List of geographic portmanteaus

This is a list of geographic portmanteaus. Portmanteaus (also called blends) are names constructed by combining elements of two, or occasionally more, other names.

For the most part, the geographic names in this list were derived from two other names or words. Those derived from three or more names are usually considered acronyms or initialisms and can be found in the List of geographic acronyms and initialisms. However, there are exceptions to this two/three rule in both lists, so it is more of a guideline than a hard-and-fast rule.

Note that not all combinations of two names are considered portmanteaus. Simple concatenation of two names (whether hyphenated or not) does not produce a portmanteau. Nor does a combinative form of one name plus the full name of another (examples: Eurasia, Czechoslovakia). These kinds of names are excluded from this list.

Regions named from their componentsEdit

Some regions (including countries and provinces) have names that are portmanteaus of subregions or cities within the region.

CountriesEdit

Chinese provincesEdit

Some Chinese provinces have names that are blends of their two largest cities.

Korean provincesEdit

During the Joseon Kingdom, seven Korean provinces (all but the region around the capital) were named by combining the first characters of their two major cities. The provinces were reorganized in the 1890s but the names are still in use. All these traditional provincial names are carried forward by two current provinces and for all except Gangwon (which is the only one where the two carrying the name were split between North and South Korea) a North and a South province of the same name. However note that for most former provinces, the two current provinces with the name are usually not entirely coextensive with the former province.

The dates of the former provinces are those when they carried that name; they often existed with a different name before that year.

Vanuatu provincesEdit

Half of Vanuatu's provincial names are portmanteaus of their main islands or island groups.

Merged townsEdit

Sometimes a portmanteau name is created from the names of predecessor towns. Names that are merely a concatenation of the predecessor names, such as Budapest, are excluded.

Schools and school districtsEdit

Some school districts that serve two or three towns have names that are blends of those towns' names.

Other regions portmanteaued from their componentsEdit

Border portmanteausEdit

A border portmanteau combines the names of two, or occasionally three, adjacent polities (countries, states, provinces, counties, cities) to form a name for a region, town, body of water, or other feature on or near their mutual border.

RegionsEdit

Generalized border regionsEdit

These are generalized (and unofficial) regions usually centered on cities near state borders in the United States. They usually extend across state lines and their names are portmanteaus of two or three state names.

Other portmanteau regionsEdit

Towns, villages, and localitiesEdit

§ This symbol marks localities with no current population; some of them never had any population.[8]

Blends of country, state, and province namesEdit

Note: places listed on the same line are immediately across the border from each other. Some others with non-similar names are also across a border from each other.

  • § Alaflora, Alabama (Alabama and Florida) former logging town in Escambia County[8]:97
  • § Alaga, Alabama (Alabama and Georgia) town and shipping point where the Alabama Midland Railway crossed the Chattahoochee River[8]:80
  • Alcan Border, Alaska (Alaska and Canada) port of entry where the Alaska Highway (formerly the Alcan Highway) crosses into Alaska
  • Alsask, Saskatchewan (Alberta and Saskatchewan)[3]
  • Arkana, Louisiana and Arkana, Arkansas (Arkansas and Louisiana) town of some 500 people with post office (1890–1931) in Lafayette County, Arkansas and Bossier Parish, Louisiana; now reduced to a single tavern on the Louisiana side of the border[9],[8]:350
  • Arkinda, Arkansas (Arkansas and Indian Territory, now Oklahoma) former trading post with the Choctaw Nation just across the Indian Territory line[8]:372
  • § Arkla, Arkansas (Arkansas and Louisiana), former railroad stop in Chicot County[8]:309
  • § Arkmo, Missouri (Arkansas and Missouri) likely former stop on the Kennett & Osceola Railroad in Dunklin County[8]:328
  • Arkoma, Oklahoma (Arkansas and Oklahoma)[10]
  • Armorel, Arkansas (Arkansas, Missouri, and initials of Robert E. Lee Wilson)[8]:319
  • § Artex, Arkansas (Arkansas and Texas) locality and former post office about 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Texarkana[8]:367
  • § Calada, California and Calada, Nevada (California and Nevada) originally a watering stop on the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad, now a double siding on the Union Pacific Railroad extending over both sides of the border[11],[8]:588
  • Calexico, California (California and Mexico)[11]
  • Calexico Lodge, California[12] (California and Mexico) place in San Diego County near Boulevard, California
  • § Calneva, California (California and Nevada) former town near Calneva Lake, east of Honey Lake[11]
  • Cal-Nev-Ari, Nevada (California, Nevada, and Arizona)[8]:597
  • § Calor, California (California and Oregon) former railroad stop in Siskiyou County, some 8 miles (13 kilometers) east of Dorris, California [11]
  • § Calor, Oregon (California and Oregon) former railroad stop on Southern Pacific's Cascade Line[13]
  • § Calvada, California (California and Nevada) former stop on the Central Pacific Railroad[8]:546
  • Calvada Springs, California (California and Nevada)[11], now known as Charleston View
  • § Calzona, California (California and Arizona) former town with a post office (1909–14) and rail depot (1909–17) on the Arizona and California Railway; site now west of Big River, California[11]
  • § Carotenn, North Carolina (North Carolina and Tennessee) another name for Lost Cove, North Carolina, a former logging town and moonshining locale, now a ghost town[8]:188
  • Carova Beach, North Carolina (North Carolina and Virginia)[8]:205
  • § Cokan, Kansas (Colorado and Kansas), community located about 2 miles (3 kilometers) east of the Colorado-Kansas line in Greeley County from the 1930s to the 1950s[5]
  • § Colmex, Colorado (Colorado and New Mexico) former Denver and Rio Grande Railroad stop in La Plata County[8]:471
  • § Colokan, Kansas (Colorado and Kansas) a short-lived (1887–1897) town half a mile east of the Colorado-Kansas border in Greeley County[8]:429
  • § Dakomin, Minnesota (South Dakota and Minnesota) former town on Lake Traverse[8]:238
  • § Dakoming, Wyoming (South Dakota and Wyoming) rail siding on the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad, now part of the BNSF Railroad[8]:442
  • Delmar, Delaware and Delmar, Maryland (Delaware and Maryland)[14]
  • Flomaton, Alabama (Florida, Alabama, plus -ton)[15]
  • Florala, Alabama (Florida and Alabama)[15]
  • § Idavada, Idaho (Idaho and Nevada) rail siding on the Oregon Short Line RR about a mile north of the Idaho-Nevada border in Twin Falls County; line now abandoned and removed[16]
  • § Idmon, Idaho (Idaho and Montana) former town in the Camas Meadows area of Clark County[16]
  • § Illiana, Illinois (Edgar County) (Illinois and Indiana) former name of Raven, Illinois[17]:291
  • Illiana, Illinois (Vermilion County) (Illinois and Indiana)[17]
  • Illiana Heights, Illinois (Illinois and Indiana)[8]:295
  • Illmo, Scott City, Missouri (Illinois and Missouri) railroad town located at the Missouri end of a rail bridge over the Mississippi River; now merged with Scott City[18]
  • § Kanado, Kansas (Kansas and Colorado), community located about 10 miles (16 kilometers) east of Colorado-Kansas line in Greeley County during the 1940s[5]
  • § Kanco, Kansas (Kansas and Colorado), current railroad stop 1.8 miles (3 kilometers) east of the Colorado-Kansas border in Greeley County[8]:429
  • Kanorado, Kansas (Kansas and Colorado) town in the middle of sunflower fields that has seen busier days[5]
  • Kenova, West Virginia (Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia)[19]
  • Kensee, Kentucky (Kentucky and Tennessee), former coal mining town in Whitley County near Jellico, Tennessee[20]
  • Kentenia, Kentucky (Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia) former coal mining town in Harlan County near the southeastern point of Kentucky[8]:155
  • Kenvir, Kentucky (Kentucky and Virginia) former coal mining town whose mineworkers engaged in the Coal Wars in Harlan County, including the Battle of Evarts[20]
  • § Laark, Louisiana (Louisiana and Arkansas), former shipping and supply point in northeastern Morehouse Parish; now a rural locality[8]:309
  • § Latex, Louisiana and Latex, Texas (Louisiana and Texas) former town on the border, in both Caddo Parish, Louisiana and Harrison County, Texas[5]
  • Latex, Texas (Panola County) (Louisiana and Texas) former name of Panola, Texas[21]
  • Mardela Springs, Maryland (Maryland and Delaware)[8]:22
  • Marydel, Delaware and Marydel, Maryland (Maryland and Delaware)
  • § Mexhoma, Oklahoma (New Mexico and Oklahoma)town along the Cimarron Route of the Santa Fe Trail; now no longer inhabited[5]
  • Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico and California)
  • Michiana, Michigan and Michiana Shores, Indiana (Michigan and Indiana)[8]:225
  • § Missala, Alabama (Mississippi and Alabama) former post office (1916–1925) serving a short-lived logging boom in Choctaw County[8]:114
  • § Missala, Mississippi (Mississippi and Alabama) former rail siding on what is now a CSX line in Jackson County[8]:122
  • Moark, Arkansas (Missouri and Arkansas) town formed when the railroad came in the 1870s and went away when the rail did in the 1960s[8]:335
  • § Moark, Missouri (Missouri and Arkansas) former shipping point for the Missouri-Arkansas Lumber Company[22]
  • § Mokan, Missouri (Missouri and Kansas) former coal-shipping town in Bates County[8]:300
  • § Mondak, Montana and East Mondak, North Dakota (Montana and North Dakota) Wild West town providing liquor, gambling, and other adult recreations during a period when North Dakota prohibited alcohol and Montana did not; losing its raison d'etre with Prohibition, the town was abandoned and then destroyed by wildfire in the 1920s[8]:259,[6]
  • Monida, Montana (Montana and Idaho) former rail service town where the Utah and Northern Railroad crossed the Continental Divide at Monida Pass[23]
  • § Monota, Montana (Montana and North Dakota) village with post office in the early 20th century[8]:449
  • Nocarva, North Carolina (North Carolina and Virginia) community of lakeside homes with private airstrip on the shore of Lake Gaston[24]
  • North Kenova, Ohio (Kentucky, Ohio, (West) Virginia)[8]:254
  • § Nosodak, North Dakota (North and South Dakota) platted, but never actually settled; town site now within Lake Oahe[6]
  • § Nypenn, New York (New York and Pennsylvania) former station on the New York, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad south of State Line in Chautauqua County[8]:52
  • § Oklarado, Colorado (Oklahoma and Colorado) former farming community in Baca County[5]
  • § Orcal, Oregon (Oregon and California) former railroad stop on the Southern Pacific's Siskiyou Line[13]
  • § Otex, Oklahoma (Harmon County) (Oklahoma and Texas)[10]
  • § Otex, Oklahoma (Texas County) (Oklahoma and Texas) former post office just northeast of Texhoma[10]
  • Pen Mar, Maryland and Pen Mar, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania and Maryland)[8]:45
  • Penowa, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia) small residential community, formerly a coal mining town, in Washington County[8]:141
  • Saskalta, Alberta (Saskatchewan and Alberta), former name of Altario
  • Sylmar, Maryland and Sylmar, Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania and Maryland) former town with rail station straddling the state border near US Highway 1, now a rural area[5]
  • § Tenark, Arkansas (Tennessee and Arkansas) Union Pacific Railroad stop southwest of West Memphis, Arkansas[24]
  • § Tennelina, North Carolina (Tennessee and North Carolina) former post office on Shut-in Creek in Madison County[8]:181
  • § Tennemo, Tennessee (Tennessee and Missouri) former lumber town (saw mill and shipping point) on the Mississippi River in Dyer County[25]
  • Tennga, Georgia (Tennessee and Georgia)[26]
  • Texarkana, Texas and Texarkana, Arkansas (Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana)
  • Texhoma, Oklahoma[10] and Texhoma, Texas[27] (Texas and Oklahoma)
  • Texico, New Mexico (Texas and New Mexico)[28]
  • Texla, Texas (Texas and Louisiana) former logging town with post office (1905–1929) in Orange County[29]
  • Texola, Oklahoma (Texas and Oklahoma), previously known as Texoma and Texokla [10]
  • § Ucolo, Utah (Utah and Colorado)[30]
  • § Urado, Colorado (Utah and Colorado) very short rail siding on the Uintah Railway in Rio Blanco County[31]
  • § Urado, Utah (Utah and Colorado) former post office and school in San Juan County[8]:519
  • § Utida, Utah (Utah and Idaho) former railroad town (including maintenance shop) on the Utah Northern Railroad (now Union Pacific Railroad) in Cache County[8]:510
  • Uvada, Nevada (Utah and Nevada) ranching community in White Pine County[32]
  • § Uvada, Utah (Utah and Nevada) former rail station and siding in Iron County[8]:526
  • Vershire, Vermont (Vermont and New Hampshire)[8]:5
  • Virgilina, Virginia (Virginia and North Carolina)[33]:102
  • Vir-Mar Beach, Virginia (Virginia and Maryland)[8]:217
  • Wyocolo, Wyoming (Wyoming and Colorado)[8]:480
  • § Wyuta, Utah (Wyoming and Utah) former station on the Union Pacific Railroad in either Rich or Summit Counties[8]:505

Blends of county namesEdit

Blends of town namesEdit

Bodies of waterEdit

Lakes that are on or near borders also sometimes get named with portmanteaus of the neighbouring polities.

  • Alsask Lake(Alberta and Saskatchewan) near Alsask, Saskatchewan[3]
  • Arkla Lake[45] (Arkansas and Louisiana) Miller County, Arkansas
  • Calneva Lake[46] (California and Nevada) Lassen County, California
  • Lake Keomah — a man-made lake 4 miles (6 kilometers) east of Oskaloosa, Iowa named for the two counties that financed it, Keokuk and Mahaska
  • Lake Koocanusa — a reservoir named for the river it dams (Kootenay River) and the countries whose border it straddles (Canada and United States) located in British Columbia and Montana
  • Mansask Lake[47] (Manitoba and Saskatchewan) near Saskman Lake[3]
  • Mantario Lake[48] (Manitoba and Ontario)
  • Mantricia Lake[49] (Manitoba and Patricia District, part of Kenora District, Ontario)[50]
  • Lake Michiana[51] (Michigan and Indiana) Branch County, Michigan and Steuben County, Indiana
  • Sangchris Lake (Sangamon and Christian Counties) reservoir southeast of Springfield, Illinois
  • Saskman Lake[52] (Saskatchewan and Manitoba) near Mansask Lake[3]
  • Saskoba Lake[53] (Saskatchewan and Manitoba)[3]
  • Lake Talquin — Tallahassee and Quincy, Florida
  • Texarkana Reservoir (Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana) original name of reservoir on the Sulphur River in Texas, renamed Lake Texarkana, now known as Wright Patman Lake
  • Lake Texoma — a man-made lake on the Red River that divides Texas and Oklahoma
  • Uvada Reservoir[54] (Utah and Nevada) Lincoln County, Nevada
  • Lake Wissota (Wisconsin and Minnesota) a large reservoir in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin[55]

TopographyEdit

Geographic features on borders or between towns sometimes get border portmanteau names.

Roads and other forms of transportationEdit

These can either run along or near a border or connect two places.

Roads along a borderEdit

ConnectorsEdit

Other border portmanteausEdit

  • Frelard (Fremont, Seattle and Ballard, Seattle) an unofficial neighbourhood where two other neighbourhoods meet[60]
  • Mantario Trail (Manitoba and Ontario) hiking trail mostly in Manitoba but partially in Ontario
  • Mari-Osa State Wildlife Area, Missouri (Maries and Osage Counties)[61]
  • Minn-Kota State Wildlife Management Area, Minnesota (Minnesota and South Dakota)[62]

MapsEdit

Below are maps of the towns (red dots), bodies of water (blue dots), and other geographic features (green dots) that are portmanteaus of country, state, and province names. Also included are pseudo-border portmanteau towns (yellow dots).

 
 
Mansask Lake
 
Mantario Lake
 
Mantario Trail
 
Mantrica Lake
 
Saskman Lake
 
Saskoba Lake
Border portmanteaus in Manitoba
 
 
Altario
 
Altorado
 
Alsask
 
Canida Peak
 
Lake Koocanusa
 
Ukalta
Border portmanteaus in and near Alberta
 
 
Alsask
 
Alsask Lake
 
Altario
 
Mankota
 
Mansask Lake
 
Mantario
 
Saskman Lake
 
Saskoba Lake
 
Sasman No. 336
Border portmanteaus in and near Saskatchewan
 
 
Alaflora
 
Alaga
 
Arizmo
 
Arkana
 
Arkana(Baxter County)
 
Arkinda
 
Arkla
 
Arkla Lake
 
Arkmo
 
Arkoma
 
Armorel
 
Artex
 
Calada
 
Calexico
 
Calexico Lodge
 
Cal-Ida
 
Calneva
 
Calneva Lake
 
Cal‑Nev‑Ari
 
Calor(OR)
 
Calor(CA)
 
Calvada Springs
 
Calzona
 
Calvada
 
Canida Peak
 
Canusa Street
 
Carotenn
 
Carova Beach
 
Cokan/Kanado
 
Colokan/Kanco
 
Colmex
 
Dakomin
 
Dakoming
 
Delmar
 
Delmar Township
 
Flomaton
 
Florala
 
Idavada
 
Idmon
 
Illiana (Edgar County)
 
Illiana(Vermilion County)
 
Illiana Heights
 
Illmo
 
Kaneb
 
Kanorado
 
Kenova/North Kenova
 
Kensee
 
Kentenia
 
Kenvir
 
Lake Koocanusa
 
Kyana
 
Kymo
 
Laark
 
Latex
 
Mardela Springs
 
Marydel
 
Mexhoma
 
Mexicali
 
Michiana/Michiana Shores
 
Lake Michiana
 
Michillinda Lodge
 
Minn-Kota WMA
 
Missala(AL)
 
Missala(MS)
 
Moark(AR)
 
Moark(MO)
 
Mokan
 
Mondak
 
Monida
 
Monida Pass
 
Monota
 
Nocarva
 
Nosodak
 
Nypenn
 
Ohiowa
 
Oklarado
 
Orcal
 
Otex (Harmon County)
 
Otex(Texas County)
 
Ovapa
 
Pen Mar
 
Penowa
 
Sylmar
 
Tenark
 
Tennala
 
Tennelina
 
Tennemo
 
Tennga
 
Texarkana
 
Texhoma
 
Lake Texhoma
 
Texhoma City
 
Texico
 
Texla
 
Texla (Houston County)
 
Texmo
 
Texola
 
Ucolo
 
Urado(UT)
 
Urado(CO)
 
Utida
 
Uvada(NV)
 
Uvada(UT)
 
Uvada Reservoir
 
Vershire
 
Virgilina
 
Vir-Mar Beach
 
Viropa
 
Lake Wissota (village)
 
Lake Wissota
 
Wyocolo
 
Wyodak
 
Wyuta
Border portmanteaus in the United States
 
 
Alcan Border
 
Canalaska Mountain
Border portmanteaus in Alaska

Map legend:

red dot = border portmanteau towns and localities
yellow dot = pseudo-border portmanteaus
blue dot = bodies of water
green dot = other features

Pseudo-border portmanteausEdit

Some places have names that are blends of country, state, and provincial names. However, they are either not near their mutual border, or of regions that do not have a mutual border.

  • Altario, Alberta (Alberta and Ontario), formerly Saskalta (Saskatchewan and Alberta)[8]:148
  • Altorado, Alberta (Alberta and Colorado), named by Mormon settlers from Colorado[63]
  • Arizmo, Arizona (Arizona and Missouri), settled by people from Missouri[64]
  • Arkana, Arkansas (Baxter County) (Arkansas and Louisiana)[8]:356
  • Cal-Ida, California (California and Idaho) [8]:148
  • Delmar Boulevard (Delaware and Maryland), major street in St. Louis, Missouri; named by two early landowners along the street, one from Delaware and one from Maryland
  • Delmar Township, Pennsylvania (Delaware and Maryland), originally Virdelmar (Virginia, Delaware and Maryland)[65]
  • Flomich, Florida (Florida and Michigan), founder being a native of Michigan[5]
  • § Kaneb, Nebraska (Kansas and Nebraska), BNSF Railway stop in Fillmore County[24]
  • Kyana, Indiana (Kentucky and Indiana)[8]:147
  • § Kymo, Arizona (Kentucky and Missouri), first settlers were two families, one from each state[64]
  • Lake Wissota, Wisconsin (Wisconsin and Minnesota), town on the lake, also known as Lake Wissota Village
  • Mankota, Saskatchewan (Manitoba and North Dakota), original homes of the settlers[3]
  • Mantario, Saskatchewan (Manitoba and Ontario), named after two provinces in imitation of nearby Alsask[3]
  • Michillinda Lodge, Michigan (Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana)[8]:148
  • Ohiowa, Nebraska (Ohio and Iowa), settled by people from both states.[66]
  • Ovapa, West Virginia (Ohio, Virginia, Pennsylvania)[19]:465
  • Sasman No. 336, Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan and Manitoba), Regional Municipality, the equivalent of a county[3]
  • Tennala, Alabama (Tennessee and Alabama)[8]:149
  • Texhoma City, Texas (Texas and Oklahoma) oil boom town in Archer County during the 1920s; gradually disappeared after the oil was gone[67]
  • Texla, Texas (Houston County) (Texas and Louisiana) not near Houston, but also not near the Louisiana border[68]
  • Texmo, Oklahoma (Texas and Missouri) settlers from Missouri[10]
  • Ukalta, Alberta (Ukraine and Alberta)[8]:148
  • § Viropa, West Virginia (Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania)[19]:650
  • Wyodak, Wyoming (Wyoming and South Dakota)[8]:443

From personal namesEdit

Most here are blends of two personal names, but some are of a personal name with some other name or word.

LivestockEdit

  • Bimble, Kentucky — Bim and Bill, two oxen owned by Will Payne, first postmaster[20]
  • Clemretta, British Columbia[104] — Clementine and Henrietta, two cows owned by the first postmaster[1]

Other portmanteausEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Akrigg, G. P. (Philip) V.; Akrigg, Helen (2011). British Columbia Place Names (Third ed.). UBC Press. ISBN 978-0774841702.
  2. ^ a b c d e Rayburn, Alan (1997). Place names of Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7207-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Barry, Bill (September 2005). Geographic Names of Saskatchewan. Regina, Saskatchewan: People Places Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 1-897010-19-2.
  4. ^ a b c d Overman, William Daniel (1959). Ohio Town Names. Akron, Ohio: Atlantic Press. hdl:2027/mdp.39015015361465.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Stewart, George R. (1970). American place-names; a concise and selective dictionary for the continental United States of America. New York: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Williams, Mary Ann Barnes (1966). Origins of North Dakota Place Names. Bismarck, ND: Bismarck Tribune.
  7. ^ Mazrui, Ali A.; Kariuki, James N. "On the Concept of Afrabia". Pan African Visions. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Temple, Robert D. (2009). Edge Effects: the Border-Name Places (2nd ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse, Inc. ISBN 978-0-595-47758-6.
  9. ^ a b c d D'Artois Leeper, Clare (2012). Louisiana Place Names: Popular, Unusual, and Forgotten Stories of Towns, Cities, Plantations, Bayous, and Even Some Cemeteries. LSU Press. ISBN 9780807147382.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Shirk, George H (1987). Oklahoma Place Names. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2028-2.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gudde, Erwin Gustav (2010). California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names. University of California Press.
  12. ^ "Calexico Lodge". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McArthur, Lewis A.; McArthur, Lewis L. (1992). Oregon Geographic Names (6th ed.). Oregon Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87595-237-2.
  14. ^ Heck, L. W. (1966). Delaware Place Names. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  15. ^ a b c d Foscue, Virginia O. (1989). Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 9780817304102.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Boone, Lalia Phipps (1988). Idaho place names : a geographical dictionary. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Press. ISBN 0893011193.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Callary, Edward (October 2009). Place Names of Illinois. Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03356-8.
  18. ^ a b c Eaton, David Wolfe (1916). How Missouri Counties, Towns and Streams Were Named. State Historical Society.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kenny, Hamill (1945). West Virginia Place Names: Their Origin and Meaning, Including the Nomenclature of the Streams and Mountains. Piedmont, WV: The Place Name Press. hdl:2027/mdp.39015009099824.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Rennick, Robert M. (2013). Kentucky Place Names. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813144016.
  21. ^ Long, Christopher. "Panola, TX [#2] (Panola County)". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Dunklin County Place Names, 1928–1945". The State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved September 20, 2018.
  23. ^ a b "Montana Placenames from Alzada to Zortman". Montana Place Names. Montana Historical Society. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  24. ^ a b c Rand McNally & Co. (1997). Rand McNally 1997 Commercial Atlas and Marketing Guide (128th ed.). Rand McNally & Co.
  25. ^ a b Miller, Larry (2001). Tennessee Place-names. Indinan University Press. ISBN 9780253214782.
  26. ^ Krakow, Kenneth K. (November 1999). Georgia Place-Names (Third ed.). Macon, Georgia: Winship Press. ISBN 0-915430-00-2.
  27. ^ a b c d e f Tarpley, Fred (2010). 1001 Texas Place Names. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292786936.
  28. ^ a b Julyan, Robert Hixson (1996). The Place Names of New Mexico (revised ed.). UNM Press. ISBN 9780826316899.
  29. ^ Wooster, Robert. "Texla, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  30. ^ a b Van Cott, John W. (1990). Utah Place Names: A Comprehensive Guide to the Origins of Geographic Names : a Compilation. University of Utah Press. ISBN 9780874803457.
  31. ^ Bender, Henry E. (1970). Uintah Railway: the Gilsonite Route. Howell-North Books. p. 51. ISBN 9780831070809.
  32. ^ a b c Carlson, Helen S. (1974). Nevada Place Names: A Geographical Dictionary. University of Nevada Press. ISBN 9780874170948.
  33. ^ a b c d Hanson, Raus McDill (1969). Virginia Place Names : Derivations, Historical Uses. Verona, Virginia: McClure Press.
  34. ^ "Colmor, New Mexico". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  35. ^ "Dalark". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  36. ^ McCarthy, John. "A Guide to Sarasota Beaches". Sarasota Magazine. SagaCity Media. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  37. ^ a b c d e f McCoy, Sondra Van Meter; Hults, Jan (1989). 1001 Kansas Place Names. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0392-1.
  38. ^ Duffy, Richard A. "History of Arlington Street names: 'Arlmont Village'". wickedlocal.com. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i Morris, Allan (1995). Florida Place Names: Alachua to Zolfo Springs. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. ISBN 1-56164-084-0.
  40. ^ Chicago and North Western Railway Company (1908). A History of the Origin of the Place Names Connected with the Chicago & North Western and Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railways (2nd ed.).
  41. ^ Constanze. "German Kofferwörter (Portmanteau Words)". German Language Blog. Transparent Language. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Linworth, Ohio". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  43. ^ Jenkins, Elwyn (2007). Falling into Place: The Story of Modern South African Place Names. New Africa Books. ISBN 9780864866899.
  44. ^ "Vade, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  45. ^ "Arkla Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  46. ^ "Calneva Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  47. ^ "Mansask Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  48. ^ "Mantario Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  49. ^ "Manticia Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Geographic Board of Canada (1933). Place-names of Manitoba. Ottawa: J. O. Patenaude, acting King's printer. hdl:2027/mdp.39015027929515.
  51. ^ "Lake Michiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  52. ^ "Saskman Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  53. ^ "Saskoba Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  54. ^ "Uvada Reservoir". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  55. ^ a b c d e f Gard, Ropbert E. (2015). The Romance of Wisconsin Place Names. Wisconsin Historical Society. ISBN 9780870207082.
  56. ^ "Canalaska Mountain". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  57. ^ "Canalaska Mountain". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  58. ^ "Canida Peak". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  59. ^ Mills, A. D. A dictionary of London place-names (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199566785.
  60. ^ Keeley, Sean. "Poll: Is Frelard An Actual Seattle Neighborhood?". Curbed Seattle. Vox Media. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  61. ^ a b c d e f g Ramsay, Robert L. (1952). Our Storehouse of Missouri Place Names. University of Missouri Press.
  62. ^ "Minn-kota WMA". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. State of Minnesota. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  63. ^ a b c Marden, Ernest G.; Marden, Austin (2010). Community Place Names of Alberta. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1897472170.
  64. ^ a b c d Barnes, Will Croft (2016). Arizona Place Names. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 9780816534951.
  65. ^ "Delmar Township". Delmar Township. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  66. ^ a b Fitzpatrick, Lilian L. (1925). Nebraska Place-Names. University of Nebraska Press.
  67. ^ Hart, Brian. "Texhoma City, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  68. ^ Long, Christopher. "Texla, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Associtation. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  69. ^ "Albertha, North Dakota". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  70. ^ "Alpat Lake". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  71. ^ Upham, Warren (2001). Minnesota place names : a geographical encyclopedia (3rd., rev. and enl ed.). Minnesota Historical Society Press. ISBN 9780873513968. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  72. ^ Minor, David. "Birome, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  73. ^ a b c d e Baker, Ronald L. (October 1995). From Needmore to Prosperity: Hoosier Place Names in Folklore and History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-32866-3.
  74. ^ a b c d Kenny, Hamill (1984). The Placenames of Maryland : their origin and meaning. Baltimore, Md.: Maryland Historical Society. ISBN 0-938420-28-3.
  75. ^ "Como, Henry County, Missouri". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  76. ^ "Cookson, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  77. ^ "Coxby, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  78. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1940). South Dakota place-names, v.1-3. University of South Dakota. hdl:2027/mdp.39015027015455.
  79. ^ Warren Upham (1920). Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 157.
  80. ^ "Dankin, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  81. ^ a b Espenshade, A. Howry (1925). Pennsylvania place names. State College, PA: The Pennsylvania State College. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012934249.
  82. ^ "Dunrea, Manitoba". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  83. ^ Wooster, Robert. "Gladstell, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  84. ^ "Gragreen, North Dakota". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  85. ^ Wick, Douglas A. (1989). North Dakota Place Names. Prairie House. p. 79. ISBN 9780911007114.
  86. ^ Hamilton, William Baillie (1996). Place Names of Atlantic Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 209. ISBN 0802075703.
  87. ^ Barrier, Carolyn. "Idalou, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  88. ^ Justice, Glenn. "Iraan, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  89. ^ "Langruth, Manitoba". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  90. ^ Anderson, H. Allen. "Lazbuddie, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  91. ^ "Leaday, TX". Handbook of texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  92. ^ Meany, Edmund S. (1923). Origin of Washington geographic names. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. hdl:2027/mdp.39015027074981.
  93. ^ a b c Bright, William (2004). Colorado Place Names. Big Earth Publishing. ISBN 9781555663339.
  94. ^ Hart, Brian. "Mabank, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  95. ^ "Macworth, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  96. ^ Hart, Jan. "Mansfield, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  97. ^ "Marchwell, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  98. ^ a b c d e Upham, W. (1920). Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance, v. 17. Minnesota Historical Society.
  99. ^ "Maxstone, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  100. ^ Krawchuk, Peter. "Ukrainian Place Names in Canada". Virtual Museum of Canada. Canadian Museum of History. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  101. ^ "Noralee, British Columbi". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  102. ^ a b Canadian Board on Geographical Names (1928). Place-names of Alberta. Ottawa: F. A. Acland, printer. hdl:2027/mdp.39015070267029.
  103. ^ "Wallard, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  104. ^ "Clemretta, British Columbia". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  105. ^ a b Waldman, Carl; Braun, Molly (2009). Atlas of the North American Indian. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9781438126715.
  106. ^ "Bellevyria, North Dakota". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  107. ^ "Crekola, Oklahoma". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  108. ^ Vasiliev, Ren (2004). From Abbotts to Zurich: New York State Placenames. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815607984.
  109. ^ "Enehoe, Oklahoma". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  110. ^ "Montana Place Names Companion". Montana Place Names From Alzada to Zortman. Montana Historical Society Research Center. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
  111. ^ "Golburn, Saskatchewan". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  112. ^ "Indrio, Florida". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  113. ^ Romig, Walter (1973). Michigan Place Names: The History of the Founding and the Naming of More Than Five Thousand Past and Present Michigan Communities. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 9780814318386.
  114. ^ "New Madrid County Place Names, 1928–1945". The State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  115. ^ Reynolds, W. Dale. "Okeene". The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  116. ^ "Rondowa, Oregon". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.