List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)). However, in popular usage and in the list below, it also includes gold reserves, special drawing rights (SDRs) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) reserve position because this total figure, which is usually more accurately termed as official reserves or international reserves or official international reserves, is more readily available and also arguably more meaningful.

These foreign-currency deposits are the financial assets of the central banks and monetary authorities that are held in different reserve currencies (e.g. the U.S. dollar, the Euro, the Japanese yen and the Pound sterling) and which are used to back its liabilities (e.g. the local currency issued and the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government or financial institutions). Before the end of the gold standard, gold was the preferred reserve currency. Some nations are converting foreign-exchange reserves into sovereign wealth funds, which can rival foreign-exchange reserves in size.

The list below is mostly based on the latest available IMF data, and while most nations report in U.S. dollars, a few nations in Eastern Europe report solely in Euros. And since all the figures below are in U.S. dollar equivalents, exchange rate fluctuations can have a significant impact on these figures.

Contents

Foreign exchange reservesEdit

Rank Country or region Foreign exchange
reserves
(millions of US$)
Figures as of
1   China 3,099,000 March, 2019[1]
2   Japan 1,218,763
February , 2019
3    Switzerland 800,389 May 2018[2]
5   Saudi Arabia 484,597 Feb 2019[3]
4   Russia 491,600 8,March 2019[4]
6   Taiwan[5] 464,080 MARCH 2019[6][7]
7   Hong Kong 434,500 February 2019
8   India 414,886 April 2019[8]
9   South Korea 405,250 Mar 2019[9]
10   Brazil 378,450 Feb 2019[10]
11   Singapore 293,889 January 2019[11]
12   Thailand 211,556.30 05 April 2019[12]
13   Germany 196,261 December 2018[13]
14   Mexico 175,029 January 2019[14][15]
15   United Kingdom 173,215 30 Nov 2018[16]
16   France 160,909 Oct 2018[17]
17   Czech Republic 143,342 January 2019[18]
18   Italy 143,183 March 2016[19]
19   Iran 132,600 31 December 2017[20]
20   United States 126,026 04 Jan 2019[21]
21   Poland 119,470 March 2018[22]
22   Israel 118,208 March 2019[23]
23   Indonesia 117,927 August 2018[24]
24   Malaysia 104,500 31 July 2018[25]
25   Turkey 100,100 Feb 2019[26]
26   Algeria 79,870 December 2018[27]
27   United Arab Emirates 89,790 31 December 2017[20]
28   Canada 83,130 November 2016[28][29]
29   Philippines 83,198 March 2019[30][31]
  Europe (ECB) 80,292 28 February 2018[32][33]
  Europe (ECB - Eurosystem) 857,965 28 February 2018[34][35]
30   Libya 70,990 31 December 2015[20]
31   Norway 64,960 March 2018[36][37]
32   Peru 64,290 January 2018[38]
33   Denmark 64,016 March 2016[39]
34   Vietnam 63,000 May 2018[40]
35   Sweden 59,558 February 2016[41]
36   Australia 58,676 31 March 2018[42]
37   Spain 54,155 March 2016[43]
38   Iraq 54,060 31 December 2015[20]
39   South Africa 51,641 December 2018[44]
40   Argentina 50,613 12 September 2018
41   Nigeria 47,361 25 April 2018[45]
42   Colombia 46,798 April 2016[20][46]
43   Azerbaijan 44,000 March 2018[47][48][49]
44   Egypt 44,000 April 2018[50]
45   Lebanon 43,000 31 November 2017[20]
46   Netherlands 40,393 April 2016[51]
47   Romania 40,148 April 2016[52]
48   Chile 39,553 March 2016[53]
49   Kuwait 33,130 31 December 2017[20]
50   Bangladesh 32,235 February 2019[54]
51   Hungary 31,367 March 2016[55]
52   Kazakhstan 30,993 February 2018[56]
53   Belgium 24,861 March 2016[57]
54   Austria 24,758 March 2016[58]
55   Bulgaria 24,318 March 2016[20][59]
56   Angola 24,080 31 December 2015[20]
57   Qatar 24,030 July 2017[20]
58   Morocco 23,631 Sep 2018[20][60][61]
59   New Zealand 22,183 31 March 2018[62]
60   Portugal 21,328 March 2016[63]
61   Macau, China 19,200 Sep 2018[64]
62   Oman 17,540 31 December 2015[20]
63   Ukraine 17,175 1 May 2017[65]
64   Jordan 15,360 August 2017[66]
65   Uzbekistan 15,000 31 December 2015[20]
66   Uruguay 14,377 February 2016[67]
67   Croatia 14,307 February 2016[20][68]
68   Turkmenistan 13,620 31 December 2015[20]
69   Bolivia 12,818 January 2016[69]
70   Cambodia 12,300 May 2018[70]
71   Serbia 12,150 February 2018[71]
72   Cuba 12,100 31 December 2015[20]
73   Finland 10,552 March 2018[72]
74   Venezuela 9,591 March 2018[73]
75     Nepal 9,329 15 July 2018[74]
76   Pakistan 9,243 12 April 2019[75]
77   Sri Lanka 8,590 31 Aug 2018 [76]
78   Myanmar 8,463 31 December 2015[20]
79   Kenya 8,436 27 Sep 2018[77]
80   Trinidad and Tobago 8,111 April 2018[78]
81   North Korea 8,000 November 2013[79]
82   Costa Rica 7,784 February 2016[80]
83   Guatemala 7,658 March 2016[81]
84   Botswana 7,546 31 December 2015[20]
85   Greece 7,535 March 2016[82]
86   Afghanistan 7,500 31 December 2017[83]
87   Dominican Republic 7,239 December 2018[84]
88   Ghana 6,756 December 2018[20]
89   Paraguay 6,723 January 2019[20]
90   Tunisia 6,714 February 2016[85]
91   Iceland 6,186 April 2016[86]
92   Bosnia and Herzegovina 5,370 December 2017[87]
93   Belarus 4,817 1 November 2016[88][89]
94   Ivory Coast 4,716 31 December 2015[20]
95   Bahrain 4,657 31 December 2015[20]
96   Honduras 4,612 December 2018[90]
97   Mauritius 4,498 March 2016[91]
98   Tanzania 4,073 31 December 2015[20]
100   Latvia 3,817 December 2018[60][92]
102   Panama 3,378 31 December 2015[20]
103   Brunei 3,366 2015[93]
99   Ireland 4,022 December 2018[60][94]
101   Albania 3,400 October 2018[20][60][95]
104   El Salvador 3,172 March 2016[96]
105   Ethiopia 3,113 31 December 2015[20]
106   Zambia 2,968 31 December 2015[20]
107   Uganda 2,909 31 December 2015[20]
108   Slovakia 2,879 January 2016[20][97]
109   Georgia 2,760 October 2016[60][98][99]
110   Jamaica 2,740 February 2016[20][60][100]
111   Cameroon 2,714 31 December 2015[20]
112   Mozambique 2,582 31 December 2015[20]
113   Nicaragua 2,520 April 2016[20][60][101]
114   Ecuador 2,496 31 December 2015[20]
115   North Macedonia 2,480 February 2016[20][60][102]
116   Republic of the Congo 2,244 31 December 2015[20]
117   Moldova 2,098 25 November 2016[103][104][105]
118   Senegal 2,012 31 December 2015[20]
119   Armenia 2,008 May 2018[106]
120   Yemen 1,978 31 December 2015[20]
121   Kyrgyzstan 1,944 October 2016[20][60][107][108]
122   Haiti 1,919 31 December 2015[20]
123   Gabon 1,878 31 December 2015[20]
124   Curaçao 1,791 2015[93]
125   Papua New Guinea 1,738 31 December 2015[20]
126   Namibia 1,690 31 December 2015[20]
127   Lithuania 1,227 April 2016[60][109]
128   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,216 31 December 2015[20]
129   Equatorial Guinea 1,205 31 December 2015[20]
130   Bhutan 1,103 2015[93]
131   Luxembourg 1,077 March 2016[20][60][110]
132   Laos 1,058 31 December 2015[20][93]
133   Niger 1,039 2015[93]
133   Mongolia 1,039 October 2016[111]
135   Rwanda 1,030 31 December 2015[20]
136   Mauritania 969 2012[93]
137   Fiji 919 31 December 2015[20]
138   Lesotho 904 31 December 2015[20]
139   Bahamas 896 31 December 2015[20][93]
140   Kosovo 890 30 September 2015[20][93][112]
141   Cyprus 889 March 2016[20][60][113]
142   Slovenia 870 April 2016[60][114]
143   Madagascar 832 31 December 2015[20]
144   Aruba 816 2015[93]
145   Syria 773 31 December 2015[20]
146   Montenegro 734 2015[20][93]
147   Benin 732 31 December 2015[20][93]
148   Malawi 693 31 December 2015[20][93]
149   Malta 671 March 2016[20][60][115]
150   Barbados 658 31 December 2015[20]
151   Mali 624 2015[93]
152   Sierra Leone 621 2015[93]
153   Guyana 601 31 December 2015[20]
154   Maldives 576 2015[20][93]
155   Togo 574 31 December 2015[20][93]
156   Seychelles 555 March 2016[20][60][116]
157   Swaziland 548 31 December 2015[20][93]
158   Liberia 523 2015[93]
159   Solomon Islands 520 2015[93]
160   Cape Verde 495 31 December 2015[20][93]
161   Estonia 494 March 2016[20][60][117]
161   Tajikistan 494 31 December 2015[20]
163   Palestine 464 March 2016[60][118]
164   Timor-Leste 438 2015[93]
165   Belize 437 31 December 2015[20][93]
166   San Marino 392 2014[93]
167   Chad 383 31 December 2015[20]
168   Djibouti 365 2015[93]
169   Antigua and Barbuda 356 2015[93]
170   Zimbabwe 339 31 December 2015[20][93]
171   Burkina Faso 333 31 December 2016[20]
172   Guinea-Bissau 332 2015[93]
173   Suriname 330 31 December 2015[20][93]
174   Saint Lucia 318 2015[93]
175   Saint Kitts and Nevis 288 2015[93]
176   Vanuatu 251 31 December 2016[20][93]
177   Guinea 244 31 December 2016[20][93]
178   South Sudan 230 2015[93]
179   Central African Republic 214 2015[93]
180   Eritrea 213 31 December 2016[20]
181   Comoros 201 2015[93]
182   Grenada 198 2015[93]
183   Tonga 181 31 December 2016[20][93]
184   Sudan 167 31 December 2016[20][93]
185   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 165 31 December 2016[20][93]
186   Samoa 139 31 December 2015[20][93]
187   Federated States of Micronesia 135 2015[93]
188   Burundi 100 31 December 2016[20]
189   Dominica 100 31 December 2016[20]
190   Gambia 92 31 December 2016[20]
191   São Tomé and Príncipe 68 31 December 2016[20]
192   Montserrat 51 31 December 2015[20]
193   Somalia 30 2014[20]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hong Kong and Macau report separate figures.
  2. ^ Indian reports are released on a weekly basis with the figures being of the previous week.
  3. ^ The Iranian government does not report the foreign exchange reserves as a matter of policy and all figures are estimates calculated by international or foreign institutes, which are occasionally endorsed by Iranian officials without disclosing the exact numbers.

Currency composition of foreign exchange reservesEdit

IMF releases the quarterly data on the currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves. The data are reported to the IMF on a voluntary and confidential basis. As of Q4 2016, there are 146 reporters, consisting of IMF member countries, a number of non-member countries/economies, and other entities holding foreign exchange reserves. From Q4 2016, the data was expanded to include renminbi (RMB).[119]

Currency Composition of Foreign Exchange Reserves (COFER)
(US Dollars, billions)[119]
No. Currency Q4 2016 Q1 2017 Q2 2017 Q3 2017 Q4 2017
1  USD 5,501.98 5,713.35 5,909.13 6,124.73 6,281.54
2  EUR 1,610.87 1,703.13 1,847.19 1,933.68 2,018.54
3  JPY 332.93 399.85 427.79 435.67 490.14
4  GBP 365.85 377.89 409.48 434.08 454.55
5  CAD 163.14 167.49 178.77 192.85 202.82
6  AUD 142.30 156.28 162.31 171.22 180.00
7  RMB 90.78 95.42 100.00 108.37 122.80
8  CHF 13.69 14.45 15.60 16.31 18.15
Other currencies 199.51 208.28 209.55 228.81 250.08
Unallocated Reserves 2,293.61 2,063.28 1,859.04 1,650.32 1,406.34
Total 10,714.68 10,899.42 11,118.86 11,296.05 11,424.95

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External linksEdit