List of contemporary ethnic groups

The following is a list of contemporary ethnic groups. There has been constant debate over the classification of ethnic groups. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be associated with shared cultural heritage, ancestry, history, homeland, language or dialect; where the term "culture" specifically includes aspects such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing (clothing) style, and other factors.

By the nature of the concept, ethnic groups tend to be divided into ethnic subgroups, which may themselves be or not be identified as independent ethnic groups depending on the source consulted.

Contents

Ethnic groupsEdit

The groups commonly identified as "ethnic groups" (as opposed to ethno-linguistic phyla, national groups, racial groups or similar). Smaller groups (i.e. less than 100,000) are often indigenous peoples and are not listed.

Name Native language (primary language) Primary homeland Population (estimate) Subgroups Majority (plurality) religion and sect
Abkhazians Northwest CaucasianAbazgiAbkhaz Abkhazia 0.2 million[1] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Acehnese AustronesianChamicAcehnese Aceh (Indonesia) 4.1 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Acoli Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAcoli Acoliland (Uganda, South Sudan) 1 million[3] Christianity
Afemai Niger–CongoEdoidAfenmai Edo State (Nigeria) 0.5 million[4] Christianity
Afar AfroasiaticCushiticAfar Afaria (Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea) 2.1 million[5] Islam
African Americans Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglish American South (United States) 44.7 million[6] Gullah (including Black Seminoles and Bahamians) ChristianityProtestantism
Afrikaners Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutchAfrikaans South Africa (Northern and Western Cape), Namibia 3.5 million[7] Boers, White Namibians, White Botswanans, Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) ChristianityProtestantism
Afro-Saint Lucians Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrenchSaint Lucian Creole Saint Lucia 0.1 million[8] Christianity
Agaw AfroasiaticCushiticAgaw[note 1] Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea)[note 2] 1.5 million[9] Bilen, Ximre, Awi, Qemant ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Ahom Kra–DaiTaiAhom[note 3] Assam (India) 1.3[10]–8 million[11] Hinduism
Aimaq Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianAimaq Afghanistan 0.7 million[12] Aimaq Hazara, Firozkohi, Jamshidi, Kipchak, Timuri, Taymani IslamSunni Islam
Aja Niger–CongoKwaGbeAdja Benin, Togo 1.1 million[13] Traditional African religionsVoodoo
Akan Niger–CongoKwaAkan Ghana, Ivory Coast 20.9 million[14] Twi (including Ashanti and Akuapem), Fante, Abbé, Abidji, Adjoukrou, Ahafo, Ahanta, Akwamu, Akyem, Anyi, Aowin, Assin, Attie, Avatime, Avikam, Baoulé, Brong, Chakosi, Evalue, M'Bato, Nzema, Sefwi, Tchaman, Wassa Christianity
Akha Sino-TibetanLoloishHaniAkha Yunnan (China)[note 4] 0.6 million[15] Akeu Animism
Albanians Indo-EuropeanAlbanian Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia 4.2 million[16] Ghegs, Tosks, Kosovars, Cham Albanians, Arbëreshë, Arvanites, Macedonian Albanians, along with significant populations in Turkey, Germany, Switzerland and the United States Islam
Ambonese AustronesianMalayicMalayAmbonese Ambon Island (Indonesia) 0.3 million[17] ChristianityProtestantism
Ambundu Niger–CongoBantuKimbundu Angola 2.4 million[18] numerous slave descendants such as Angolares Christianity
Amhara AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicAmharic Amharia (Ethiopia) 19.9 million[19] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Amis AustronesianFormosanAmis Taiwan (Taitung and Hualien Counties) 0.2 million[20] Christianity
Anaang Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikAnaang Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 2.6 million[21] Christianity
Anglo-Indians Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglish India[note 5] 0.3[22]–1 million[23] Christianity
Anuak Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoAnuak Anuakia (Ethiopia), Boma (South Sudan) 0.1 million[24] Christianity
Apache Dené–YeniseianNa-DeneApachean[note 6] Apacheria (United States) 0.1 million[25] Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains Apache, Western Apache Native American religionNative American Church
Arabs AfroasiaticSemiticArabic Arabia (Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates)[note 7] 450 million[26] Bedouins, Druze, Shirazis (including Zanzibaris, Comorians and Maores), Baggara), Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, and Tunisians), Bahrainis, Sudanese, Iraqis (including Marsh Arabs), Jordanians, Kuwaitis, Omanis (including Dhofaris), Qataris, Saudis (including Rashaida, Hejazis, and Najdis), Syrians (including Alawites), Emiratis, Yemenis (including Hadhrami, Ta'izzis-Adenis, Sanʽani, and Tihami), along with significant populations in Brazil, Indonesia, Iran, Turkey, Pakistan (including Mugheri), Venezuela, Afghanistan, and the United States Islam
Argobba AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicArgobba[note 8] Ethiopia (Afar, Harari, Amhara, and Oromia Regions)[note 2] 0.1 million[19] IslamSunni Islam
Armenians Indo-EuropeanArmenian Greater Armenia (Armenia, Republic of Artsakh)[note 9] 6[27]–8 million[28] Hemshin, Cherkesogai, Armeno-Tats, Hayhurum Karabakhis, along with significant populations in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia (including the Javakheti Armenians), Lebanon, and Germany Christianity
Aromanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceAromanian Balkans (Greece, Albania, North Macedonia)[note 2] 0.3 million[29] significant populations in Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Serbia ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Assyrians AfroasiaticSemiticNeo-Aramaic[note 10] Assyria (Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey)[note 11] 2[30]–4 million[31] Chaldeans, Tyari, Mandaeans, Iraqis (including and Marsh Arabs), Syrians (including Alawites), Rûm, along with significant populations in the United States, Sweden, and Israel Christianity
Atoni AustronesianTimoricUab Meto West Timor (Indonesia), Oecusse (East Timor) 0.5 million[32] Amarasi Christianity
Atyap Niger–CongoPlateauAtyap Kaduna State (South Sudan) 0.2 million[33] Christianity
Austrians Indo-EuropeanGermanicGermanBavarian Austria 8.1 million[34] South Tyroleans, along with significant populations in United States, Canada, and Australia ChristianityCatholicism
Avars Northeast CaucasianAvar Avaristan (Russia) 9 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Awadhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanHindustaniAwadhi Awadh (India) 3.9 million[22] Hinduism
Aymara AymaranAymara Bolivia, Peru, Chile 3 million[36] Mestizos such as Bolivians ChristianityCatholicism
Azerbaijanis TurkicOghuzAzerbaijani Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan (Iran) 30–35 million[37] Ayrums, Bayat, Karadaghis, Qajars, Küresünni, Qarapapaqs, Shahsevan, Terekeme, Yeraz, Afshar, Iranian Azerbaijanis, along with significant populations in Georgia and Russia IslamShia Islam
Bahnar AustroasiaticBahnar Central Highlands (Vietnam) 0.2 million[38] Animism
Bai Sino-TibetanBai Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture (China) 1.9 million[39] Buddhism
Balanta Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianBalanta Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, The Gambia 0.5 million[40] Traditional African religions
Balinese AustronesianBalinese Bali (Indonesia) 3.9 million[2] Bali Aga HinduismBalinese Hinduism
Balkars TurkicKipchakBalkar Kabardino-Balkaria (Russia) 0.1 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Balochis Indo-EuropeanIranianBalochi Balochistan (Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan) 5 million[41] Askani, Bajkani, Bangulzai, Barazani, Bhurgari, Bugti (including Maretha), Buledi (including Bijarani Buledi) Chandio (including Shambhani), Darzada, Dehwar, Dodai, Dombki, Gabol, Ghazini, Jamali, Jatoi, Kalmati, Khetran, Kunara, Langhani, Lango, Lashkrani, Loharani, Lund, Marri (including Bahawalanzai, Chhalgari, and Jarwar), Mazari, Mengal (including Zagar and Zakria Zae), Mirali, Mugheri, Muhammad Shahi, Mullazai, Nothazai, Pitafi, Qaisrani, Rind (including Bozdar, Jalbani, Khushk, Lanjwani, Lehri, Mollazehi, Noohani, Sanjrani), Sadozai, Sethwi, Shaikhzadah, Talpur, Tauki, Umrani, Yarahmadzai, Zardari, Makrani, along with significant populations in the United Arab Emirates (including Al Balushi) and Turkmenistan IslamSunni Islam
Balti Sino-TibetanTibeticBalti Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.3 million[42] IslamShia Islam
Bamars Sino-TibetanBurmese Myanmar 32.9 million[43] Taungyo, Yaw, Intha, Danu, Anglo-Burmese BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Bambara Niger–CongoMandeMandingBambara Mali 4.1 million[44] Haratin Islam
Bamileke Niger–CongoGrassfieldsBamileke[note 1] Cameroon (West and Northwest Regions) 2.1 million[45] Mengaka, Ngiemboon, Ngombale, Ngomba, Ngwe, Yemba, Fe'fe', Ghomala', Kwa’, Nda’nda’, Medumba Christianity
Bamum Niger–CongoGrassfieldsBamum West Region (Cameroon) 0.4 million[46] Islam
Banda Niger–CongoUbangianBanda[note 1] Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1.3 million[47] Central Banda, South Banda Christianity
Banjarese AustronesianMalayicMalayBanjarese South Kalimantan (Indonesia) 4.1 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Bara AustronesianBorneanBaritoBara Ibara (Madagascar) 0.5 million[48] Christianity
Bari Nilo-SaharanNiloticBari Central Equatoria (South Sudan), Uganda 0.8 million[49] Pojulu, Kakwa, Nyangwara, Mandari, Kuku Christianity
Bariba Niger–CongoGurBariba Borgu (Benin, Nigeria) 1.1 million[50] Islam
Bassa Niger–CongoKruBassa Bassaland (Liberia) 0.6 million[51] ChristianityProtestantism
Bashkirs TurkicKipchakBashkir Bashkortostan (Russia) 1.6 million[35] Islam
Basques Basque[note 12] Basque Country (Spain, France) 1.2 million[52] Significant populations in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, and Uruguay ChristianityCatholicism
Batak AustronesianNorthwest SumatranBatak[note 1] North Sumatra (Indonesia) 8.5 million[2] Angkola, Karo, Mandailing, Pakpak, Simalungun, Toba, Alas, Kluet, Singkil ChristianityProtestantism
Beja AfroasiaticCushiticBeja Sudan, Egypt, Eritrea 1.9 million[53] Bishari, Ababda, Hadendoa, Hedareb, Amarar, Beni-Amer IslamSunni Islam
Belarusians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBelarusian[note 13] Belarus 10 million[54] Significant populations in the United States, Ukraine, and Russia ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Belizean Creoles Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglishBelizean Creole Belize 0.1 million[55] ChristianityProtestantism
Bembe Niger–CongoBantuBembe Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania 0.3 million[56] Christianity
Bengalis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBengali Bengal (Bangladesh, India) 242.7 million[57] Bangal, Bhadralok, Ghoti, Aguri, Bagdi, Baidya, Baishya Kapali, Baishya Saha, Barujibi, Bauris, Bengali Brahmins, Chunaru, Doms, Gandhabanik, Suvarna Banik, Haris, Jalia Kaibarta, Kansabanik, Karmakar, Mahishya, Mal, Bengali Kayastha, Namasudra, Sadgop, Shunri, Yogi Nath, Bangladeshis, along with significant populations in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, and the United States IslamSunni Islam
Berbers AfroasiaticBerber[note 1] Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya) 25[58]–50 million[59] Brabers, Chaouis, Chenouas, Ghomaras, Houara, Jerbis, Kabyle, Matmatas, Mozabite, Nafusis, Rifian, Sanhaja de Srair, Shilha, Siwi, Tuaregs, Arab-Berbers (including Algerians, Libyans, Moroccans, and Tunisians), along with significant populations in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands IslamSunni Islam
Berom Niger–CongoPlateauBerom Plateau State (Nigeria) 1 million[60] Christianity
Berta Nilo-SaharanBerta Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia), South Sudan 0.4 million[61] Islam
Betawis AustronesianMalayicMalayBetawian Jakarta (Indonesia) 6.8 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Beti Niger–CongoBantuBeti[note 14] Cameroon 1 million[48] Ewondo, Eton Christianity
Betsimisaraka AustronesianBorneanBaritoBetsimisaraka Madagascar (Sava, Analanjirofo, Atsinanana) 3.3 million[62] Traditional African religions
Bhils Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBhil[note 1] India (Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharastra) 17.1 million[63] Barda, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Bhil Gametia, Bhil Garasia, Bhil Kataria, Bhil Mama, Bhil Mavchi, Dholi Bhil, Dungri Bhil, Damor, Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Nirdhi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Vasava, Bhil Meena, Chaudhri Hinduism
Bhojpuris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariBhojpuri Bhojpur (India, Nepal) 39 million[64] Hinduism
Bhumij AustroasiaticMundaBhumij[note 15] India (West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand) 0.9 million[63] Sarnaism
Bicolanos AustronesianPhilippineBikol[note 1] Bicol Region (Philippines) 4.1 million[65] Central Bikol, Sorsoganons, Catandunganons, Rinconada, Albayanon ChristianityCatholicism
Bidayuh AustronesianBorneanLand Dayak[note 1] Sarawak (Malaysia) 0.2 million[66] Kendayan, Selako, Bakati’, Sara Bakati', Laraʼ, Bukar Sadong, Biatah, Tringgus, Jagoi, Jangkang, Kembayan, Semandang, Ribun, Nyadu’, Sanggau Christianity
Bilala Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicNaba Lake Fitri (Chad) 0.1 million[67] Islam
Bishnupriya Manipuris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBishnupriya Manipuri Manipur (India), Bangladesh 0.1 million[68] Hinduism
Bissa Niger–CongoMandeBissa Burkina Faso 0.6 million[69] Islam
Blaan AustronesianPhilippineBlaan Soccsksargen (Philippines) 0.2 million[70] Anitism
Boa Niger–CongoBantuBoa Bas-Uele (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.2 million[71] Christianity
Bodo Sino-TibetanSalBodo Bodoland (India) 1.5 million[22] Mech Bathouism
Bosniaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianBosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sandžak (Serbia, Montenegro) 2.5 million[72] Significant populations in Serbia, Turkey, Austria, Germany and the United States IslamSunni Islam
Bouyei Kra–DaiTaiBouyei Guizhou (China) 3 million[73] Giáy Moism
Bozo Niger–CongoMandeBozo Mali 0.2 million[74] Islam
Brahuis DravidianBrahui Balochistan (Pakistan) 1.6 million[75] Raisani, Jhalawan, Sarawan, Mengal (including Zagar and Zakria Zae), Sasoli IslamSunni Islam
Bretons Indo-EuropeanCelticBreton[note 16] Brittany (France) 4.6 million[76] ChristianityCatholicism
Bru AustroasiaticKatuicBru Savannakhet Province (Laos), Vietnam (Quảng Bình and Quảng Trị Provinces) 0.3 million[77] Animism
Budu Niger–CongoBantuBudu Wamba Territory (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 0.4 million[78] Christianity
Buduma AfroasiaticChadicYedina Lake Chad (Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon) 0.1 million[79] Islam
Bugis AustronesianSouth SulawesiBuginese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 6.4 million[2] Islam
Bulgarians Indo-EuropeanSlavicBulgarian Bulgaria 9–10 million[80] Pomaks, along with significant populations in Turkey, Ukraine and Moldova, Romania and Serbia, Germany, Spain and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Burusho Burushaski Gilgit-Baltistan (Pakistan) 0.1 million[81] IslamShia Islam
Butonese AustronesianCelebicButonese[note 1] Buton (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Bwa Niger–CongoGurBwa[note 1] Burkina Faso, Mali 0.3 million[82] Traditional African religions
Catalans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCatalan Catalan Countries (Spain, France) 8.4 million[citation needed] Valencians, Balearics, Andorrans ChristianityCatholicism
Chamorro AustronesianChamorro Mariana Islands (United States) 0.2 million[83] ChristianityCatholicism
Chams AustronesianChamicCham Champa (Cambodia, Vietnam) 0.6–0.7 million[84] IslamSunni Islam
Chechens Northeast CaucasianNakhChechen Chechnya (Russia) 2 million[85] Kists IslamSunni Islam
Cherokee IroquoianCherokee[note 17] United States (North Carolina, Tennessee)[note 18] 0.8 million[25] Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band, United Keetoowah Band Christianity
Chin Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–Naga[note 19] Chin State (Myanmar) 10 million[86] Thadou, Paite, Simte, Zou, Lamkang, Kom, Lushai, Hmar, Koireng, Mizo, Aimol, Mru, Mrucha, Bawm, Biate Christianity
Choctaw MuskogeanChoctaw[note 17] United States (Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana)[note 18] 0.2 million[25] Native American religion
Chokwe Niger–CongoBantuChokwe Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 1.3 million[87] Christianity
Chuanqing Sino-TibetanChineseMandarin Chinese Guizhou (China) 0.7 million[88] Tunbao Buddhism
Chutiya Sino-TibetanSalDeori[note 3] Assam (India) 2.5 million[89] Deori Hinduism
Chuukese AustronesianMicronesianChuukese Chuuk Lagoon (Federated States of Micronesia) 0.1 million[90] ChristianityCatholicism
Chuvash TurkicOghurChuvash Chuvashia (Russia) 1.4 million[35] Virjal, Anatri ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Circassians Northwest CaucasianCircassian[note 1] Circassia (Russia)[note 20] 0.7 million[91] Adygeans, Kabardians, Cherkess, Shapsugs IslamSunni Islam
Chakmas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanChakma Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh) 0.3 million[92] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Chewa Niger–CongoBantuChewa Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique 9.7 million[93] Christianity
Cornish Indo-EuropeanCelticCornish[note 21] Cornwall (United Kingdom) 11 million[94] Significant populations in the United States and Australia Christianity
Corsicans Indo-EuropeanRomanceCorsican[note 16] Corsica (France) 0.3 million[95] ChristianityCatholicism
Cree AlgicAlgonquianCree[note 22] Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador) 0.4 million[96] Innu, Naskapi, Atikamekw, James Bay Cree, Moose Cree, Swampy Cree, Woods Cree, Plains Cree, Métis (including Métis in Canada), Oji-Cree Christianity
Croats Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianCroatian Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina 7–9 million[citation needed] Bunjevci, Krashovani, Janjevci, Sokci, along with significant populations in Italy (including Molise Croats), Austria, United States, Chile, Argentina, Germany, Australia and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Cuyunon AustronesianPhilippineVisayanCuyonon Cuyo Archipelago (Philippines) 0.2 million[97] ChristianityCatholicism
Czechs Indo-EuropeanSlavicCzech Czech Republic 10–12 million[citation needed] Bohemians, Moravians, Silesians, along with significant populations in United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism[note 23]
Dagaaba Niger–CongoGurDagaare Ghana, Burkina Faso 1.1 million[98] Christianity
Dagombas Niger–CongoGurDagbani Kingdom of Dagbon (Ghana) 1.2 million[99] IslamSunni Islam
Damara KhoeKhoekhoe Damaraland (Namibia) 0.2 million[100] Christianity
Danes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNordicDanish Denmark 7 million[citation needed] Significant populations in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Germany. ChristianityProtestantism
Dargins Northeast CaucasianDargwa Dagestan (Russia) 0.6 million[35] Kajtak, Kubachi, Itsari, Chirag Islam
Dinka Nilo-SaharanNiloticDinka South Sudan 4.5 million[101] Christianity
Dogon Niger–CongoDogon[note 1] Bandiagara Escarpment (Mali) 0.8 million[102] Ampari Dogon Traditional African religionsDogon religion
Dogra Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanDogri Jammu Division (India) 2.5 million[22] Hinduism
Dongxiangs MongolicSanta Hezhou (China) 0.6 million[103] IslamSunni Islam
Dubla Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBhilDubli[note 24] Gujarat (India) 0.7 million[63] Hinduism
Dutch Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutch Netherlands 29 million[104] Gronings, Arubans, Sabans, St. Maarteners, St. Eustatians, Surinamese, Mennonites (including Russian Mennonites), Indos, Dutch Burghers, along with significant populations in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand Christianity[note 23]
Dyula Niger–CongoMandeMandingDyula Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali 2.2 million[105] IslamSunni Islam
Ebira Niger–CongoNupoidEbira Kogi State (Nigeria) 1.8 million[106] Islam
Edo Niger–CongoEdoidEdo Edo State (Nigeria) 1.6 million[107] Ika, Emai Christianity
Efik Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikEfik Cross River State (Nigeria) 0.7 million[108] Christianity
Egyptians AfroasiaticCoptic[note 25] Egypt 104.2 million[109] Sa'idis, Copts, Waḥātī IslamSunni Islam
Ekoi Niger–CongoEkoi Nigeria, Cameroon 0.2 million[110] Christianity
Emberá ChocoEmbera Chocó Department (Colombia), Panama (Darién, Emberá) 0.1 million[111] Shamanism
English Indo-EuropeanGermanicEnglish England (United Kingdom)[note 26] 137.4 million[112] numerous colonial descendants such as Americans, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, White Bahamians, White Barbadians, Cayman Islanders, White Dominiquais, White Jamaicans, White Botswanans, White Kenyans, British South Africans, White Saint Helenians, White Zambians, White Zimbabweans, Anglo-Burmese, British Hongkongers, and White Pakistanis ChristianityProtestantism
Esan Niger–CongoEdoidEsan Esanland (Nigeria) 0.7 million[113] Christianity
Estonians UralicFinnicEstonian Estonia 1.2 million[114] Võros, Setos ChristianityProtestantism[note 23]
Ewe Niger–CongoKwaGbeEwe Togo, Ghana 6.7 million[115] Anlo Ewe, Waci Christianity
Fang Niger–CongoBantuBetiFang Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea), Gabon 1 million[48] Christianity
Fang Niger–CongoBantuBetiFang Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea), Gabon 1 million[48] Christianity
Fijians AustronesianFijian Fiji 0.5 million[116] ChristianityProtestantism
Finns UralicFinnicFinnish Finland 5.5 million[117] Kvens, Forest Finns, Tornedalians, Ingrian Finns, along with significant populations in Sweden, United States, and Canada. ChristianityProtestantism
Flemings Indo-EuropeanGermanicDutch Flanders (Belgium) 6.2 million[118] ChristianityCatholicism
Fon Niger–CongoKwaGbeFon Dahomey (Benin) 1.7 million[119] Egun ChristianityCatholicism[note 27]
French Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrench France, Romandy (Switzerland), Aosta Valley (Italy) 76.8 million[120] Romands, Arpitans, Waldensians, Saint-Pierrais, Burgundians, Champenois, Free Countians, Gallo, Lorrainers, Normans (including Channel Islanders), Picards, Poitevins (including Saintongeais), Barthélemoise, Saint-Martinois, French Guianese, Caldoche, Réunionese (including Zoreilles), along with numerous colonial descendants such as Pieds-Noirs, French Canadians (including Quebecers, Acadians, and Métis), Louisianians (including Creoles of color and Cajuns), French Haitians, French Malagasy, Franco-Mauritians, and Franco-Seychellois ChristianityCatholicism
Frisians Indo-EuropeanGermanicFrisian[note 1] Frisia (Netherlands, Germany) 0.9 million[121] West Frisians, East Frisians, North Frisians ChristianityProtestantism
Friulians Indo-EuropeanRomanceFriulian Friuli (Italy) 0.6 million[122] ChristianityCatholicism
Fula Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianFula West Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Benin, Chad)[note 2] 20[123]–25 million[80] Wodaabe, Haratin, Fula Jalon, Fulakunda, Maasina Fulfulde Islam
Fur Nilo-SaharanFur Darfur (Sudan) 0.7 million[124] IslamSunni Islam
Ga-Adangbe Niger–CongoKwaGa–Dangme[note 1] Greater Accra (Ghana) 2.1 million[125] Ga, Adangbe Christianity
Gagauz TurkicOghuzGagauz Gagauzia (Moldova), Budjak (Ukraine) 0.2 million[citation needed] ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Galicians Indo-EuropeanRomanceGalician Galicia (Spain) 3.2 million[citation needed] ChristianityCatholicism
Ganda Niger–CongoBantuLuganda Buganda (Uganda) 6.7 million[126] Abayudaya Christianity
Garifuna ArawakanTa-ArawakanGarifuna[note 28] Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[note 29] 0.1 million[127] Black Caribs ChristianityCatholicism
Garos Sino-TibetanSalGaro Garo Hills (India) 1.1 million[22] Christianity
Gayonese AustronesianNorthwest SumatranGayo Indonesia (Bener Meriah, Central Aceh, and Gayo Lues Regencies) 0.3 million[128] Islam
Gbagyi Niger–CongoNupoidGwari Nigeria 1.2 million[129] Traditional African religions
Gbaya Niger–CongoUbangianGbaya[note 1] Central African Republic, Cameroon 1.2 million[130] Bokoto, Kàrà, Buli (including Toongo), Ali, Mandja, Gbaya-Bossangoa, Bozom, Mbodomo, Gbanu, Bangandu Islam
Gedeo AfroasiaticCushiticGedeo Gedeo Zone (Ethiopia) 1 million[19] ChristianityProtestantism
Gelao Kra–DaiKraGelao[note 30] Guizhou (China) 0.6 million[131] Taoism
Georgians KartvelianGeorgian Georgia 4.1 million[132] Adjarians, Mingrelians, Svans, Tushetians (including Bats), Meskhetians ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Germans Indo-EuropeanGermanicGerman Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein 100–150 million[133] Bavarians, Franconians, Hessians, Hunsriks, Upper Saxons, Lower Saxons, Swabians (including Danube Swabians), Rhinelanders (including Colognians), Alsatians, German Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Pomeranians, Volga Germans, Baltic Germans, Silesian Germans, Carpathian Germans, North Schleswig Germans, Eastern Belgians, Transylvanian Saxons, Amish (including Pennsylvania Dutch), Hutterites, Mennonites (including Russian Mennonites), along with significant populations in the United States (including German Texans), Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Kazakhstan, Australia, and New Zealand. Christianity
Gola Niger–CongoGola Liberia, Sierra Leone 0.2 million[134] Islam
Gonds DravidianGondi[note 31] Gondwana (India) 13.3 million[63] Godha, Madia Gonds, Muria, Koya Hinduism
Gorontaloans AustronesianPhilippineGorontaloan Gorontalo (Indonesia) 1.8 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Greeks Indo-EuropeanGreek Greece, Cyprus 17 million[135] Greek Cypriots, Pontic Greeks, Cappadocian Greeks, Sarakatsani, Urums, Griko, along with significant populations in Albania (including Northern Epirotes), Ukraine, Georgia, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, and Canada ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Guan Niger–CongoKwaGuang[note 1] Ghana (Brong-Ahafo and Volta Regions) 1 million[136] Gonja, Kyode, Cherepon, Efutu, Anyanga, Larteh, Chumburung, Krache Christianity
Guaraní TupianGuarani Paraguay, Misiones (Argentina), Bolivia 5 million[137] Chiriguanos, along with Mestizos such as Paraguayans ChristianityCatholicism
Gujarati Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanGujarati Gujarat (India) 60 million[22] Koli, Bharwad, Khoja, Patidar, Sunni Bohra, Lohana, Vagri, Kharva, Charan, Baria, Momna, Ghanchi, Shenva, Bhambi Khalpa, Zarabes, Luso-Indians, Gujarati Americans Hinduism
Gumuz Nilo-SaharanGumuz Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[19] Traditional African religion
Gurage AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicGurage[note 1] Guragia (Ethiopia) 1.9 million[19] Kistane, Zay, Inor, Mesqan, Sebat Bet (including Chaha and Muher) Christianity
Gurma Niger–CongoGurGourmanché Gurmaland (Burkina Faso, Ghana) 1.1 million[138] Ntcham, Bimoba Islam
Gurunsi Niger–CongoGurGurunsi[note 1] Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo 1.6 million[139] Lukpa, Kabye, Tem, Lamba, Delo, Bago-Kusuntu, Chala, Lyélé, Nuna, Kalamsé, Pana, Kassena, Winye, Deg, Puguli, Paasaal, Sisaala, Chakali, Siti, Tamprusi, Vagla Traditional African religions
Han Sino-TibetanChinese China 1,300 million[140] Subei, Cantonese (including Taishanese, Hongkongers, and Macanese), Fujianese (including Fuzhounese, Hainanese, Hoklo, Hui'an maidens, Putianese, and Teochew), Gaoshan Han, Gan, Hakka (including Ngái), Hebei, Hunanese, Jianghuai, Shandong, Sichuanese, Wu (including Shanghainese, Ningbonese, and Wenzhou), Han Taiwanese, along with significant populations in the United States, Malaysia (including Baba Nyonya), Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar, Canada, the Philippines (including Sangleys), Peru, Australia, Vietnam, Japan, Russia, France (including Chinois), the United Kingdom, South Africa, Italy, Germany, Korea, Spain, India, Laos, Brazil, the Netherlands, Panama, and New Zealand Chinese folk religion
Hani Sino-TibetanLoloishHani Yunnan (China) 1.4 million[141] Animism
Harari AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicHarari Hararia (Ethiopia) 0.2 million[142] IslamSunni Islam
Hausa AfroasiaticChadicHausa Hausaland (Niger, Nigeria) 43.7 million[143] IslamSunni Islam
Hawaiians AustronesianPolynesianHawaiian[note 32] Hawaii (United States) 0.5 million[83] Christianity
Hazaras Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianHazaragi Hazarajat (Afghanistan) 5–8 million[140] Aimaq Hazara, Hazara Australians IslamShia Islam
Herero Niger–CongoBantuHerero Hereroland (Namibia), Angola 0.3 million[citation needed] OvaHimba, Ovambanderu Christianity
Hindustanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanHindustani India 322.2 million[22] Darzi, Chamar, Kurmi, Momin Ansari Hinduism
Hmong Hmong–MienHmongic[note 1] Guizhou (China)[note 33] 14–15 million[144] A-Hmao, Gha-Mu, Xong, Hmong Americans Hmong folk religion
Hui Sino-TibetanChineseMandarin Chinese Northwest China (China) 9.8 million[145] Dungan, Panthays IslamSunni Islam
Huli Trans–New GuineaEnganHuli Southern Highlands Province (Papua New Guinea) 0.3 million[146] Christianity
Hungarians UralicUgricHungarian Hungary, Székely Land (Romania), Felvidék (Slovakia) 12.6 million[147] Jasz, Palóc, along with significant populations in Romania (including Székelys and Csangos), Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, the United States, and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Hutu Niger–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 34] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 9.5 million[148] Christianity
Iban AustronesianMalayicIban Sarawak (Malaysia) 0.8 million[149] Mualang Christianity
Ibanag AustronesianPhilippineCordilleranIbanag Philippines (Isabela, Cagayan) 0.3 million[150] ChristianityCatholicism
Ibibio Niger–CongoCross RiverIbibio-EfikIbibio Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria) 4.5 million[151] Eket, Aro Christianity
Icelanders Indo-EuropeanGermanicNordicIcelandic Iceland 0.4 million[152] ChristianityProtestantism
Idoma Niger–CongoIdomoidIdoma Benue State (Nigeria) 1.1 million[153] Agatu, Alago, Yala Christianity
Igbo Niger–CongoIgbo Igboland (Nigeria) 20 million[154] Anioma, Aro, Edda, Ekpeye, Etche, Ezaa, Ika, Ikwerre, Ikwo, Isu, Izzi, Mbaise, Mgbo, Ngwa, Nri-Igbo, Ogba, Ohafia, Ohuhu, Onitsha-Ado, Ukwuani, Waawa Christianity
Igede Niger–CongoIdomoidIgede Benue State (Nigeria) 0.4 million[155] Christianity
Igorot AustronesianPhilippineCordilleran[note 1] Cordillera Administrative Region (Philippines) 1.5 million[156] Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao (including Kalanguya), Isnag, Kalinga, Kankanaey Anitism
Ijaw Niger–CongoIjaw[note 1] Nigeria (Rivers, Bayelsa, and Delta States) 14 million[102] Bille, Engenni, Ibani, Kalabari, Kula, Nkoro, Nkoroo, Obolo Christianity
Ilocano AustronesianPhilippineCordilleranIlocano Ilocos Region (Philippines) 10 million[157] ChristianityCatholicism
Ingush Northeast CaucasianNakhIngush Ingushetia (Russia) 0.4 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Inuit Eskimo–AleutInuit[note 1] Greenland (Denmark), Canada (Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, NunatuKavut), Alaska (United States) 0.2 million[158] Greenlandics (including Kalaallit, Tunumiit, Inughuit and Greenlandic Danes), Iñupiat, Inuktitut, Inuvialuit Christianity
Iranun AustronesianPhilippineIranun Mindanao (Philippines) 0.3 million[159] IslamSunni Islam
Irish Indo-EuropeanCelticIrish[note 21] Ireland (Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom)[note 35] 80 million[160] Irish Travellers, Ulster Irish, along with significant populations in the United States, Australia, Canada, Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand ChristianityCatholicism
Iroquois Iroquoian[note 36] United States, Canada 0.1 million[161] Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora Longhouse Religion
Isan Kra–DaiTaiLaoIsan Isan (Thailand) 22 million[162] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Isoko Niger–CongoEdoidIsoko Isoko region (Nigeria) 0.6 million[163] Christianity
Italians Indo-EuropeanRomanceItalian Italy, Ticino (Switzerland) 69[164]–140 million[165] Sicilians, Waldensians, Lazians, Marchigianos, Tuscans, Umbrians, Emilian, Romagnol (including Sanmarinese), Trentinis, Ligurians (including Monégasque), Lombards (including Swiss Italians), Piedmontese, Apulians, Calabrians, Neapolitans (including Abruzzans, Molisans, Basilicatans, and Campanians), Venetians along with significant populations in Argentina, Brazil, the United States, Venezuela, Canada, France, Peru, Uruguay, Australia, Germany, Chile and the United Kingdom ChristianityCatholicism
Itawes AustronesianPhilippineCordilleranItawis Cagayan Valley (Philippines) 0.2 million[166] ChristianityCatholicism
Japanese JaponicJapanese Japan 128.2 million[167] Kantō, Kansai, Hokkaido, Tōhoku, Hōnichi, Satsugū, Chūgoku, Echigo, Tōkai, Shinshuu, Hokuriku, Hachijō, along with significant populations in Brazil, the United States and the Philippines. Shinto[note 37]
Jarai AustronesianChamicJarai Central Highlands (Vietnam) 0.4 million[38] Animism
Javanese AustronesianJavanese Java (Indonesia) 95.2 million[2] Cirebonese, Osing, Tenggerese, Boyanese, Samin, Banyumasan, along with significant populations in Malaysia, Suriname, China, and Saudi Arabia IslamSunni Islam
Jews AfroasiaticSemiticHebrew[note 38] Israel[note 39] 17.6 million[168] Ashkenazim, Sephardim (including Moroccan Jews, Tunisian Jews, and Toshavim), Mizrahim (including Syrian and Bukharan Jews), Teimanim, Beta Israel, Italkim, Romaniotes, Juhurim, Krymchaks, Bene Israel, Cochin, Lishanid Noshan, Israelis, along with significant populations in the United States, France, Canada, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Russia, Germany, and Australia Judaism
Jingpo Sino-TibetanSalJingpho Kachin State (Myanmar), Yunnan (China) 1 million[169] Animism
Jola Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianJola[note 1] Jolaland (Senegal) 0.5 million[170] Banjaal, Bayot, Fogni, Gusilay, Karon, Kasa, Kuwaataay, Mlomp Traditional African religions
Kadazan-Dusun AustronesianBorneanDusunic[note 1] Sabah (Malaysia) 0.6 million[171] Kadazan, Dusun, Dumpas, Ida'an, Kwijau, Lotud, Mangka'ak, Maragang, Minokok, Orang Sungai, Rumanau, Rungus, Tambanuo Christianity
Kalanga Niger–CongoBantuShonaKalanga Zimbabwe, Botswana 0.7 million[172] Nambya Christianity
Kalenjin Nilo-SaharanNiloticKalenjin[note 1] Rift Valley Province (Kenya) 5 million[173] Keiyo, Tugen, Marakwet, Nandi, Kipsigis, Sabaot, Pökoot, Okiek, Terik Christianity
Kamba Niger–CongoBantuKamba Ukambani (Kenya) 3.9 million[173] Afro-Paraguayans Christianity
Kanaks AustronesianKanak[note 1] Kanakia (France) 0.1 million[174] ChristianityCatholicism
Kannadigas DravidianKannada Karnataka (India) 43.7 million[22] Hinduism
Kanuri Nilo-SaharanSaharanKanuri Kanuriland (Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon) 8.6 million[175] Kanembu, Yerwa Kanuri Islam
Kapampangans AustronesianPhilippineKapampangan Pampanga (Philippines) 2 million[176] ChristianityCatholicism
Kapsiki AfroasiaticChadicKapsiki Mandara Mountains (Nigeria, Cameroon) 0.1 million[177] Islam
Karachays TurkicKipchakKarachay Karachay-Cherkessia (Russia) 0.2 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Karakalpaks TurkicKipchakKarakalpak Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan) 0.7 million[178] IslamSunni Islam
Karbi Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–NagaKarbi Karbi Anglong district (India) 0.5 million[22] Amri Hinduism
Karen Sino-TibetanKarenic[note 1] Karen State (Myanmar), Thailand 9 million[179] S'gaw Karen, Pwo Karen, Karenni (including Kayan) BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Kashmiris Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanDardicKashmiri Kashmir (India, Pakistan) 6.8 million[22] Kashmiri Pandits, Kashmiris of Punjab IslamSunni Islam
Kashubians Indo-EuropeanSlavicKashubian Kashubia (Poland) 0.5[180]–0.6 million[181] ChristianityCatholicism
Kazakhs TurkicKipchakKazakh Kazakhstan 18 million[182] Significant populations in China, and Russia IslamSunni Islam
Khas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanNepali Nepal, Uttarakhand (India) 20 million[183] Chhetri, Bahun, Kami, Damai, Sarki, Gandarbha, Thakuri, Badi Hinduism
Khmer AustroasiaticKhmer Cambodia 17 million[162] Significant populations in the United States and Vietnam BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Khonds DravidianKui Kandhamal (India) 1.6 million[63] Hinduism
Khorasani Turks TurkicOghuzKhorasani Turkic Khorasan (Iran) 1 million[184] IslamShia Islam
Kikuyu Niger–CongoBantuKikuyu Kenya 6.6 million[173] Christianity
Kilba AfroasiaticChadicHuba Hong (Nigeria) 0.3 million[185] Christianity
Kirati Sino-TibetanKiranti[note 1] Eastern Development Region (Nepal) 1.4 million[186] Limbu, Sunuwar, Yakkha (including Athpare), Rai (including Kulung, Bantawa, and Bahing) Kirat Mundhum
Kissi Niger–CongoAtlanticMelKissi Guinea, Sierra Leone 0.1 million[187] Christianity
Kofyar AfroasiaticChadicKofyar Plateau State (Nigeria) 0.2 million[188] Traditional African religions
Komi UralicPermicKomi Russia (Komi Republic, Permyakia) 0.6 million[115] Komi-Zyrians, Komi-Permyaks, Izhma Komi ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Konkani Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanKonkani Goa (India) 2.3 million[22] Luso-Indians Hinduism
Kongo Niger–CongoBantuKongo Kongoland (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola) 10.2 million[189] Lari, Vili, Mayombe, Suundi, along with numerous slave descendants such as Dominicans Christianity
Konjo Niger–CongoBantuKonjo Rwenzori Mountains (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda) 1.5 million[citation needed] Nande Christianity
Konso AfroasiaticCushiticKonso Konso (Ethiopia) 0.4 million[19] Traditional African religions
Koreans Korean Korea (North Korea, South Korea) 77.2 million[190] Jeju Islanders, along with significant populations in the United States, China, Russia, Japan, Canada, Australia, Vietnam, and the Philippines Shamanism[note 23]
Kpelle Niger–CongoMandeKpelle Liberia, Guinea 1.2 million[191] Traditional African religions
Kposo Niger–CongoKwaGhana–Togo MountainKposo Plateaux (Togo), Ghana 0.2 million[192] ChristianityCatholicism
Kru Niger–CongoKru[note 1] Liberia (Grand Kru and Maryland Counties) 3.3 million[193] Aizi, Bété, Bakwé, Grebo, Krahn (including Sapo), Kuwaa Christianity
Kumyks TurkicKipchakKumyk Dagestan (Russia) 0.5 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Kunama Nilo-SaharanKunama Eritrea, Ethiopia 0.3 million[citation needed] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Kurds Indo-EuropeanIranianKurdish[note 1] Kurdistan (Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria) 45.6 million[194] Bajalan, Kurmanjis, Sorans, Zazas, Feylis, Iranian Laks, Yazidis, Shabak, along with significant populations in France and Germany IslamSunni Islam
Kurukh DravidianKurukh Chota Nagpur Plateau (India) 3.7 million[63] Kisan Hinduism
Kuteb Niger–CongoJukunoidKuteb Taraba State (Nigeria) 0.6 million[195] Christianity
Kyrgyz TurkicKipchakKyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 4.1 million[196] IslamSunni Islam
Laks Northeast CaucasianLak Lakia (Russia) 0.2 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Lamaholot AustronesianFlores–LembataLamaholot Solor (Indonesia) 0.2 million[197] ChristianityCatholicism
Lampungs AustronesianLampung Lampung (Indonesia) 1.4 million[2] Islam
Lao Kra–DaiTaiLao Laos 4 million[162] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Latvians Indo-EuropeanBalticLatvian Latvia 1.8 million[198] Latgalians, Kursenieki, Selonians ChristianityProtestantism
Laz KartvelianLaz[note 40] Lazistan (Turkey, Georgia) 1.6 million[199] Turkish Laz, Georgian Laz IslamSunni Islam
Lebanese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicNorth Levantine Arabic[note 41] Lebanon[note 42] 11.6 million[200] Maronites, along with significant populations in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, the United States, and France ChristianityCatholicism
Lega Niger–CongoBantuLega Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[201] Traditional African religions
Lezgins Northeast CaucasianLezgicLezgian Lezgistan (Russia, Azerbaijan) 0.8 million[202] IslamSunni Islam
Li Kra–DaiHlai[note 1] Hainan (China) 1.2 million[203] Animism
Limba Niger–CongoLimba Sierra Leone (Bombali and Koinadugu Districts) 0.4 million[204] Christianity
Lisu Sino-TibetanLoloishLisu China, Myanmar 0.6 million[205] Lipo ChristianityProtestantism
Lithuanians Indo-EuropeanBalticLithuanian Lithuania 3.7[206]–4.1 million[207] Samogitians, Aukstaitians, Lietuvninkai ChristianityCatholicism
Luba Niger–CongoBantuLuban[note 1] Lubaland (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 7 million[48] Luba-Kasai, Luba-Katanga, Hemba, Songe Christianity
Luhya Niger–CongoBantuLuhya Western Province (Kenya) 5.3 million[173] Bukusu, Idakho, Isukha, Kabras, Khayo, Kisa, Marachi, Maragoli, Marama, Nyole, Samia, Tachoni, Tiriki, Tsotso, Wanga, Christianity
Luo Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoDholuo Kenya 4 million[173] Christianity
Lurs Indo-EuropeanIranianLuri Iran 5 million[208] Bakhtiari, Iranian Laks IslamShia Islam
Luxembourgers Indo-EuropeanGermanicGermanLuxembourgish Luxembourg, Arelerland (Belgium) 0.4 million[209] Significant populations in Brazil and the United States ChristianityCatholicism
Maasai Nilo-SaharanNiloticMaasai Maasailand (Tanzania, Kenya) 1.5 million[210] Samburu Traditional African religionsMaasai faith
Macedonians Indo-EuropeanSlavicMacedonian North Macedonia 2 million[211] Torbesh, Mijaks, along with significant populations in Australia and Greece ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Madi Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicMa'di Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Uganda 0.4 million[citation needed] Christianity
Madurese AustronesianMadurese Madura (Indonesia)[note 43] 7.2 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Mafa AfroasiaticChadicMafa Cameroon 0.2 million[212] Christianity
Magahi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariMagahi Magadha (India) 12.7 million[22] Hinduism
Magars Sino-TibetanMagar[note 44] Nepal 1.6 million[213] Hinduism
Maguindanao AustronesianPhilippineMaguindanao Maguindanao (Philippines) 1.4 million[214] Islam
Maithils Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariMaithili Mithila (India, Nepal) 40 million[215] Karan Kayastha Hinduism
Makassarese AustronesianSouth SulawesiMakassarese South Sulawesi (Indonesia) 2.7 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Makonde Niger–CongoBantuMakonde Tanzania, Mueda Plateau (Mozambique) 1.4 million[216] Machinga Islam
Makua Niger–CongoBantuMakhuwa Mozambique 3.5 million[217] Lomwe, Chuwabu, Moniga, Koti, Nathembo Traditional African religions
Malays AustronesianMalayicMalay Malay world (Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia) 60.7 million[218] Bruneians, Kedahans, Pattani, Pahang, Terengganuarians, Kelantanese, Perakians, Berau, Proto-Malay (including Orang Kuala, Jakun, Orang Rimba, Orang Seletar, and Temuan), Lubu, Musi, Cape Malays, Cocos Malays IslamSunni Islam
Malayali DravidianMalayalam Kerala (India) 34.8 million[22] Ambalavasi, Dheevara, Nair, Paravar, Saint Thomas Christians (including Knanayas), Mappilas, along with significant populations in the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain Hinduism
Maldivians Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMaldivian Maldives 0.3 million[219] Mahls IslamSunni Islam
Maltese AfroasiaticSemiticArabicMaltese Malta 0.5 million[220] Gozitans ChristianityCatholicism
Mambila Niger–CongoMambila Mambilla Plateau (Nigeria, Cameroon) 0.1 million[221] Somyev Traditional African religions
Manchu TungusicManchu[note 45] Manchuria (China) 10.4 million[222] Shamanism
Mandarese AustronesianSouth SulawesiMandar West Sulawesi (Indonesia) 0.5 million[223] Islam
Mandinka Niger–CongoMandeManding[note 1] Mali, The Gambia, Guinea, Senegal 13[130]–20 million[224] Bolon, along with numerous slave descendants such as Montserratians, Cape Verdeans, and Martinicans Islam
Manggarai AustronesianSumba–FloresManggarai Manggarai (Indonesia) 0.8 million[225] Christianity
Manjak Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianManjak Guinea-Bissau, Senegal 0.4 million[226] Traditional African religions
Māori AustronesianPolynesianMāori[note 46] New Zealand 0.9 million[citation needed] Cook Islanders Christianity
Mapuche Mapudungun[note 47] Araucanía (Chile, Argentina) 1.4 million[227] Huilliche, along with Mestizos such as Chileans Christianity
Maranao AustronesianPhilippineMaranao Lanao (Philippines) 0.8 million[228] Islam
Marathi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanMarathi Maharashtra (India) 83 million[22] Mahar, Maratha, Kunbi, Dhangar Hinduism
Mari UralicMari Mari El (Russia) 0.5 million[35] Meadow Mari, Hill Mari ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Masa AfroasiaticChadicMasana Cameroon, Chad 0.5 million[229] Islam
Masalit Nilo-SaharanMasalit Sudan, Chad 0.4 million[230] IslamSunni Islam
Maya Mayan[note 1] Guatemala, Belize, Mexico (Yucatán, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Chiapas), 6 million[231] Maya, Achi, Chuj, Ch'orti', Itza, K'iche', Q'eqchi', Xinca, Tektitek, Huastecan, Mopan, Lacandon, Chontal, Akatek, Jakaltek, Q'anjob'al, Tzeltal, Mocho', Tojolab'al, Mam, Ixil, Tzotzil, Poqomam, Yucatecan Maya, Motozintlecos, Awakatek, Kaqchikel, Sakapultek, Sipakapense, Uspantek, Ch'ol, Tz'utujil, along with Mestizos such as Guatemalans (including Hispanic Belizeans) and Mexicans ChristianityCatholicism
Mazahua Oto-MangueanOto-PameanMazahua State of Mexico (Mexico) 0.1 million[232] ChristianityCatholicism
Mbaka Niger–CongoUbangianMbaka Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[48] ChristianityCatholicism
Mehri AfroasiaticSemiticMehri Mahra (Yemen, Oman) 0.2 million[233] Soqotri Islam
Meitei Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–NagaMeitei Manipur (India) 1.8 million[22] Loi HinduismVaishnavism
Melanau AustronesianBorneanMelanau Sarawak (Malaysia) 0.1 million[66] Islam
Mende Niger–CongoMandeMende Sierra Leone (Southern and Eastern Provinces) 1.9 million[citation needed] Islam
Merina AustronesianBorneanBaritoMerina Antananarivo Province (Madagascar) 5 million[234] Christianity
Miꞌkmaq AlgicAlgonquianMiꞌkmaq[note 22] Mi'kma'ki (Canada) 0.2 million[96] ChristianityCatholicism
Mien Hmong–MienMienic China (Hunan, Guizhou), Vietnam 2.6 million[235] Iu Mien, Kim Mun, Dzao Min, Biao Min, Bunu, Lakkia, Biao Mon Yao folk religion
Mijikenda Niger–CongoBantuMijikenda Coast Province (Kenya) 2 million[173] Chonyi, Giriama, Digo, Segeju Christianity
Minahasan AustronesianPhilippineMinahasan[note 1] Minahassa Peninsula (Indonesia) 1.2 million[2] Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tombulu, Tonsea ChristianityProtestantism
Minangkabau AustronesianMalayicMalayMinangkabau Minangkabau Highlands (Indonesia) 6.5 million[2] IslamSunni Islam
Mising Sino-TibetanTaniMising India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh) 0.6 million[22] Donyi-Polo
Miskito MisumalpanMiskito Mosquito Coast (Nicaragua, Honduras) 0.2 million[236] ChristianityProtestantism
Mixe Mixe–ZoqueMixe[note 1] Oaxaca (Mexico) 0.1 million[232] ChristianityCatholicism
Mixtec Oto-MangueanMixtecanMixtec La Mixteca (Mexico) 0.5 million[232] Trique, Cuicatecs ChristianityCatholicism
Mon AustroasiaticMon Mon State (Myanmar) 1.1 million[237] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Mongo Niger–CongoBantuMongo Democratic Republic of the Congo (Équateur, Tshuapa, Mongala, Nord-Ubangi, Sud-Ubangi) 3.2 million[238] Bolia, Ntomba, Ngando, Iyaelima, Mbole, Mpama, Nkutu, Sengele, Hendo, Dengese, Tetela Christianity, Traditional African religions
Mongols Mongolic[note 1] China (Inner Mongolia, Dzungaria), Mongolia, Russia (Buryatia, Kalmykia) 7 million[239] Buryats, Barga, Oirats, Kalmyks, Daur, Moghols, Hamnigan, Monguor, Yugur, Khatso, Bonan, Sart Kalmyks, Soyot, Sichuan Mongols, Sogwo Arig, Altai Uriankhai, Ordos, Kanja, Sogwo Arig, Mughals BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Mongondow AustronesianPhilippineMongondow Mongondowia (Indonesia) 0.2 million[240] IslamSunni Islam
Montenegrins Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianMontenegrin Montenegro 0.6 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Serbia and the United States ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Mordvins UralicMordvinic[note 1] Mordovia (Russia) 0.7 million[35] Erzyas, Mokshas, Qaratays ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Mossi Niger–CongoGurMossi Mossiland (Burkina Faso) 6 million[241] Islam
Mumuye Niger–CongoAdamawaMumuye Taraba State (Nigeria) 0.4 million[242] Traditional African religions
Munanese AustronesianCelebicMunanese[note 1] Muna (Indonesia) 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Mundas AustroasiaticMundaMundari India (Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal) 2.2 million[63] Sabar, Mahali Sarnaism
Murut AustronesianBorneanMurutic[note 1] Murutia (Malaysia) 0.1 million[243] Okolod, Keningau, Tagal, Paluan, Selungai, Timugon, Serudung, Sembakung, Tidong, Kalabakan, Bulungan, Bookan ChristianityCatholicism
Muscogee MuskogeanMuscogee[note 17] United States (Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia)[note 18] 0.1 million[25] Coushatta, Alibamu, Hitchiti, Natchez, Seminoles (including Black Seminoles), Yuchi, Shawnee, Creoles of color, Miccosukee Native American religionCreek mythology
Musgum AfroasiaticChadicMusgu Far North Region (Cameroon), Chad (Chari-Baguirmi, Mayo-Kebbi Est) 0.2 million[244] Islam
Mwera Niger–CongoBantuMwera Tanzania (Mtwara and Ruvuma Regions) 0.4 million[245] Islam
Naga Sino-TibetanKuki-Chin–Naga[note 19] Nagaland (India) 1.7 million[63] Ao, Sangtam, Yimchunger, Lotha, Angami, Chakhesang (including Chokri and Khezha), Mao, Pochury, Rengma, Tangkhul, Maring, Zemi, Liangmei, Kabui, Maram, Konyak, Chang, Wancho, Phom, Khiemnungan, Tangsa, Nocte Christianity
Nagpuri Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanBihariSadri Chota Nagpur Plateau (India) 4.3 million[22] Chik Baraik Hinduism
Nahuas Uto-AztecanNahuatl Mexico 1.5 million[232] Huasteca Nahuas, Mexicaneros, Sierra Puebla Nahuas, Guerrero Nahuas, Orizaba Nahuas, Southeastern Puebla Nahuas, Central Nahuas, Pipil, along with Mestizos such as Mexicans ChristianityCatholicism
Nama KhoeKhoekhoe Namaland (Namibia), South Africa 0.1 million[100] Coloureds (including Cape Coloureds, Griqua, Basters, Oorlam, and Goffal) Christianity
Navajo Dené–YeniseianNa-DeneApacheanNavajo Navajo Nation (United States) 0.3 million[25] ChristianityCatholicism
Newar Sino-TibetanNewar Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) 1.3 million[246] Chitrakar Hinduism
Ngaju AustronesianBorneanBaritoNgaju Central Kalimantan (Indonesia) 1 million[247] Bakumpai, Meratus Kaharingan
Ngalop Sino-TibetanTibeticDzongkha Bhutan 0.4 million[248] Kheng, Bumthang BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Ngbandi Niger–CongoUbangianNgbandi Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic 0.1 million[249] Yakoma Christianity
Nias AustronesianNorthwest SumatranNias Nias (Indonesia) 1 million[2] Christianity
Nogais TurkicKipchakNogai Russia (Stavropol Krai, Dagestan) 0.1 million[35] Ak Nogai, Karagash IslamSunni Islam
Norwegians Indo-EuropeanGermanicNordicNorwegian Norway 5.3 million[250] Significant populations in the United States, and Norwegian Canadians ChristianityProtestantism
Nubians Nilo-SaharanNubian[note 1] Nubia (Egypt, Sudan) 2.7 million[251] Nobiin, Mattokki, Dongolawi, Midob, Hill Nubians (including Dilling, Debri, Ghulfan, Kadaru, Karko, and Wali), Birgid, Ja'alin (including Bedaria), Shaigiya Islam
Nuer Nilo-SaharanNiloticNuer Nuerland (South Sudan) 2.9 million[citation needed] Traditional African religions
Nuristanis Indo-EuropeanNuristani[note 1] Nuristan (Afghanistan) 0.3 million[252] Safed-Posh Kaffirs (including Askunis), Kamkata-viris (including Kata and Kom) IslamSunni Islam
Nyishi Sino-TibetanTaniNishi Arunachal Pradesh (India) 0.3 million[22] Christianity
Occitans Indo-EuropeanRomanceOccitan[note 16] Occitania (France, Italy, Spain) 6 million[253] Aranese, Auvergnats, Provençals, Languedociens, Gascons Christianity
Odia Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanOdia Odisha (India) 37 million[22] Utkala Brahmins, Khandayat Hinduism
Ogoni Niger–CongoCross RiverOgoni[note 1] Ogoniland (Nigeria) 0.7 million[254] Baan, Eleme, Gokana, Tẹẹ Christianity
Ojibwe AlgicAlgonquianOjibwe[note 48] Anishinaabeland (Canada, United States) 0.3 million[161] Oji-Cree, Odawa, Potawatomi, Mississaugas Midewiwin
Oromo AfroasiaticCushiticOromo Oromia (Ethiopia), Kenya 25.5 million[19] Boran, Barentoo IslamSunni Islam
Ossetians Indo-EuropeanIranianOssetian South Ossetia, North Ossetia-Alania (Russia) 0.7 million[255] Iron, Digor ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ot Danum AustronesianBorneanBaritoOt Danum Indonesia (West and Central Kalimantan) 0.4 million[256] Lawangan, Ma'anyan Kaharingan
Otomi Oto-MangueanOtomianOtomi Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla, Veracruz, State of Mexico, Querétaro) 0.3 million[232] ChristianityCatholicism
Ovambo Niger–CongoBantuOvambo Ovamboland (Namibia), Angola 1.6 million[citation needed] ChristianityProtestantism
Ovimbundu Niger–CongoBantuUmbundu Angola 4 million[257] Christianity
Pa'O Sino-TibetanKarenicPa'O Shan State (Myanmar) 0.8 million[258] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Palestinians AfroasiaticSemiticArabicSouth Levantine Arabic State of Palestine, Israel[note 49] 12.4 million[259] Arab Israelis, along with significant populations in Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Chile IslamSunni Islam
Pamiris Indo-EuropeanIranianPamir[note 1] Pamir Mountains (Tajikistan, Afghanistan, China) 0.3 million[citation needed] Shughni, Sarikoli (including Tajiks of Xinjiang), Yazghulami, Munji, Yidgha, Sanglechi, Ishkashimi, Wakhi IslamShia Islam
Pangasinese AustronesianPhilippinePangasinan Pangasinan (Philippines) 1.5 million[260] ChristianityCatholicism
Papel Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianPapel Biombo Region (Guinea-Bissau) 0.2 million[261] ChristianityCatholicism
Pare Niger–CongoBantuPare Pare Mountains (Tanzania) 0.9 million[262] Islam
Pashayi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanDardicPashayi[note 1] Afghanistan (Laghman, Kapisa and Nangarhar Provinces) 0.4 million[263] Islam
Pashtuns Indo-EuropeanIranianPashto Pashtunistan (Afghanistan, Pakistan) 49.6 million[264] Pashtun Americans, Kakar IslamSunni Islam
Pende Niger–CongoBantuPende Democratic Republic of the Congo 0.3 million[265] Christianity
Persians Indo-EuropeanIranianPersian Iran 52.5 million[266] Tat, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Arab Emirates, Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, Bahrain, Australia, and Sweden IslamShia Islam
Poles Indo-EuropeanSlavicPolish Poland 58–60 million[267] Significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Germany, Canada, Iceland, Sweden, France, the United Kingdom, Argentina, Belarus, Russia, Australia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Ireland, and Norway ChristianityCatholicism
Portuguese Indo-EuropeanRomancePortuguese Portugal 222.7 million[268] Azoreans, Madeirans, along with numerous colonial descendants such as Brazilians (including Ribeirinhos and Pardo Brazilians), Cape Verdeans, Portuguese Angolans, Portuguese Mozambicans, Luso-Indians, Macanese, Kristangs, and Portuguese Burghers ChristianityCatholicism
Punjabis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanPunjabi Punjab (Pakistan, India) 122.2 million[269] Sikhs, Jat, Khatris, along with significant populations in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. IslamSunni Islam
Purépecha Purépecha Michoacán (Mexico) 0.1 million[232] ChristianityCatholicism
Qashqai TurkicOghuzQashqai Fars Province (Iran) 1 million[270] IslamShia Islam
Qiang Sino-TibetanQiangic[note 1] Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (China) 0.3 million[271] Qiang folk religion
Quechua Quechuan[note 1] Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador 7.7 million[272] Mestizos such as Peruvians, Ecuadorians, and Bolivians ChristianityCatholicism
Rade AustronesianChamicRade Central Highlands (Vietnam) 0.3 million[38] Christianity
Rajasthanis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanHindustaniRajasthani Rajasthan (India) 25.8 million[22] Banjara, Gurjars, Rajputs (including Mahyavanshi, Chandels, and Molesalam), Marwari, Charan Hindusim
Rajbongshi Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanKamtapuri India (Assam, West Bengal) 15 million[273] Hindusim
Rakhine Sino-TibetanBurmeseArakanese Rakhine State (Myanmar) 3 million[274] Marma BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Rejangese AustronesianBorneanLand DayakRejang Rejang Lebong Regency (Indonesia) 2 million[275] IslamSunni Islam
Rohingyas Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRohingya Rakhine State (Myanmar) 2.4 million[276] Islam
Roma Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanRomani Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, North Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia, Czech Republic)[note 2] 12 million[277] Roma, Iberian Kale, Finnish Kale, Welsh Kale, Romanichal, Sinti, Manush, Romanisæl, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, Boyash, Lom, Dom (including Halebi, Lori, and Madari), along with significant populations in the United States, and Brazil. Christianity
Romanians Indo-EuropeanRomanceRomanian Romania, Moldova 23.4 million[278] Moldovans, along with significant populations in Italy, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and France. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Russians Indo-EuropeanSlavicRussian Russia 129 million[279] Cossacks, Pomors, Lipovans, along with significant populations in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, the United States, Uzbekistan, Israel, Brazil, Belarus, Canada, Latvia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Estonia, Turkmenistan, France, Lithuania and Azerbaijan. ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Ryukyuans JaponicRyukyuan[note 50] Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 1.5 million[280] Amami (including Kikai, Amami Ōshima, Tokunoshima, Okinoerabu, and Yoron), Okinawan (including Kunigami) Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni Ryukyuan religion
Rusyns Indo-EuropeanSlavicRusyn Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland)[note 51] 1.2 million[281] Pannonian Rusyns, Lemkos, Hutsuls, Boykos Christianity
Saho AfroasiaticCushiticSaho Eritrea 0.3 million[282] Islam
Sahrawi AfroasiaticSemiticArabicHassaniya Arabic Western Sahara (Morocco), Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Mauritania 5.2 million[283] Reguibat, Tajakant, Tekna IslamSunni Islam
Salar TurkicOghuzSalar China (Qinghai, Gansu) 0.1 million[284] IslamSunni Islam
Sama-Bajau AustronesianBorneanBaritoSama–Bajaw[note 1] Maritime Southeast Asia (Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei)[note 2] 0.5–1 million[285] Sama (including Banguingui), Bajaw, Abaknon IslamSunni Islam
Sambal AustronesianPhilippineSambalic[note 1] Zambales (Philippines) 0.1 million[286] Bolinao, Botolan (including Banguingui) IslamSunni Islam
Sámi UralicSami[note 1] Sápmi (Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia) 0.1 million[287] Inari Sami, Kildin Sami, Lule Sami, Northern Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ter Sami, Ume Sami ChristianityProtestantism
Samoans AustronesianPolynesianSamoan Samoan Islands (Samoa, American Samoa) 0.6 million[citation needed] American Samoans Christianity
Sangirese AustronesianPhilippineSangirese Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) 0.4 million[288] ChristianityProtestantism
Santal AustroasiaticMundaSantali India (West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha)[note 2] 6.6 million[63] ChristianityCatholicism
Sara Nilo-SaharanCentral SudanicSara[note 1] Chad, Central African Republic 5.4 million[289] Ngambay, Doba, Laka, Kabba, Sar, Mbay, Ngam, Dagba, Gulay Traditional African religions
Sardinians Indo-EuropeanRomanceSardinian Sardinia (Italy) 1.2 million[290] ChristianityCatholicism
Sasak AustronesianSasak Lombok (Indonesia) 3.2 million[2] Islam
Savu AustronesianSumba–FloresSumbaHawu Savu (Indonesia) 0.1 million[291] ChristianityProtestantism
Scots Indo-EuropeanCelticScottish Gaelic[note 21] Scotland (United Kingdom) 40 million[160] Ulster Scots, Orcadians, Shetlanders, Highlanders, Lowlanders, along with significant populations in the United States (including Scotch-Irish Americans), Canada, Australia, Argentina, and the Bahamas ChristianityProtestantism
Senufo Niger–CongoSenufo[note 1] Mali, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso 3 million[citation needed] Nafana Traditional African religions
Serbs Indo-EuropeanSlavicSerbo-CroatianSerbian Serbia, Republika Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Montenegro 9.6–12.5 million[citation needed] Kosovo Serbs, Triestine Serbs, along with significant populations in Croatia, Germany, Austria, France, and Sweden ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy
Serer Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianSerer Senegal 1 million[292] Laalaa, Ndut, Niominka, Serer-Noon, Palor, Saafi Islam
Shan Kra–DaiTaiShan Shan State (Myanmar) 5 million[237] BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sharchops Sino-TibetanTshangla Bhutan (Lhuntse, Mongar, Pemagatshel, Samdrup Jongkhar, Trashigang, and Trashiyangtse Districts) 0.1 million[293] BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Sherbro Niger–CongoAtlanticMelSherbro Sherbro Island (Sierra Leone) 0.2 million[294] Traditional African religions
Shilluk Nilo-SaharanNiloticLuoShilluk South Sudan 1.5 million[295] Gule ChristianityCatholicism
Shona Niger–CongoBantuShona Mashonaland (Zimbabwe) 7.2 million[296] Manyika, Ndau Christianity
Sibe TungusicXibe[note 45] China (Liaoning, Jilin, Xinjiang)[note 2] 0.2 million[297] Shamanism[note 23]
Sidama AfroasiaticCushiticSidaama Sidamia (Ethiopia) 7.8 million[19] Christianity
Siddi Niger–CongoBantuSwahili[note 52] Pakistan (Baluchistan, Sindh), India (Karnataka, Gujarat, Hyderabad) 0.4 million[citation needed] Islam
Sika AustronesianFlores–LembataSika Sikka Regency (Indonesia) 0.2 million[298] ChristianityCatholicism
Silesians Indo-EuropeanSlavicSilesian Silesia (Poland), Czech Silesia (Czech Republic) 2 million[citation needed] Cieszyn Vlachs, Silesian Gorals ChristianityCatholicism
Silt'e AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicGurageSilt'e Siltia (Ethiopia) 1 million[19] Islam
Sindhis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSindhi Sindh (Pakistan) 34.8 million[299] Jat, Memon, Indian Sindhis IslamSunni Islam
Sinhalese Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSinhalese Sri Lanka 13.8 million[300] British Sri Lankans, Burghers (including Portuguese Burghers and Dutch Burghers) BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Sioux SiouanSioux[note 53] Lakotah (United States) 0.2 million[25] Lakota, Dakota, Nakota (including Nakoda and Assiniboine) Native American religion
Slovaks Indo-EuropeanSlavicSlovak Slovakia 6 million[citation needed] Significant populations in Czech Republic, Serbia, Hungary, United States and Canada ChristianityCatholicism
Slovenes Indo-EuropeanSlavicSlovene Slovenia 2.5 million[citation needed] Carinthian Slovenes, Italy Slovenes ChristianityCatholicism
Soga Niger–CongoBantuSoga Busoga (Uganda) 2.1 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Somalis AfroasiaticCushiticSomali Greater Somalia (Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya) 16.1 million[301] Hawiye, Darod (including Majeerteen), Isaaq, Dir, Rahanweyn, Madhiban, Yibir, along with significant populations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Canada IslamSunni Islam
Songhai Nilo-SaharanSonghai Mali, Niger 4.5 million[302] Zarma Islam
Soninke Niger–CongoMandeSoninke Mali 2.1 million[303] Haratin IslamSunni Islam
Sotho Niger–CongoBantuSotho Free State (South Africa), Lesotho 6 million[304] Pedi Christianity, Traditional African religions
Spaniards Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanish Spain[note 54] 442.4 million[305] Castilians, Andalusians, Asturians, Leonese, Cantabrians, Aragonese, Extremadurans, Mirandese, Canary Islanders (including Isleños), along with numerous colonial descendants such as Hispanos (including Californios, Tejanos, and Neomexicanos), Mexicans, Guatemalans (including Hispanic Belizeans), Salvadorans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, Costa Ricans, Panamanians, Colombians, Venezuelans, Ecuadorians, Peruvians, Bolivians, Paraguayans, Chileans, Argentines, Uruguayans, Cubans, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Fernandinos, and Spanish Filipinos ChristianityCatholicism
Sui Kra–DaiKam–SuiSui Sandu Shui Autonomous County (China) 0.4 million[306] Animism
Sumba AustronesianSumba–FloresSumba[note 1] Sumba (Indonesia) 0.3 million[307] ChristianityProtestantism
Sundanese AustronesianSundanese Java (Indonesia) 36.7 million[2] Bantenese, Baduy, Cirebonese IslamSunni Islam
Sukuma Niger–CongoBantuSukuma Tanzania 5.5 million[citation needed] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Sumbawa AustronesianSumbawa Sumbawa (Indonesia) 0.4 million[308] Islam
Surma Nilo-SaharanSurmic[note 55] Ethiopia, South Sudan 0.2 million[citation needed] Me'en, Mursi Traditional African religions
Susu Niger–CongoMandeSusu Guinea, Kambia (Sierra Leone) 2.4 million[309] Islam
Swahili Niger–CongoBantuSwahili Swahili coast (Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Comoros) 0.5 million[310] Shirazi (including Zanzibaris, Comorians and Maore) Islam
Swazi Niger–CongoBantuNguniSwazi Mpumalanga (South Africa), Eswatini 1.8 million[311] ChristianityAfrican Zionism
Swedes Indo-EuropeanGermanicNordicSwedish Sweden 14.2 million[citation needed] Scanians, Jamtish, Gutnish, along with significant populations in Finland (including Åland Swedes), the United States, Canada, Argentina and the United Kingdom ChristianityProtestantism
Sylhetis Indo-EuropeanIndo-AryanSylheti Sylhet Division (Bangladesh), Barak Valley (India) 10.3 million[312] Islam
Tabasaran Northeast CaucasianLezgicTabasaranese Tabasaranstan (Russia) 0.1 million[35] IslamSunni Islam
Tagalogs AustronesianPhilippineTagalog Philippines 19.6 million[313] Filipino Americans ChristianityCatholicism
Tahitians AustronesianPolynesianTahitian[note 16] Tahiti (France) 0.2 million[citation needed] Christianity
Tajiks Indo-EuropeanIranianPersianTajik Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 11.2 million[314] Chagatai IslamSunni Islam
Talysh Indo-EuropeanIranianTalysh Azerbaijan, Iran 0.2 million[315] IslamShia Islam
Tama Nilo-SaharanTama Chad, Sudan 0.3 million[citation needed] Islam
Tamils DravidianTamil Tamil Nadu (India), Sri Lanka (Northern and Eastern Provinces) 64 million[316] Indian Tamils, Sri Lankan Tamils, Paravar, along with significant populations in Malaysia, South Africa, the United States, Singapore, Canada, the United Kingdom, and France (including Malbars). Hinduism
Tankas Sino-TibetanChineseYue Chinese China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, Zhejiang, Hong Kong, Macau) 5 million[317] Fuzhou Tankas Chinese folk religion
Tarok Niger–CongoPlateauTarok Plateau State (Nigeria) 0.3 million[318] Christianity
Tatars TurkicKipchakTatar Tatarstan (Russia) 5 million[319] Volga Tatars, Crimean Tatars, Lipka Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Mishar Tatars, Finnish Tatars, Dobruja Tatars, Chinese Tatars, Nagaybak, Kryashens IslamSunni Islam
Tausūg AustronesianPhilippineVisayanTausug Sulu Archipelago (Philippines) 1.1 million[320] IslamSunni Islam
Tboli AustronesianPhilippineTboli South Cotabato (Philippines) 0.1–0.2 million[321] Anitism
Telugu DravidianTelugu India (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) 81.1 million[22] Kamma, Reddy, Velama, Kapu, Raju, Madiga Hinduism
Temne Niger–CongoAtlanticMelTemne Sierra Leone 1.6 million[322] Islam
Thais Kra–DaiTaiThai Thailand 31.1 million[323] Southern, Khorat, Lanna, Tai Lü, Thai Americans BuddhismTheravada Buddhism
Tibetans Sino-TibetanTibetic[note 1] Tibet (China) 5.4[324]–6.2 million[325] Amdolese (including Golok and Tebbu), Khams, Ü-Tsang (including Ngari and Walung), Changpa, Baima BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Tigrayans AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicTigrinya Eritrean Highlands (Eritrea), Tigrayia (Ethiopia) 7.6 million[326] ChristianityOriental Orthodoxy
Tigre AfroasiaticSemiticEthiopicTigre Eritrea 1.8 million[327] Islam
Tiv Niger–CongoTiv Benue State (Nigeria) 2.5 million[328] Christianity
Tiwa Sino-TibetanSalTiwa[note 3] India (Assam, Meghalaya) 0.2 million[63] Hinduism
Tlapanec Oto-MangueanTlapanec Guerrero (Mexico) 0.1 million[232] ChristianityCatholicism
Toraja AustronesianSouth SulawesiToraja Tana Toraja (Indonesia) 1.1 million[329] ChristianityProtestantism
Toubou Nilo-SaharanSaharanTebu[note 1] Toubouland (Chad, Niger, Sudan, Libya) 2.3 million[130] Daza, Teda IslamSunni Islam
Toucouleur Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianFulaPulaar Futa Tooro (Senegal) 1 million[48] Islam
Tripuri Sino-TibetanSalKokborok Tripura (India) 1 million[22] Jamatia, Murasing Hinduism
Tsonga Niger–CongoBantuTsonga Mozambique (Maputo City and Maputo Province, Gaza Province), South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga) 4.6 million[330] Traditional African religions
Tswana Niger–CongoBantuTswana Botswana, South Tswanaland (South Africa) 4 million[331] Balete, Mangwato, Bangwaketse, Rolong Christianity
Tupuri Niger–CongoAdamawaTupuri Far North Region (Cameroon), Mayo-Kébbi (Chad) 0.2 million[332] Christianity
Turkana Nilo-SaharanNiloticTurkana Turkanaland (Kenya) 1 million[173] ChristianityCatholicism
Turks TurkicOghuzTurkish Turkey 79 million[333] Turkish Cypriots, Meskhetian Turks, Yörüks, along with significant populations in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Sweden, the United States, Syria, and Iraq IslamSunni Islam
Turkmens TurkicOghuzTurkmen Turkmenistan 6 million[334] IslamSunni Islam
Tutsi Niger–CongoBantuRwanda-Rundi[note 34] Rwanda, Burundi, Kivu (Democratic Republic of the Congo) 3 million[citation needed] Banyamulenge Christianity, Islam
Tuvans TurkicSiberianTuvan Tuva (Russia) 0.3 million[35] Tozhu Tuvans BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
Udmurts UralicPermicUdmurt Udmurtia (Russia) 0.6 million[35] Besermyan ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Urhobos Niger–CongoEdoidUrhobo Delta State (Nigeria) 1 million[335] Christianity
Ukrainians Indo-EuropeanSlavicUkrainian Ukraine 58.7 million[336] Poleshuks, Cossacks, along with significant populations in the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Germany, Canada, Italy, Argentina, the Czech Republic, and Romania ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Uyghurs TurkicKarlukUyghur Uyghuristan (China) 10.3 million[337] Uyghurs in Kazakhstan IslamSunni Islam
Uzbeks TurkicKarlukUzbek Uzbekistan 20 million[338] Uzbeks in Russia IslamSunni Islam
Venda Niger–CongoBantuTshivenda Vendaland (South Africa) 1.3 million[339] Christianity, Traditional African religions
Vietnamese AustroasiaticVieticVietnamese Vietnam 73.6 million[38] Significant populations in the United States, Cambodia, France, Australia, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Germany and Laos BuddhismMahayana
Visayans AustronesianPhilippineVisayan[note 1] Visayas (Philippines) 35.7 million[340] Aklanon, Butuanon, Cebuano (including Boholano and Eskaya), Caluyanon, Capiznons, Hiligaynon, Karay-a, Masbateños, Negrense, Porohanon, Romblomanon, Waray ChristianityCatholicism
Wa AustroasiaticPalaungicWa Wa State (Myanmar) 1.2 million[citation needed] Buddhism, Animism
Walloons Indo-EuropeanRomanceFrenchWalloon[note 56] Wallonia (Belgium) 4.9 million[341] ChristianityCatholicism
Waxiang Sino-TibetanChineseWaxiang Chinese Hunan (China) 0.3 million[342] Chinese folk religion
Welayta AfroasiaticOmoticWolayitta Wolayitia (Ethiopia) 1.7 million[19] ChristianityProtestantism
Welsh Indo-EuropeanCelticWelsh[note 21] Wales (United Kingdom) 16.3 million[343] Significant populations in Argentina, the United States, Canada, and Australia. ChristianityProtestantism
Wolof Niger–CongoAtlanticSenegambianWolof Senegambia (Senegal, The Gambia) 5.9 million[344] Lebu, along with numerous slave descendants such as Haratins and Martinicans (including Saint Lucians) IslamSunni Islam
Xhosa Niger–CongoBantuNguniXhosa Xhosaland (South Africa) 7.3 million[345] Christianity
Yakan AustronesianBorneanBaritoSama–BajawYakan Basilan (Philippines) 0.1 million[346] IslamSunni Islam
Yakö Niger–CongoCross RiverYakö Yakurr Local Government (Nigeria) 0.1 million[347] Christianity
Yakuts TurkicSiberianYakut Yakutia (Russia) 0.5 million[35] ChristianityEastern Orthodox
Yao Niger–CongoBantuYao Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania (Ruvuma and Mtwara Regions) 2.6 million[348] Islam
Yi Sino-TibetanLoloish[note 1] China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi)[note 2] 7.8 million[349] Phù Lá, Azha Bimoism
Yoruba Niger–CongoYoruboidYoruba Yorubaland (Nigeria, Benin) 20 million[350] Egun, Ijesha, Egba, Yewa, Igbomina, Awori, Akoko, Okun, Ana, Ekiti, Ilaje, Oku, along with numerous slave descendants Christianity
Zaghawa Nilo-SaharanSaharanZaghawa Chad, Sudan 0.3 million[102] IslamSunni Islam
Zamboangueños Indo-EuropeanRomanceSpanishChavacano Zamboanga City (Philippines) 0.4 million[351] ChristianityCatholicism
Zande Niger–CongoZande Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan 3.8 million[352] Christianity
Zapotec Oto-MangueanZapotecanZapotec[note 1] Oaxaca (Mexico) 0.5 million[232] ChristianityCatholicism
Zhuang Kra–DaiTaiZhuang[note 1] Zhuangia (China) 16.2 million[353] Moism
Zulu Niger–CongoBantuNguniZulu KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) 9 million[354] Northern Ndebele Christianity, Traditional African religions

Lists of ethnic groupsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Language family; with some exceptions, all speakers of the various languages within this family are typically seen as one singular ethnicity.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Noncontiguous homeland. Throughout most of their history (if not their entire history), this ethnic group have lived in separate, isolated communities scattered throughout the countries/subdivisions listed.
  3. ^ a b c Assamese ethnic group; the vast majority only speak Assamese.
  4. ^ Some time around 1860s, many Akha have been migrating to Myanmar, Laos, and Thailand. Today, the majority reside outside of China.
  5. ^ The Anglo-Indians are largely found in India's urban areas. It is believed, however, that the majority of the Anglo-Indians have left India since the country's independence.
  6. ^ With the exception of Navajo, all Apachean speakers are seen as one ethnicity. However, due to a history of forced assimilation by the American government, the majority can only speak English.
  7. ^ Between 632 and 861, the Arabs controlled most of West Asia and North Africa, with Bedouin tribes forming in what is now Algeria, Sudan, and Iraq. Today, the majority of the Arab world is outside of Arabia.
  8. ^ The Argobba have typically been a merchant community and usually trades with other ethnic groups; recently, these factors have resulted in the majority only speaking Amharic or Oromo.
  9. ^ During the Armenian Genocide, many Armenians fled to Russia, France, and the United States. Today, the majority reside outside of Greater Armenia.
  10. ^ The Aramaic language morphed into the Neo-Aramaic languages around 1200 AD. Whether the majority of the Assyrians are still speaking these languages is unclear, however.
  11. ^ Modern Assyria have seen long periods of violence throughout the region, some of which (such as the Assyrian genocide and the Persecution of Christians by ISIL) have been directed against the Assyrians themselves. This has caused many to flee to places such as the United States and Sweden; it is believed that the majority now reside outside of the Middle East.
  12. ^ Due to the widespread presence of both Spanish and French, the majority of Basques only have a passive knowledge of their language.
  13. ^ Unlike the rest of the Soviet republics, who were able to maintain their native language despite the de facto Russianization during the Soviet era, the Russian language has largely replaced Belarusian in everyday use.
  14. ^ The Beti and the Fang form the Beti-Pahuin peoples. While the term Beti is sometimes used interchangeably to refer to the Beti-Pahuin people, the Beti ethnicity is specifically limited to Ewondo and Eton speakers.
  15. ^ Due to their historical low status in India, the majority only speak Bengali.
  16. ^ a b c d Due to France's long history of promoting the French language at the expense of others, the vast majority only speak French.
  17. ^ a b c Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the American government, the vast majority only speak English.
  18. ^ a b c Following the passage of the Indian Removal Act, this ethnic group was forced to relocate its entire population to Oklahoma.
  19. ^ a b The Kuki-Chin–Naga language grouping (it is unclear whether the Kuki-Chin–Naga form an actual language family) consists of five to eight branches. Except for Karbi and Meitei, the Kuki-Chin–Naga is divided between the Chin and the Naga. The Mruic and most of the Kuki-Chin speakers are seen as Chin, while speakers of the remaining Kuki-Chin–Naga branches (Ao, Angami–Pochuri, Tangkhulic, and Zeme) and the speakers Northwestern Kuki-Chin are seen as Naga.
  20. ^ Following the Caucasian War, the majority of Circassians were deported to Turkey.
  21. ^ a b c d Due to a long history of English dominance within Great Britain, the Celtic languages within the islands have seen steady decline in use, with some of them eventually going extinct. Although all of them have since seen major language revival movements, English continues to be main language for the majority of this group.
  22. ^ a b Due to the a long history of forced assimilation by the Canadian government, the vast majority can only either speak English.
  23. ^ a b c d e Largest practiced religion; the majority/plurality of this group are actually non-religious.
  24. ^ Due to their historical low status in India, the majority only speak Gujarati.
  25. ^ The original Egyptian language, which morphed into the Coptic language around the 1st century AD, died out as a spoken language around the 17th century and is now only used for religious ceremonies. Today, the Egyptians, including the Copts, speak Arabic.
  26. ^ Between 1583 and 1997, the English, via being the dominant ethnic group in the United Kingdom, created the largest empire in the world, setting up settler colonies in areas such as what is now the United States, Canada, and Australia. Today, the majority of the Anglosphere is outside of the United Kingdom.
  27. ^ It is believed that the majority of Fon who identify their religion as Christianity actually practice a syncretised form of West African Vodun.
  28. ^ Like its speakers, the Garfuna language is the only remnant of the Island Carib language.
  29. ^ Following the Second Carib War, the majority of the Garifuna were deported to Honduras, where they later spread to Guatemala, Belize, and Nicaragua. Since then, Honduras have seen high murder rates, causing many to flee to United States.
  30. ^ Many of the Gelao dialects are mutually unintelligible from each other and are known to intermarry with other ethnic groups; recently, these factors have resulted in most of the populations speaking only Chinese.
  31. ^ Due to their historical low status in India, the majority only speak Hindi.
  32. ^ Since Hawaii's annexation into the United States, English has almost completely supplanted Hawaiian.
  33. ^ Following the suppression of Miao Rebellion of 1854–1873, the majority of the Hmong fled further south to Guangxi, Yunnan, Vietnam, and Laos.
  34. ^ a b Refers specifically to the Kinyarwanda and Kirundi dialects. The other speakers of the dialects within the Rwanda-Rundi continuum are considered to be separate from the Hutu, Tutsi, and Twa peoples.
  35. ^ During the Great Famine, many Irish people fled to places like Argentina, Mexico, and the United States. Today, the majority of people claiming Irish ethnicity resides outside of Ireland.
  36. ^ With the exception of Cherokee, all Iroquoian speakers are seen as one ethnicity. However, due to a long history of forced assimilation by both American and Canadian governments, the vast majority can only speak English.
  37. ^ The majority of the Japanese practiced a syncretised form of Shinto and Buddhism called Shinbutsu-shūgō.
  38. ^ Despite the successful revival of the Hebrew language, many Jews continue to speak the various languages that have developed by the diaspora populations, including Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic. In addition, English serves as the lingua franca of Israel.
  39. ^ Until 1948, the Jews were largely a diaspora ethnicity, with the Jewish identity being claimed mostly by descendants of those that left Israel following the First Jewish–Roman War while the remaining population eventually evolved into the Palestinians. Despite entire Jewish communities migrating back to Israel, the Israel Jewish population only make up a plurality of the worldwide Jewish population.
  40. ^ Due to both Turkification and the tendency among Georgia-residing Laz to see themselves as being a Georgian subgroup, the majority of Laz either speak Turkish or Georgian.
  41. ^ Most Lebanese migrants do not pass their language to their children; recently, this has resulted in Arabic-speakers only forming a plurality of the overall population.
  42. ^ Some time around the late 1800s, many Lebanese have migrated to places such as France, Brazil, and the United States. Today, the majority reside outside of Lebanon.
  43. ^ Due to poor soil condition in Madura, the majority now live on Java.
  44. ^ The majority of the Magars have recently switched to Nepali.
  45. ^ a b The majority of the Tungusic languages are endangered, and many Tungusic ethnic groups now mostly speak only Russian or Chinese depending on the location of their homeland.
  46. ^ Although the Māori have been able to halt the extinction of their language, the majority still only speak English fluently.
  47. ^ Due to gradual Hispanicization following the Occupation of Araucanía, the majority of Mapuche can only speak Spanish.
  48. ^ Due to a long history of forced assimilation by both American and Canadian governments, the vast majority can only speak English.
  49. ^ During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, many Palestinians fled to places like Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon. Today, the majority reside outside of what was once Mandatory Palestine.
  50. ^ All Ryukyuan speakers are seen as one ethnicity; however, due to a history of forced assimilation by the Japanese government, the majority can only speak Japanese.
  51. ^ The Rusyn identity is mostly limited to those residing outside of Carpathian Ruthenia. Within Carpathian Ruthenia itself (especially in the Ukrainian region), the majority of its residents identify themselves as being Ukrainian.
  52. ^ The Siddi now speak the dominant language of their region.
  53. ^ Due to a history of forced assimilation by the American government, the majority can only speak English.
  54. ^ Between 1492 and 1833, the Spaniards controlled most of the Americas, with Mestizo communities forming in areas such as what is now Mexico, Argentina, and Colombia. Today, the majority of the Hispanosphere is outside of Spain.
  55. ^ Refers specifically to the three languages that form the Surma language family: Me'en, Mursi, and Suri.
  56. ^ Prior to the mid-twentieth century, the lingua franca of Belgium was French; this, paired with the fact that the Walloons are usually considered to be a French subgroup, have now resulted in the majority of them speaking only standard French.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Abkhaz". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total Abkhaz users in all countries.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Statistics Indonesia. 2011. ISBN 978-979-064-417-5. Indonesian population only.
  3. ^ "Acholi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Etsako in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  5. ^ "Afar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Figure taken by adding the ethnic populations of Ethiopia and Djibouti with the Eritrean population.
  6. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES: 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 5, 2018. United States population only. Race alone or in combination with one or more other races. Measures the entire Sub-Saharan African population residing in the United States, including Afro-Latin Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, and recent African immigrants.
  7. ^ "Afrikaners constitute nearly three million out of approximately 53 million inhabitants of the Republic of South Africa, plus as many as half a million in diaspora." Afrikaner – Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  8. ^ "Saint Lucia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total population.
  9. ^ "Awi in Ethiopia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. "Bilen in Eritrea". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. "Kemant in Ethiopia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. "Ximre in Ethiopia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 January 2019. Figure taken by totaling all four populations.
  10. ^ "Ahom in India". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  11. ^ "Ahom". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 January 2019. Possible number of Assamese speakers claiming to be of Ahom descent.
  12. ^ "Aimaq". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 December 2018. Total Aimaq users in all countries.
  13. ^ "Aja". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 December 2018. Total Adja users in all countries.
  14. ^ "Cote D'Ivoire". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Akan residing outside these countries not included.
  15. ^ "Akha". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 January 2019. Total users of Akha in all countries.
  16. ^ "Albanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Population total of all languages of the Albanian macrolanguage.
  17. ^ "Malay, Ambonese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 February 2019. Total first-language Ambonese Malay users in all countries.
  18. ^ "Mbundu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Census 2007" Archived February 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Ethiopian population only. Figure taken from Urban + Rural population in Table 5.
  20. ^ Chia-chen, Hsieh; Wu, Jeffrey (15 February 2015). "Amis remains Taiwan's biggest aboriginal tribe at 37.1% of total". FocusTaiwan.tw. The Central News Agency. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
  21. ^ "Anaang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v 2011 Indian census, Abstract of Speakers' Strength of Languages and Mother Tongues. Indian population only. Figure taken using the language grouping population or the specific mother tongue population.
  23. ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2007), "Excluding and Including "Natives of India": Early-Nineteenth-Century British-Indian Race Relations in Britain", Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27 (2): 303–314 [305], doi:10.1215/1089201x-2007-007 Indian population only.
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  25. ^ a b c d e f "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved 7 March 2017. American population only. Figure taken using the American Indian and Alaska Native tribal grouping alone population from Table 7. The Muscogee figure is taken by combining the Creek and Seminole population.
  26. ^ Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14.
  27. ^ Dennis J.D. Sandole (24 January 2007). Peace and Security in the Postmodern World: The OSCE and Conflict Resolution. Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 9781134145713. The nearly 3 million Armenians in Armenia (and 3–4 million in the Armenian Diaspora worldwide) 'perceive' the nearly 8 million Azerbaijanis in Azerbaijan as 'Turks.'
  28. ^ Von Voss, Huberta (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World. New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 9781845452575. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...
  29. ^ Puig, Lluis Maria de (17 January 1997). "Report: Aromanians". Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly. Doc. 7728. Aromanian speaking population.
  30. ^ Ronald Roberson. "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2016" (PDF). Catholic Near East Welfare Association. Retrieved 29 November 2016. Information sourced from Annuario Pontificio 2016 edition
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  32. ^ "Atoni". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  33. ^ "Katab in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  34. ^ "Bavarian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 29 January 2019. Figure taken by adding the Austrian and Italian population.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity". Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2013-04-16. Russian population only.
  36. ^ "Aymara". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  37. ^ Sela, Avraham (2002). The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Continuum. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8264-1413-7. 30–35 million
  38. ^ a b c d "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 134. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013. Vietnamese population only.
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  40. ^ "Balanta-Kentohe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 January 2018. "Balanta-Ganja". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 January 2018. Figure taken by combining the total users of Balanta-Kentohe in all countries with the Balanta-Ganja population.
  41. ^ "Baloch". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  42. ^ "Balti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total Balti users in all countries.
  43. ^ "Burmese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 December 2018. Total first-language Burmese users in all countries.
  44. ^ "Bamanankan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Bamanankan users in all countries.
  45. ^ "Bamileke". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  46. ^ "Bamun". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  47. ^ Kevin Shillington (2013). Encyclopedia of African History. Routledge. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-1-135-45670-2.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g Kwame Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates Jr., eds. (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533770-9.
  49. ^ "Bari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 February 2019. "Kakwa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 February 2019. "Mandari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total number of first-language Bari users in all countries, the total number of Kakwa users in all countries, and the Mandari population.
  50. ^ "Benin". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Beninese population only.
  51. ^ "Liberia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  52. ^ "Basque". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 850,000 in Spain, 130,000 in France, and 170,000 possibly living in South America and the United States.
  53. ^ "Bejah". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  54. ^ "Belarusian". Joshua Project. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  55. ^ "Belize Creole". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  56. ^ "Bembe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  57. ^ "Bengali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 October 2016. Total first-language Bengali users in all countries.
  58. ^ "North Africa's Berbers get boost from Arab Spring". Fox News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  59. ^ Tej K. Bhatia; William C. Ritchie (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley & Sons. p. 860. ISBN 978-0631227359. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  60. ^ "Berom". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  61. ^ "Berta". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total first-language Berta users in all countries.
  62. ^ "Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019. "Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both populations.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Statistical Profile of Scheduled Tribes in India (PDF). New Delhi: Ministry of Tribal Affairs. 2013. Indian population only. Figures taken either directly from Table 1.23 or by combining related total populations of Table 1.24.
  64. ^ "Bhojpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Total first-language Bhojpuri users in all countries.
  65. ^ "Bicol". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  66. ^ a b "State statistics: Malays edge past Chinese in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  67. ^ "Naba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 March 2019. 137,000 Bilala.
  68. ^ "Bishnupriya". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 February 2019. Total Bishnupriya users in all countries.
  69. ^ "Bisa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Total Bissa users in all countries.
  70. ^ "Blaan, Koronadal". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 March 2019. "Blaan, Sarangani". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 March 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  71. ^ "Bwa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  72. ^ "Bosnian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. Total Bosnian users in all countries.
  73. ^ "The Bouyei ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 17 February 2019. Chinese population only.
  74. ^ "Bozo, Jenaama". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Includes only speakers of Jenaama dialect.
  75. ^ "Brahui". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
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  77. ^ "Bru, Eastern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 8 February 2019. "Bru, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total users of Eastern Bru and Western Bru in all countries.
  78. ^ "Budu in Congo, Democratic Republic of". Joshua Project. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  79. ^ "Buduma". Joshua Project. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
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  81. ^ "Burushaski". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  82. ^ "Bwa People". Art and Life in Africa Online. University of Iowa. 1998-11-03. Archived from the original on 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
  83. ^ a b "The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 August 2017. American population only.
  84. ^ "Cham, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 October 2017. Both figures taken by combining the ethnic population of Cambodia with the Vietnamese population, the former using the 2009 census and the latter using the Bradley estimate. (Both sources include speakers of Eastern Cham).
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  90. ^ "Chuukese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total Chuukese users in all countries.
  91. ^ "Circassian". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 165,000 Adyghians, 345,000 Kabardians, 150,000 in Turkey, and 35,000 in Syria.
  92. ^ "Chakma". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  93. ^ "Chichewa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 December 2018. Total Chichewa users in all countries.
  94. ^ "The Cornish Transnational Communities Project". University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011.
  95. ^ "Corsican". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Ethnic population.
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  98. ^ "Dagara, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. "Dagaare, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 7 January 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  99. ^ "Dagbani". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
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  101. ^ "Dinka". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
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  106. ^ "Ebira". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  107. ^ "edo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Total Edo users in all countries.
  108. ^ "Efik". Joshua Project. Retrieved 22 November 2018.
  109. ^ "مصر في المركز الـ13 عالميا في التعداد السكاني". BBC News Arabic (in Arabic). 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
  110. ^ "Ejagham". Joshua Project. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  111. ^ "Emberá, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic population of Colombia (which includes speakers of Southern Emberá) with the Panamanian population.
  112. ^ "Ethnicity and National Identity in England and Wales: 2011". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 13 December 2018. "American FactFinder - Results". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 21 August 2017. "Reflecting a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 13 December 2018. "Data tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 13 December 2018. "2013 Census ethnic group profiles". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 13 December 2018. The following "ethnic origins/ancestry" was used to add up this figure: English, British, American, Australian, Canadian, New Zealander, and New Zealand European. Not including other colonial descendant populations.
  113. ^ Rolle, Nicholas. [1], University of California in Berkeley, Berkeley, October 17, 2012. Retrieved on 1 November 2014. Population of Esanland.
  114. ^ "Estonian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 November 2018. Population total of all languages of the Estonian macrolanguage.
  115. ^ a b Minahan, James (2002a). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. II (D–K). Greenwood.
  116. ^ Fiji Islands Bureau of Statistics Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  117. ^ "Finnish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 3 March 2019. Total first-language Finnish users in all countries.
  118. ^ "Dutch". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 March 2019. Belgian population.
  119. ^ "Fon". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  120. ^ "French". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 December 2018. Total first-language French users in all countries, including Walloons and minorities residing in France.
  121. ^ "Frisian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 March 2019. "Frisian, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 March 2019. Figure taken by combining the total West Frisian users in all countries with the Northern Frisian ethnic population.
  122. ^ http://www.arlef.it/en/friulian-language/sociolinguistic-condition/5#/sociolinguistic-condition - Study made by Arlef, Association of Region for the Friulian Language. Number of Friuilian speakers.
  123. ^ Felicity Crowe (2010). Modern Muslim Societies. Marshall Cavendish. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-7614-7927-7.
  124. ^ "A Closer Look: Sudan, The Peoples of Darfur". Cultural Survival. Cultural Survival. May 7, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
  125. ^ "Ga". Joshua Project. Retrieved 30 January 2013. "Dangme". Joshua Project. Retrieved 30 January 2013. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  126. ^ "Uganda". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Ugandan population only.
  127. ^ "Black Carib". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  128. ^ Aris Ananta; Evi Nurvidya Arifin; M Sairi Hasbullah; Nur Budi Handayani; Agus Pramono (2015). Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 120. ISBN 981-4519-87-1.
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  130. ^ a b c Olson, James Stuart (1996). The Peoples of Africa: An Ethnohistorical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-27918-8.
  131. ^ "The Gelo ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 25 January 2019. Chinese population only.
  132. ^ "Georgian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Georgia and Turkey.
  133. ^ Jeffrey Cole (2011). Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 171. ISBN 9781598843026. "Estimates of the total number of Germans in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined..."
  134. ^ "Gola". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 January 2019. Total Gola users in all countries.
  135. ^ Clogg, Richard (2013) [1992]. A Concise History of Greece. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-65644-4.
  136. ^ "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  137. ^ "Guaraní". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  138. ^ "Gourmanchéma". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  139. ^ "Burkina Faso". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Ghana". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Gurunsi residing outside these countries not included.
  140. ^ a b James B. Minahan (2014). Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781610690188.
  141. ^ "The Hani ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Chinese population only.
  142. ^ Lovise, Alean (22 June 2011). The Politics of Ethnicity in Ethiopia. BRILL. p. 154. ISBN 978-9004207295. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  143. ^ "Hausa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Total first-language Hausa users in all countries.
  144. ^ Lemoine, Jacques (2005). "What is the actual number of (H)mong in the world?" (PDF). Hmong Studies Journal. 6.
  145. ^ "The Hui ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 25 January 2019. Chinese population only.
  146. ^ "Papua New Guinea National Population and Housing Census 2011: Final figures", Port Moresby PNG National Statistical Office 2014
  147. ^ "Hungarian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 December 2018. Total Hungarian users in all countries.
  148. ^ "Hutu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  149. ^ "Iban". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 February 2019. Total first-language Iban users in all countries.
  150. ^ "Ibanag". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  151. ^ "Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  152. ^ "Icelander". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  153. ^ "Language: Idoma". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019. Population of groups speaking Idoma.
  154. ^ "Igbo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  155. ^ "Igede in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  156. ^ "Igorot". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  157. ^ "Ilocano". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  158. ^ "Greenland". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-11-12. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  159. ^ "Iranun in Philippines". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  160. ^ a b ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (29 May 2009). "The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland". www.scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  161. ^ a b "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved 7 March 2017. "Aboriginal Population Profile, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2017-11-23. Figure taken by combining the American Indian and Alaska Native tribal grouping alone from Table 7 or in any combination from the American Census with the total population of Aboriginal ancestry responses in the Canadian census. The American Census lists the Ojibwe as Chippewa. The Canadian Census spells the Ojibwe as Ojibwa and splits the Iroquois into four groups: Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, and Iroquois.
  162. ^ a b c Hattaway, Paul (ed.) (2004). Peoples of the Buddhist World. William Carey Library.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  163. ^ "Isoko in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  164. ^ "Eurobarometer – Europeans and their languages" (PDF)., February 2006. Number of native Italian speakers.
  165. ^ "Rapporto Italiani nel Mondo 2010" (PDF). Fondazione Migrantes (in Italian). December 2010. Retrieved 2018-11-22. Includes citizens of Brazil and the United States who identify as being of partial Italian ancestry.
  166. ^ "Itawit, Tawit in Philippines". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  167. ^ "Japanese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 December 2018. Total first-language Japanese users in all countries.
  168. ^ Dashefsky, Arnold; DellaPergola, Sergio; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2017). World Jewish Population, 2016 (PDF) (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 12 June 2017. Population with Jewish parents (including converts to Judaism, descendants of converts to Judaism, non-observant Jews and those with only Jewish fathers).
  169. ^ "Jingpho". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 December 2018. Figure taken by combining the Burmese population with the ethnic population of China.
  170. ^ Klein, Martin A. "Shrines of the Slave Trade: Diola Religion and Society in Precolonial Senegambia." The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 31.2 (Autumn 2000): 315. Accessed through Gale (Cengage), 6 Aug. 2009
  171. ^ Saw Swee-Hock (2015). The Population of Malaysia (Second Edition). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 98-146-2036-X.
  172. ^ "Language". Kalanga. Kalanga Language and Cultural Development Association (KLCDA). Retrieved 18 September 2018. Taken by combining the Zimbabwean and the Botswanan populations.
  173. ^ a b c d e f g "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2013-12-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Kenyan population only.
  174. ^ "Population Structure and Trends". Institute de la Statistique et des études économiques Nouvelle-Calédonie (in French). Institute de la Statistique et des études économiques Nouvelle-Calédonie. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  175. ^ "Kanuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 November 2018. "Kanembu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the population total of all languages of the Kanuri macrolanguage with the Kanembu population.
  176. ^ "Kapampangan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  177. ^ "Kapsiki". Joshua Project. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  178. ^ "Karakalpak". Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 November 2018. Ethnic population.
  179. ^ "Karen people". Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Karen population.
  180. ^ "The Institute for European Studies, Ethnological institute of UW" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-08-16.
  181. ^ "Polen-Analysen. Die Kaschuben" (PDF). Länder-Analysen (in German). Polen NR. 95: 10–13. September 2011. Polish population only.
  182. ^ "Kazakhstan's population tops 18 million". 2018-03-31.
  183. ^ "Pahāṛī". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  184. ^ "TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  185. ^ "Nya Huba". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  186. ^ "Yakthumba". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Sunuwar". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Yakha". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. "Rai". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019. Figure taken by combining all sources.
  187. ^ "Kisi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  188. ^ "Kofyar". Joshua Project. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  189. ^ "Kongo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  190. ^ "Korean". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 December 2018. Total Korean users in all countries.
  191. ^ "Kpelle". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Population total of all languages of the Kpelle macrolanguage.
  192. ^ "Ikposo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 March 2019. Total Kposo users in all countries.
  193. ^ "Liberia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Cote D'Ivoire". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population, including Grebo, Krahn, and Sapo.
  194. ^ The Kurdish Population. Current Estimate.
  195. ^ "The Kuteb People". Geoffrey G. Gania. 2005. Retrieved 12 August 2017.
  196. ^ "Kyrgyz". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Kyrgyzstan, China, and Tajikistan.
  197. ^ "Lamaholot". Joshua Project. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  198. ^ "Latvian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 January 2019. Population total of all languages of the Latvia macrolanguage.
  199. ^ Bülent Günal (20 December 2011). "67 milletten insanımız var!" (in Turkish). Retrieved 31 January 2015. Largest estimate of the Laz population in Turkey.
  200. ^ "Arab, Lebanese". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  201. ^ "Lega Information". University of Iowa. 3 November 1998. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
  202. ^ "Lezgins". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 January 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic populations of Russia and Azerbaijan.
  203. ^ "The Li ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 20 December 2018. Chinese population only.
  204. ^ "Sierra Leone". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Sierra Leonean population only.
  205. ^ "Lisu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  206. ^ "Lietuviai Pasaulyje" (PDF). Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  207. ^ Lietuviai Lietuvoje ir užsienyje: kur ir kiek mūsų yra Archived 2015-07-29 at the Wayback Machine
  208. ^ "LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status – Encyclopaedia Iranica". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2018-08-20. In 2003, the Lori-speaking population in Iran was estimated at 4.2 million speakers, or about 6 percent of the national figure (Anonby, 2003b, p. 173). Given the nationwide growth in population since then, the number of Lori speakers in 2012 is likely closer to 5 million.
  209. ^ "Luxembourgish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 November 2018. Total first-language Luxembourgish users in all countries.
  210. ^ "Maasai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 January 2019. Total Maasai users in all countries.
  211. ^ Nasevski, Boško; Angelova, Dora. Gerovska, Dragica (1995). Македонски Иселенички Алманах '95. Skopje: Матица на Иселениците на Македонија. pp. 52–53.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  212. ^ "Mafa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 February 2019. Total Mafa users in all countries.
  213. ^ "Magar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  214. ^ "Maguindanao". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  215. ^ "Kirti Azad demands a separate Mithila state". m.indiatoday.in. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  216. ^ John Ndembwike (October 2009). Tanzania: Profile of a Nation. Intercontinental Books. p. 149. ISBN 978-9987-9308-1-4.
  217. ^ Andrew Dalby (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. pp. 386–387. ISBN 978-0-231-11568-1.
  218. ^ "Malay". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. Population total of all languages of the Malay macrolanguage.
  219. ^ "Maldivian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 December 2018. Total Maldivian users in all countries
  220. ^ "Maltese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 December 2018. Total Maltese users in all countries.
  221. ^ "Mambila, Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019. "Mambila, Cameroon". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  222. ^ 《中国2010年人口普查资料(上中下》 [Data of 2010 China Population Census]. China Statistics Press. 2012. ISBN 9787503765070.
  223. ^ "Mandar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  224. ^ Godfrey Mwakikagile (2010). The Gambia and Its People: Ethnic Identities and Cultural Integration in Africa. New Africa Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-9987-16-023-5.
  225. ^ "Manggarai in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  226. ^ "Mandjak". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 February 2019. Total Manjak users in all countries.
  227. ^ "Mapuche". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  228. ^ "Maranao". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  229. ^ "Masa". Joshua Project. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
  230. ^ "Masalit". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 September 2016. Total Masalit users in all countries.
  231. ^ Lorenzo Ochoa; Patricia Martel(dir.) (2002). Lengua y cultura mayas (in Spanish). UNAM. p. 170. ISBN 9703200893. El "Pueblo Maya" lo constituyen actualmente algo menos de 6 millones de hablantes de 25 idiomas
  232. ^ a b c d e f g h México: Lenguas indígenas nacionales. Mexican population only. Number of indigenous language speakers. Figure taken using the 2010 figures of Table 1.
  233. ^ "Mehri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. "Soqotri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total Mehri users in all countries with the Soqotri population.
  234. ^ Jay Heale; Zawiah Abdul Latif (2008). Madagascar. Marshall Cavendish. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-7614-3036-0.
  235. ^ "The Yao ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Chinese population only.
  236. ^ Robles, Frances (2016-10-16). "Nicaragua Dispute Over Indigenous Land Erupts in Wave of Killings". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-03-22.
  237. ^ a b "Burma". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Myanmarese population only.
  238. ^ "Mongo". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017. Number of speakers of all Mongo languages. Source dates backs to 1977; population most likely grown since then.
  239. ^ "Mongolian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 December 2018. "Daur". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Buriat". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Kalmyk-Oirat". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Bonan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. "Tu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the total users of the Mongolian macrolanguage, the Buryat macrolanguage, and Oirat with the ethnic populations of Dagur, Bonan, and Monguor.
  240. ^ "Mongondow". Ethnologue. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  241. ^ "Mossi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  242. ^ "Mumuye". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  243. ^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (PDF) (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
  244. ^ "Musgu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 February 2019. Total Musgu users in all countries.
  245. ^ "Mwera". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  246. ^ "Newar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  247. ^ "Ngaju". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 December 2018. "Bakumpai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  248. ^ "Bhutan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  249. ^ Ngbandi Art
  250. ^ "Bakumpai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 February 2019. Total Norwegian users in all countries.
  251. ^ "People Cluster: Nubian". Joshua Project. Retrieved 22 December 2018. Includes some non-Nubian Nuba peoples.
  252. ^ "Afghanistan - Nuristani". countrystudies.us.
  253. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Total number of people with some knowledge of Occitan.
  254. ^ "Khana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Baan". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Eleme". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Gokana". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Tee". Ethnologue. Retrieved 17 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the Tẹẹ ethnic population with the other four sources.
  255. ^ "Ossetic". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic population of Russia with the Georgian, Syrian, and Turkish populations.
  256. ^ "Dayak, Dohoi Ot Danum in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 4 January 2019. "Dayak, Lawangan in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2019. "Dayak, Maanyak in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2019. Figure taken by combining all sources.
  257. ^ "Ovimbundu". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  258. ^ "Pa-O". Joshua Project. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  259. ^ 'Palestinian population to exceed Jewish population by 2020,' Ma'an News Agency 1 January 2016.
  260. ^ "Pangasinan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  261. ^ "Guinea-Bissau". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  262. ^ "Pare, Asu in Tanzania". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  263. ^ "Pashai, Southeast". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Ethnic population; includes other Pashayi speakers.
  264. ^ "Pashto, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Possible ethnic population; includes Southern and Central Pashto speakers.
  265. ^ "Pende". Art & Life in Africa. University of Iowa. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  266. ^ "Persian, Iranian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 11 December 2018. Total Iranian Persian users in all countries.
  267. ^ "Polmap. Rozmieszczenie ludności pochodzenia polskiego (w mln)" Archived 2017-08-15 at the Wayback Machine
  268. ^ "Portuguese". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Total first-language Portuguese users in all countries.
  269. ^ "Punjabi, Eastern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. "Punjabi, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Figure taken by combining total users of Punjabi, Eastern and Punjabi, Western in all countries.
  270. ^ "Kashkay". Ethnologue. Retrieved 10 February 2019. Ethnic population.
  271. ^ "The Qiang ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 25 February 2019. Chinese population only.
  272. ^ "Quechua". Ethnologue. Retrieved 23 December 2018. Population total of all languages of the Quechua macrolanguage.
  273. ^ "Rangpuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 February 2019. Total first-language Rangpuri users in all countries.
  274. ^ "Arakanese". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  275. ^ Wurm, Stephen A. and Shiro Hattori, (eds.) (1981) Language Atlas of the Pacific Area Australian Academy of the Humanities in collaboration with the Japan Academy, Canberra, ISBN 0-85883-239-9
  276. ^ David Mathieson (2009). Perilous Plight: Burma's Rohingya Take to the Seas. Human Rights Watch. p. 3. ISBN 9781564324856.
  277. ^ "EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty". BBC News. 5 April 2011. Does not include those residing outside of Europe.
  278. ^ "Romanian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 13 November 2014. Total Romanian users in all countries.
  279. ^ "журнал "Демоскоп Weekly" № 571 - 572 14 - 31 октября 2013. А. Арефьев. Тема номера: сжимающееся русскоязычие. Демографические изменения - не на пользу русскому языку".
  280. ^ Shimoji, Michinori; Pellard, Thomas, eds. (2010). An Introduction to Ryukyuan languages (PDF). Tokyo: ILCAA. p. 2. ISBN 9784863370722. Retrieved June 10, 2018. Total population of the Ryukyu Islands.
  281. ^ Paul Magocsi (1995). "The Rusyn Question". Political Thought. 2–3 (6). Estimate of people with Rusyn ancestry.
  282. ^ "Saho". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  283. ^ "Saharawi". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019."Moor". Joshua Project. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Figure taken by combining both sources.
  284. ^ "Salar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2019. Ethnic population.
  285. ^ "Sama". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  286. ^ "Zambales: Dependency Ratio Down by Five Persons (Results from the 200…". 19 June 2013. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Sambal population within Zambales.
  287. ^ Sami people (14 December 2015). "Sami in Sweden". sweden.se.
  288. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute. 2003.
  289. ^ "Chad". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Central African Republic". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  290. ^ "Sardinian". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 January 2019. Population total of all languages of the Sardinian macrolanguage.
  291. ^ "Hawu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  292. ^ "Serer". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  293. ^ "Sharchop". Joshua Project. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  294. ^ "Sherbro, Southern Bullom in Sierra Leone". Joshua Project. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
  295. ^ "Shilluk". Joshua Project. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  296. ^ "Shona". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total first-language Shona users in all countries.
  297. ^ "Xibe". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 January 2019. Ethnic population.
  298. ^ "Sikanese". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  299. ^ "People Cluster: Sindhi". PeopleGroups.org.
  300. ^ "Sinhalese". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  301. ^ "Somali". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total first-language Somali users in all countries.
  302. ^ "Mali". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Niger". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentage listed with the total population.
  303. ^ "Soninke". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total Soninke users in all countries.
  304. ^ "Sotho, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Southern Sotho users in all countries.
  305. ^ "Spanish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Total first-language Spanish users in all countries.
  306. ^ "The Shui ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 25 February 2019. Chinese population only.
  307. ^ "Sumba in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 19 January 2019. Includes only speakers of the Kambera language.
  308. ^ "Sumbawa in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 11 February 2019..
  309. ^ "Guinea". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Guinean population only.
  310. ^ "Swahili facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Swahili". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  311. ^ "Swazi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  312. ^ "Sylheti". Ethnologue. Retrieved 6 December 2018. Total first-language Sylheti users in all countries.
  313. ^ "Tagalog". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  314. ^ "Tajik". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 5.2 million in Tajikistan, 1 million in Uzbekistan, and 5 million in Afghanistan.
  315. ^ "Talysh". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total Talysh users in all countries.
  316. ^ "Tamil". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  317. ^ "Han Chinese, Dan in China". Joshua Project. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  318. ^ "Tarok". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  319. ^ "Tatar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  320. ^ "Tausug". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 900,000 in Philippines and 200,000 in Malaysia.
  321. ^ http://lifestyle.inquirer.net/210932/the-tboli-a-story-of-massive-land-grabbing-through-the-centuries/
  322. ^ "Temne". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  323. ^ "Thai". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "Thai, Northern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018. "Thai, Southern". Ethnologue. Retrieved 20 December 2018. Figure taken by combining the total number of first-language Thai speakers in all countries with the other two populations.
  324. ^ "The Tibetan ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Chinese population only.
  325. ^ Tournadre, Nicolas (2014). "The Tibetic languages and their classification". In Owen-Smith, Thomas; Hill, Nathan W. Trans-Himalayan Linguistics: Historical and Descriptive Linguistics of the Himalayan Area. De Gruyter. pp. 103–129. ISBN 978-3-11-031074-0. (preprint)
  326. ^ "Tigrigna". Ethnologue. Retrieved 27 February 2019. Figure taken by combining the ethnic population of Ethiopia with the Eritrean population.
  327. ^ "Eritrea". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Eritrean population only.
  328. ^ "Tiv". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  329. ^ "Tana Toraja official website" (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on May 29, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-04. Figure taken by combining both local and diaspora populations.
  330. ^ "Tsonga". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  331. ^ "Tswana". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  332. ^ "Tupuri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 February 2019. Total Tupuri users in all countries.
  333. ^ "Turkish". Ethnologue. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Total first-language Turkish users in all countries, including a large number of minorities residing in Turkey.
  334. ^ "Turkmen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  335. ^ "Urhobo in Nigeria". Joshua Project. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  336. ^ Vic Satzewich (2003). The Ukrainian Diaspora. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-134-43495-4.
  337. ^ "Uighur". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 10 million in China, and 300,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
  338. ^ "Uzbek". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 16 million in Uzbekistan, 2 million in Afghanistan, 1.38 million in Tajikistan, and 570,000 in Kyrgyzstan.
  339. ^ "Venda". Ethnologue. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Total first-language Venda users in all countries.
  340. ^ "Visayan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019. 16.5 million Cebuano, 6.54 million Hiligaynon, and 4.2 million Waray-Waray.
  341. ^ "Walloon". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 March 2019. "French". Ethnologue. Retrieved 15 December 2018. Figure taken by combining the Walloon population with the total first-language French users in Belgium (this latter number includes non-Walloon French speakers residing in Brussels.
  342. ^ "Waxianghua". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  343. ^ Richard Webber. "The Welsh diaspora : Analysis of the geography of Welsh names" (PDF). Welsh Assembly. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  344. ^ "Senegal". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. "Gambia, The". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Figure taken using the percentages listed with the total populations. Wolof residing outside these countries not included.
  345. ^ "Xhosa". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  346. ^ "Yakan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  347. ^ "Lokaa". Ethnologue. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  348. ^ "Yao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 25 December 2018. Total Yao users in all countries.
  349. ^ "The Yi ethnic minority". China Internet Information Center. Retrieved 16 December 2018. Chinese population only.
  350. ^ "Yoruba". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
  351. ^ "Chavacano".