurus, Greek personification of the east wind.
Notus Undae 10°00′S 211°06′W / 10°S 211.1°W / -10; -211.1 (Notus Undae) 530 Notus, Greek god of the south or southwest wind.
Zephyrus Undae 8°30′S 217°06′W / 8.5°S 217.1°W / -8.5; -217.1 (Zephyrus Undae) 130 Zephyrus, Greek personification of the gentle west wind.

VirgaeEdit

Virgae (streaks of colour) are named after rain gods in world mythologies.[47]

Virga Coordinates Named after
Bacab Virgae 19°00′S 151°00′W / 19.0°S 151.0°W / -19.0; -151.0 (Bacab Virgae) Bacab, Mayan rain god
Hobal Virga 35°00′S 166°00′W / 35.0°S 166.0°W / -35.0; -166.0 (Hobal Virga) Hobal, Arabian rain god.
Kalseru Virga 36°00′S 137°00′W / 36.0°S 137.0°W / -36.0; -137.0 (Kalseru Virga) Kalseru, Australian Aborigine rain god.
Perkunas Virgae 27°00′S 162°00′W / 27.0°S 162.0°W / -27.0; -162.0 (Perkunas Virgae) Perkūnas, Lithuanian supreme god
Shiwanni Virgae 25°00′S 32°00′W / 25.0°S 32.0°W / -25.0; -32.0 (Shiwanni Virgae) Shiwanni, Zuni rain god
Tishtrya Virgae 23°48′N 179°48′W / 23.8°N 179.8°W / 23.8; -179.8 (Tishtrya Virgae) Tishtrya, Persian rain god
Tlaloc Virgae 23°42′N 207°42′W / 23.7°N 207.7°W / 23.7; -207.7 (Tlaloc Virgae) Tlaloc, Aztec rain god
Uanui Virgae 45°12′N 235°18′W / 45.2°N 235.3°W / 45.2; -235.3 (Uanui Virgae) Uanui, Māori rain god

Informal names for previously unnamed featuresEdit

Because the exact nature of many surface features remain mysterious, a number of features took time to receive formal names and are known by nicknames. In most cases, indications of brightness and darkness refer not to visible light, but to the infrared images used to look through Titan's obscuring haze.[48]

  • 'The Sickle': a large, dark, sickle-shaped region identified by the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • 'Throat of Kraken': unofficial name for the strait that separates the north and south basins of Kraken Mare, before officially being named Seldon Fretum. It was used in early publications that hypothesized about its role with tidal dissipation and surface currents between the two basins of Kraken Mare.[13][49]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d The USGS web site gives size as a "diameter", but it is actually the length in the longest dimension.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Titan Features". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  2. ^ Overbye, Dennis (3 December 2019). "Go Ahead, Take a Spin on Titan - Saturn's biggest moon has gasoline for rain, soot for snow and a subsurface ocean of ammonia. Now there's a map to help guide the search for possible life there". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Titan albedo features". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Melanesian Mythology | Encyclopedia.com". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  5. ^ "Titan arcus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "Titan Colles". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "Titan craters". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Titan facula, faculae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Titan fluctus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  10. ^ "Titan river, rivers". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Mythological Journey to the Aztec Underworld | WilderUtopia.com". wilderutopia.com. 2018-10-10. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  12. ^ "Titan fretum". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  13. ^ a b Lorenz, Ralph D.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Anderson, Yanhua Z.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Tokano, Tetsuya; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Malaska, Michael J.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Lucas, Antoine; Karatekin, Özgür (2014-07-15). "A radar map of Titan Seas: Tidal dissipation and ocean mixing through the throat of Kraken". Icarus. 237: 9–15. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.005. ISSN 0019-1035.
  14. ^ "Titan islands". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  15. ^ Greeley, Ronald (2013). Introduction to Planetary Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-86711-5.
  16. ^ a b Blue, Jennifer (August 4, 2009). "Hot Topics: New Name, Descriptor Term, and Theme Approved for Use on Titan". USGS Astrogeology. Archived from the original on November 1, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  17. ^ "Titan Labyrinthi". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  18. ^ "Ecaz Labyrinthus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. October 8, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  19. ^ "Kaitain Labyrinthus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. October 8, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  20. ^ "Richese Labyrinthus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. October 8, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  21. ^ "Sikun Labyrinthus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. January 6, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  22. ^ "Tupile Labyrinthus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.
  23. ^ "Titan Lacunae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  24. ^ "Eyre Lacuna". USGS planetary nomenclature page. USGS. Retrieved 2019-12-30. External link in |work= (help)
  25. ^ "Ngami Lacuna". USGS planetary nomenclature page. USGS. Retrieved 2019-12-30. External link in |work= (help)
  26. ^ "Woytchugga Lacuna". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. International Astronomical Union (IAU). 3 December 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  27. ^ "Woytchugga Lacuna". USGS planetary nomenclature page. USGS. Retrieved 2019-12-30. External link in |work= (help)
  28. ^ "Titan lakes". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  29. ^ "Titan large ringed feature". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Titan macula, maculae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Titan mare, maria". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Titan Mons, Montes". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  33. ^ "Titan Planitiae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  34. ^ "Arrakis Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. April 5, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  35. ^ "Caladan Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. October 8, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  36. ^ "Chusuk Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. August 4, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  37. ^ "Giedi Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  38. ^ "Hagal Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.
  39. ^ "Poritrin Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. October 8, 2014. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  40. ^ "Romo Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.
  41. ^ "Rossak Planitia". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.
  42. ^ "Titan regio, regiones". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  43. ^ "Titan sinus (bays)". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  44. ^ Garrett, Christopher (August 1972). "Tidal Resonance in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine". Nature. 238 (5365): 441–443. doi:10.1038/238441a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  45. ^ "Titan terra, terrae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  46. ^ "Titan unde, undae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  47. ^ "Titan virga, virgae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  48. ^ Barnes, Jason W.; Brown, Robert H.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Janssen, Michael; Schaller, Emily L.; Brown, Michael E.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Sotin, Christophe; Griffith, Caitlin (2005-10-07). "A 5-Micron-Bright Spot on Titan: Evidence for Surface Diversity". Science. 310 (5745): 92–95. doi:10.1126/science.1117075. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 16210535.
  49. ^ Tokano, Tetsuya; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Van Hoolst, Tim (2014-11-01). "Numerical simulation of tides and oceanic angular momentum of Titan's hydrocarbon seas". Icarus. 242: 188–201. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.021. ISSN 0019-1035.

External linksEdit