List of Solar System objects by size

This is a partial list of Solar System objects by size, arranged in descending order of mean volumetric radius, and divided into several size classes. These lists can also be sorted according to an object's mass and, for the largest objects, volume, density and surface gravity, insofar as these values are available. This list contains the Sun, the planets, dwarf planets, many of the larger small Solar System bodies (which includes the asteroids), all named natural satellites, and a number of smaller objects of historical or scientific interest, such as comets and near-Earth objects.

Objects on this list are ordered by mean radius rather than mass; thus, objects on the lower portions of the table can be more massive than objects higher on the list if they have a higher density.

Many trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) have been discovered; in many cases their positions in this list are approximate, as there is frequently a large uncertainty in their estimated diameters.

Solar System objects more massive than 1021 kilograms (one yottagram [Yg]) are known or expected to be approximately spherical. Astronomical bodies relax into rounded shapes (ellipsoids), achieving hydrostatic equilibrium, when their own gravity is sufficient to overcome the structural strength of their material. It was believed that the cutoff for round objects is somewhere between 100 km and 200 km in radius if they have a large amount of ice in their makeup;[1] however, later studies revealed that icy satellites as large as Iapetus (1,470 kilometers in diameter) are not in hydrostatic equilibrium at this time,[2] and a 2019 assessment suggests that many TNOs in the size range of 400-1000 kilometers may not even be fully solid bodies, much less gravitationally rounded.[3] Objects that are ellipsoids due to their own gravity are here generally referred to as being "round", whether or not they are actually in equilibrium today, while objects that are clearly not ellipsoidal are referred to as being "irregular".

Spheroidal bodies typically have some polar flattening due to the centrifugal force from their rotation, and can sometimes even have quite different equatorial diameters (scalene ellipsoids such as Haumea). Unlike bodies such as Haumea, the irregular bodies have a significantly non-ellipsoidal profile, often with sharp edges.

There can be difficulty in determining the diameter (within a factor of about 2) for typical objects beyond Saturn. (See 2060 Chiron as an example.) For TNOs there is some confidence in the diameters, but for non-binary TNOs there is no real confidence in the masses/densities. Many TNOs are often just assumed to have Pluto's density of 2.0 g/cm3, but it is just as likely that they have a comet-like density of only 0.5 g/cm3.[4] For example, if a TNO is incorrectly assumed to have a mass of 3.59×1020 kg based on a radius of 350 km with a density of 2 g/cm3 but is later discovered to have a radius of only 175 km with a density of 0.5 g/cm3, its true mass would be only 1.12×1019 kg.

The sizes and masses of many of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn are fairly well known due to numerous observations and interactions of the Galileo and Cassini orbiters; however, many of the moons with a radius less than ~100 km, such as Jupiter's Himalia, have far less certain masses.[5] Further out from Saturn, the sizes and masses of objects are less clear. There has not yet been an orbiter around Uranus or Neptune for long-term study of their moons. For the small outer irregular moons of Uranus, such as Sycorax, which were not discovered by the Voyager 2 flyby, even different NASA web pages, such as the National Space Science Data Center[6] and JPL Solar System Dynamics,[5] give somewhat contradictory size and albedo estimates depending on which research paper is being cited.

There are uncertainties in the figures for mass and radius, and irregularities in the shape and density, with accuracy often depending on how close the object is to Earth or whether it has been visited by a probe.

Graphical overviewEdit

 
Relative sizes of the fifty largest bodies in the Solar System, colored by orbital region. Values are diameters in kilometers. Scale is linear.

List of objects by mean radiusEdit

Larger than 400 kmEdit

It was once expected that any icy body larger than approximately 200 km in radius was likely to be in hydrostatic equilibrium (HE).[7] However, Ceres (r = 470 km) is the smallest body for which detailed measurements are consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium,[8] whereas Iapetus (r = 735 km) is the largest icy body that has been found to not be in hydrostatic equilibrium.[9]

For simplicity and comparative purposes, the values are manually calculated assuming a sphericity of 1. The size of solid bodies does not include an object's atmosphere. For example, Titan looks bigger than Ganymede, but its solid body is smaller. For the giant planets, the "radius" is defined as the distance from the center at which the atmosphere reaches 1 bar of atmospheric pressure.[10]

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2] Volume Mass Density Gravity[note 3] Type # (R/M)
[note 4]
Discovery
(km) (R) (109 km3) (V) (1021 kg) (M) (g/cm3) (m/s2) ()
Sun 695508 ± ?[11] 109.2[11] 1,409,300,000[11] 1,301,000[11] 1989100000[11] 333,000[11] 1.409[11] 274.0[11] 27.94[11] G2V-class star 1 -
Jupiter 69911±6[12] 10.97 1,431,280 1,321 1898187±88[12] 317.83 1.3262±0.0003[12] 24.79[12] 2.528 gas giant planet; has rings 2 -
Saturn 58232±6[12]
(136775 for main rings)
9.140 827,130 764 568317±13[12] 95.162 0.6871±0.0002[12] 10.44[12] 1.065 gas giant planet; has rings 3 -
Uranus 25362±7[12] 3.981 68,340 63.1 86813±4[12] 14.536 1.270±0.001[12] 8.87[12] 0.886 ice giant planet; has rings 4/5 1781
Neptune 24622±19[12] 3.865 62,540 57.7 102413±5[12] 17.147 1.638±0.004[12] 11.15[12] 1.137 ice giant planet; has rings 5/4 1846
Earth 6371.0084±0.0001[12] 1 1,083.21 1 5972.4±0.3[12] 1 5.5136±0.0003[12] 9.80[12] 1 terrestrial planet 6 -
Venus 6052±1[12] 0.9499 928.43 0.857 4867.5±0.2[12] 0.815 5.243±0.003[12] 8.87[12] 0.905 terrestrial planet 7 -
Mars 3389.5±0.2[12] 0.5320 163.18 0.151 641.71±0.03[12] 0.107 3.9341±0.0007[12] 3.71[12] 0.379 terrestrial planet 8 -
Ganymede
Jupiter III
2634.1±0.3 0.4135 76.30 0.0704 148.2 0.0248 1.936 1.428 0.146 moon of Jupiter (icy) 9/10 1610
Titan
Saturn VI
2574.73±0.09[a] 0.4037[a] 71.50 0.0658 134.5 0.0225 1.8798 ± 0.0044 1.354 0.138 moon of Saturn (icy) 10/11 1655
Mercury 2439.4±0.1[12] 0.3829 60.83 0.0562 330.11±0.02[12] 0.0553 5.4291±0.007[12] 3.70[12] 0.377 terrestrial planet 11/9 -
Callisto
Jupiter IV
2410.3±1.5 0.3783 58.65 0.0541 107.6 0.018 1.8344 ± 0.0034 1.23603 0.126 moon of Jupiter (icy) 12 1610
Io
Jupiter I
1821.6±0.5 0.2859 25.32 0.0234 89.32 0.015 3.528 ± 0.006 1.797 0.183 moon of Jupiter (terrestrial) 13 1610
Moon (Luna)
Earth I
1737.5±0.1[13] 0.2727 21.958 0.0203 73.46[14] 0.0123 3.344±0.005[13] 1.625 0.166 moon of Earth (terrestrial) 14 -
Europa
Jupiter II
1560.8±0.5 0.2450 15.93 0.0147 48.00 0.008035 3.013 ± 0.005 1.316 0.134 moon of Jupiter (terrestrial) 15 1610
Triton
Neptune I
1353.4±0.9[a] 0.2124[a] 10.38 0.0096 21.39±0.03 0.003599 2.061 0.782 0.0797 moon of Neptune (icy) 16 1846
Pluto
134340
1188.3±0.8 0.187 7.057 0.00651 13.03±0.03 0.0022 1.854 ± 0.006 0.620 0.063 dwarf planet; plutino; multiple 17/18 1930
Eris
136199
1163±6[b][15] 0.1825[b] 6.59 0.0061 16.6±0.2[16] 0.0028 2.52±0.07 0.824 0.083 dwarf planet; SDO; binary 18/17 2003
Titania
Uranus III
788.4±0.6[c] 0.1237[c] 2.06 0.0019 3.40±0.06 0.00059 1.711 ± 0.005 0.378 0.0385 moon of Uranus 19–20/20 1787
Haumea
136108
760±40
(≈ 780 best fit)[17][d]
0.12 1.98[e] 0.0018 4.01±0.04[18] 0.00066 2.018[17][d] 0.401 0.0409 dwarf planet?;
resonant KBO (7:12);
trinary; has rings
19–24/19 2004
Rhea
Saturn V
763.8±1.0[c] 0.1199[c] 1.87 0.0017 2.307 0.00039 1.236 ± 0.005 0.26 0.027 moon of Saturn 20–22/23 1672
Oberon
Uranus IV
761.4±2.6[a] 0.1195[a] 1.85 0.0017 3.08±0.09 0.0005 1.63 ± 0.05 0.347 0.035 moon of Uranus 20–22/21–22 1787
Iapetus
Saturn VIII
734.5±2.8 0.1153 1.66 0.0015 1.806 0.00033 1.088 ± 0.013 0.223 0.0227 moon of Saturn 22–24/24–25 1671
Makemake
136472
715+19
−11
[19]
0.112 1.53 0.0014 ≈ 3.1 0.00053 1.95 0.57 0.0581 dwarf planet?; cubewano 22–24/21–22 2005
Gonggong
225088
615±25[20] 0.0983 1.03 0.0009 1.75±0.07 0.00029 1.72 ± 0.16 0.3 0.0306 dwarf planet?; resonant SDO (3:10) 25–27/24–25 2007
Charon
Pluto I
606±0.5 0.0951 0.932 0.0009 1.586±0.015 0.00025 1.702 ± 0.021 0.288 0.0294 moon of Pluto 25–26/? 1978
Umbriel
Uranus II
584.7±2.8 0.0918 0.837 0.0008 1.28±0.03 0.00020 1.39 ± 0.16 0.234 0.024 moon of Uranus 26–27/? 1851
Ariel
Uranus I
578.9±0.6 0.0909 0.813 0.0007 1.25±0.02 0.000226 1.66 ± 0.15 0.269 0.027 moon of Uranus 28/? 1851
Dione
Saturn IV
561.4±0.4 0.0881 0.741 0.0007 1.095 0.000183 1.478 ± 0.003 0.232 0.0237 moon of Saturn 29–30/? 1684
Quaoar
50000
560.5±0.6 0.0879 0.737 0.0007 1.4±0.2 0.0002 1.99 ± 0.46[21] 0.3 0.0306 cubewano; binary 29–30/? 2002
Tethys
Saturn III
531.1±0.6 0.0834 0.624 0.0006 0.617 0.000103 0.984 ± 0.003[22] 0.145 0.015 moon of Saturn 31–32/? 1684
Sedna
90377
498±40 0.0785 0.516 0.0005 ? sednoid; detached object ? 2003
Ceres
1
469.7±0.1[23] 0.0742 0.433 0.0004 0.938[24] 0.000157 2.17 0.28 0.029 dwarf planet; belt asteroid ? 1801
Orcus
90482
458±13 0.0719 0.404 0.0004 0.61±0.04 0.0001 1.53 ± 0.14 0.2 0.0204 plutino; binary ? 2004
Salacia
120347
423±11 0.0664 0.3729 0.0003 0.492±0.007[25] 0.000082 1.5 ± 0.12[25] 0.165 0.0168 cubewano; binary ? 2004

From 200 to 399 kmEdit

All imaged icy moons with radii greater than 200 km except Proteus are clearly round, although those under 400 km that have had their shapes carefully measured are not in hydrostatic equilibrium.[26] The known densities of TNOs in this size range are remarkably low (1–1.2 g/cm3), implying that the objects retain significant internal porosity from their formation and were never gravitationally compressed into fully solid bodies.[27]

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2]
(km)
Mass
(1020 kg)
Density
(g/cm3)
Type[note 5] Refs[note 6]
r · M
2002 MS4
307261
390±6 cubewano [29]
2002 AW197
55565
384±19 cubewano [30]
Varda
174567
373±8 ≈ 2.5 1.27+0.41
−0.44
cubewano; binary [31] · [31]
2013 FY27
532037
370+45
−43
detached object; binary [32]
2003 AZ84
208996
353±12 0.87±0.01 plutino; possible binary [33]
Dysnomia
Eris I
350±58 moon of Eris [34]
2004 GV9
90568
340±17 cubewano [35]
2005 RN43
145452
340+28
−37
cubewano [35]
Varuna
20000
334+77
−43
≈ 1.6 0.99 cubewano [36] · [37]
2002 UX25
55637
332±15 1.25±0.03 0.82±0.11 cubewano; binary [38] · [39]
2012 VP113 325±175 sednoid [40]
Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà
229762
321±14 1.361±0.033 1.02±0.17 SDO; binary [41] · [27]
2014 UZ224 318+16
−20
SDO [42]
2015 RR245
523794
≈ 313 resonant KBO (2:9); binary [43]
2008 OG19
470599
309.5+28
−56.5
0.609±0.004 SDO [44] · [44]
Ixion
28978
308.5±10 plutino [45]
2007 JJ43
278361
305+85
−70
cubewano [46]
Chaos
19521
300+70
−65
cubewano [35]
2014 EZ51
523692
> 288 SDO [47]
2002 XW93
78799
283+36
−37
other TNO [48]
2004 XR190 ≈ 278 SDO [7]
2002 XV93 275+11
−12
plutino [49]
2003 VS2
84922
274+15
−22
plutino [50]
2003 UZ413
455502
≈ 268 plutino [7]
Vesta
4
262.7±0.1 2.59 3.46 belt asteroid type V [51] · [51]
2005 RM43
145451
262+48
−52
SDO [52]
Pallas
2
256±3 2.04±0.03 2.89±0.08 belt asteroid type B [53]
2004 TY364
120348
256+19
−20
cubewano [45]
Enceladus
Saturn II
252.1±0.2 1.08±0.001 1.609±0.005 moon of Saturn [54] · [55]
2002 TC302
84522
249.8 resonant SDO (2:5) [56]
2005 UQ513
202421
249+32
−38
cubewano [30]
Miranda
Uranus V
235.8±0.7 0.659±0.075 1.2±0.15 moon of Uranus [57] · [58]
Dziewanna
471143
235+18
−5
SDO [59]
2005 TB190
145480
232±31 detached object [34]
1999 DE9
26375
231±23 resonant SDO (2:5) [60]
2003 FY128
120132
230±11 SDO [34]
2002 VR128
84719
224+24
−22
plutino [49]
Vanth
Orcus I
221.3±5.1 ≈ 0.7 ≈ 1.5 moon of 90482 Orcus [61] · [61]
Hygiea
10
217±7 0.832±0.08 1.944±0.25 belt asteroid type C [62] · [62]
2004 NT33
444030
212+44
−40
cubewano [30]
Proteus
Neptune VIII
210±7 0.44 ≈ 1.3 moon of Neptune [5] · [5]
2005 QU182
303775
208±37 SDO [34]
2002 KX14
119951
207.5±0.5 cubewano [63]
2001 QF298
469372
204+20
−22
plutino [49]
Huya
38628
203±8 > 0.5 > 1.43 plutino; binary [38] · [64]
2004 PF115
175113
203+49
−38
plutino [49]

Legend:

SDO – scattered disc object
cubewano – classical Kuiper belt object
plutino – 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune

From 100 to 199 kmEdit

This list contains a selection of objects estimated to be between 100 and 199 km in radius (200 and 399 km in diameter). The largest of these may lie above the boundary for hydrostatic equilibrium, but most are irregular. Most of the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) listed with a radius smaller than 200 km have "assumed sizes based on a generic albedo of 0.09" since they are too far away to directly measure their sizes with existing instruments. Mass switches from 1021 kg to 1018 kg (Zg). Main-belt asteroids have orbital elements constrained by (2.0 AU < a < 3.2 AU; q > 1.666 AU) according to JPL Solar System Dynamics (JPLSSD).[65] Many TNOs are omitted from this list as their sizes are poorly known.[28]

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2]
(km)
Mass
(1018 kg)
Type Refs[note 6]
r · M
2004 UX10
144897
199±19.5 ≈ 30 plutino [49] · [66]
Mimas
Saturn I
198.2±0.4 37.49±0.03 moon of Saturn [54] · [55]
1998 SN165
35671
196.5±19.5 cubewano [30]
Nereid
Neptune II
178.5±6.5 moon of Neptune [67]
2001 UR163
42301
≈ 176 resonant KBO (4:9) [28]
1996 TL66
15874
169.5±10 SDO [34]
2004 XA192
230965
169.5+60
−47.5
SDO [49]
2002 WC19
119979
≈ 169 77±5 resonant KBO (1:2); binary [68] · [68]
Interamnia
704
166±3 38±13 belt asteroid type F [69] · [69]
Ilmarë
Varda I
163+19
−17
moon of 174567 Varda [70]
Hiʻiaka
Haumea I
≈ 160 17.9±1.1 moon of Haumea [18] · [18]
Europa
52
152.0±1.8 23.8±5.8 belt asteroid type C [71] · [72]
Davida
511
145.2±1.1 33.8±10.2 belt asteroid type C [73] · [72]
2002 TX300
55636
143±5 cubewano [74]
Sylvia
87
143±5.5 14.78±0.06 outer belt asteroid type X; trinary [75] · [76]
Actaea
Salacia I
143±12 moon of 120347 Salacia [77]
Hyperion
Saturn VII
138.6±4 5.62±0.05 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Lempo
47171
136+8.5
−9.5
plutino; trinary [78]
1998 SM165
26308
134±14 6.87±1.8 resonant KBO (1:2) [79] · [79]
Euphrosyne
31
134±2 17±3 belt asteroid type C; binary [71] · [72]
Chariklo
10199
≈ 130 centaur; has rings [80]
Eunomia
15
128.2±1.5 31.4±1.8 belt asteroid type S [81] · [72]
Hiisi
Lempo II
125.5+8
−8.5
secondary of 47171 Lempo [78]
Hektor
624
125±13 7.9±1.4 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D; binary [82] · [82]
Sila
79360
124.5+15
−15.5
10.8±0.22 cubewano; binary [83]
2007 RW10
309239
123.5±15 quasi-satellite of Neptune [34]
Juno
3
123.3±5.9 27.3±2.9 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Altjira
148780
123+19
−70
cubewano; binary [30]
Cybele
65
118.6±2.1 13.6±3.1 outer belt asteroid type C [85] · [72]
Nunam
79360
118+14
−15
secondary of 79360 Sila [83]
Patientia
451
112.9±2.3 10.9±5.3 belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Ceto
65489
111.5±5 5.4±0.4 extended centaur; binary [34] · [86]
Herculina
532
111.2±2.4 belt asteroid type S [85]
Psyche
16
111±2 24.1±3.2 belt asteroid type M [87]
S/2007 (148780) 1
Altjira I
110.5+17
−62.5
secondary of 148780 Altjira [30]
Bamberga
324
110.35±0.72 10±1 belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Doris
48
108.2±2.4 6.1±3.0 belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Chiron
2060 or 95P
108±5 centaur; has rings [38]
Egeria
13
107±6 8.8±4.2 belt asteroid type G [72] · [72]
Iris
7
107±2.5 13.8±1.3 belt asteroid type S [88] · [88]
Phoebe
Saturn IX
106.6±0.8 8.29±0.01 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
S/2012 (38628) 1
Huya I
106±15 moon of 38628 Huya [38]
Camilla
107
105±4 11.2±0.3 outer belt asteroid type C; trinary [84] · [72]
Fortuna
19
103±3 8.6±1.5 belt asteroid type G [72] · [72]
Thisbe
88
102±5 15.3±3.1 belt asteroid type B [72] · [72]
Eugenia
45
101±1 5.7±0.1 belt asteroid type F; trinary [84] · [89]
Legend:
centaur – asteroids orbiting between the outer planets
Jupiter trojan – asteroids located in Jupiter's L4 and L5 Lagrange points

From 50 to 99 kmEdit

This list contains a selection of objects 50 and 99 km in radius (100 km to 199 km in average diameter). The listed objects currently include most objects in the asteroid belt and moons of the giant planets in this size range, but many newly discovered objects in the outer Solar System are missing, such as those included in the following reference.[28] Asteroid spectral types are mostly Tholen, but some might be SMASS.

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2]
(km)
Mass
(1018 kg)
Type Refs[note 6]
r · M
Bienor
54598
99+3
−3.5
centaur [90]
Themis
24
98±2 5.9±1.9 belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Larissa
Neptune VII
97.0±5.4 ≈ 4.2 moon of Neptune [91] · [f]
Ursula
375
96.8±1.3 8.4±5.3 belt asteroid type C [81] · [72]
Amphitrite
29
94.8±0.6 13±2[dubious ] belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Daphne
41
94.5±0.5 6.3±0.1 belt asteroid type C; binary [93] · [72]
Aurora
94
93.8±3.6[dubious ] 6.2±3.6 belt asteroid type C [73] · [72]
Hermione
121
94±3 5.0±0.3 outer belt asteroid type C; binary [94] · [72]
Bertha
154
93.4±0.9 9.2±5.2[dubious ] belt asteroid type C [72] · [72]
Hebe
6
92.6±1.4 14±1[dubious ] belt asteroid type S [85] · [72]
Metis
9
≈ 92 8.4±1.7 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Elektra
130
90.3±1.3 6.6±0.4 belt asteroid type G; trinary [84] · [95]
Janus
Saturn X
89.5±1.4 1.898±0.001 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Teharonhiawako
88611
89+16
−18
2.44±0.03[dubious ] cubewano; binary [30] · [96]
Aegle
96
88.9±0.8 6.4±6.3 belt asteroid type T [84] · [72]
S/2015 (136472) 1
Makemake I
≈ 87.5 moon of Makemake [97]
Galatea
Neptune VI
87.4±4.9 2.12±0.08 moon of Neptune [91] · [98]
Phorcys
Ceto I
87+8
−9
≈ 1.67 secondary of 65489 Ceto [86] · [86]
Palma
372
86.8±1.4[dubious ] 5.2±0.6 belt asteroid type B [71] · [72]
Alauda
702
86±28 6.06±0.36[dubious ] belt asteroid type C; binary [71] · [99]
Hilda
153
85.3±1.6 outer belt asteroid; Hildas [85]
Himalia
Jupiter VI
85 4.2±0.6 moon of Jupiter [5] · [100]
Namaka
Haumea II
≈ 85 1.8±1.5 moon of Haumea [18] · [18]
Weywot
Quaoar I
≈ 85 moon of 50000 Quaoar
Freia
76
84.2±1.0 2.0±4.2[dubious ] outer belt asteroid type P/type X [81] · [72]
Kalliope
22
83.8±1.5 8.16±0.26 belt asteroid type M; binary [84] · [101]
Amalthea
Jupiter V
84±2 2.08±0.15 moon of Jupiter [102] · [103]
Agamemnon
911
83.3±2.0 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D [85]
Elpis
59
82.6±2.3 3±0.5 belt asteroid type CP/type B [84] · [72]
Puck
Uranus XV
81±2 moon of Uranus [104]
Sycorax
Uranus XVII
78.5+11.5
−7.5
moon of Uranus [105]
Despina
Neptune V
78±5[dubious ] moon of Neptune [91]
Io
85
77.4±1.9[dubious ] 2.6±1.5 belt asteroid type FC/type B [85] · [72]
Minerva
93
77.08±0.65 3.5±0.4 belt asteroid type C; trinary [84] · [72]
Alexandra
54
77.07±0.32 6.2±3.5[dubious ] belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Laetitia
39
77±2 4.7±1.1 belt asteroid type S [72] · [72]
Parthenope
11
75±1 5.91±0.45 belt asteroid type S [81] · [72]
Manwë
385446
≈ 75 ≈ 1.41 resonant KBO (4:7); binary [106] · [106]
Pales
49
≈ 74.9 4.2±2.2 belt asteroid type C [85] · [72]
Arethusa
95
74.0±2.4 belt asteroid type C [73]
Flora
8
73.7±0.5 ≈ 9.2±1.8 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Pulcova
762
73.7±0.4 1.4±0.1 belt asteroid type F; binary [84] · [107]
Julia
89
72.7±0.6 6.7±1.8 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Irene
14
72±1 2.9±1.9 belt asteroid type S [81] · [72]
Aglaja
47
71±4 3.2±1.7 belt asteroid type C [72] · [72]
Patroclus
617
70.181±0.434 1.36±0.11 Jupiter trojan (L5) type P; binary [84] · [72]
Melpomene
18
69.797±1.226 3 belt asteroid type S [84] · [108]
Nemausa
51
69.079±0.483 2.48±0.86 belt asteroid type G [84] · [72]
Hesperia
69
69.065±2.35 5.86±1.18 belt asteroid type M [85] · [72]
Typhon
42355
69±4.5 0.87±0.03 resonant SDO (7:10); binary [90] · [109]
Massalia
20
67.84±1.837 5±1.04 belt asteroid type S [71] · [72]
Portia
Uranus XII
67.6±4 moon of Uranus [5]
Emma
283
66.193±0.129 1.38±0.03 belt asteroid type X; binary [84] · [72]
Paha
Lempo I
66+4
−4.5
0.746±0.001 moon of 47171 Lempo [78] · [110]
Lucina
146
65.947 belt asteroid type C [111]
Sawiskera
Teharonhiawako I
65.5+12
−13
secondary of 88611 Teharonhiawako [30]
Kleopatra
216
65.333 4.64±0.02 belt asteroid type M; trinary [112] · [72]
Achilles
588
65.049±0.277 Jupiter trojan (L4) type DU [84]
Panopaea
70
63.956±0.373 4.33±1.09 belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Thule
279
63.295±1.85 belt asteroid type D [85]
Borasisi
66652
63+12.5
−25.5
3.433±0.027 cubewano; binary [30] · [113]
Hestia
46
62.07±1.7 3.5 belt asteroid type P/type Xc [85] · [114]
Leto
68
61.255±1.569 3.28±1.9 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Undina
92
60.465±0.850 4.43±0.25 belt asteroid type X [81] · [72]
Bellona
28
60.45±1.90 2.62±0.15 belt asteroid type S [115] · [72]
Diana
78
60.30±1.35 1.27±0.13 belt asteroid type C [116] · [72]
Anchises
1173
60.245±1.455 Jupiter trojan (L5) type P [81]
Galatea
74
59.355±1.400 6.13±5.36 belt asteroid type C [117] · [72]
Deiphobus
1867
59.110±0.808 Jupiter trojan (L5) type D [118]
Äneas
1172
59.010±0.403 Jupiter trojan (L5) type D [119]
Diomedes
1437
58.893±0.59 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D [120]
Terpsichore
81
58.864±0.367 6.19±5.31 belt asteroid type C [121] · [72]
Epimetheus
Saturn XI
58.1±1.8 5.266±0.006 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Circe
34
57.745±0.989 ≈ 3.66±0.03 belt asteroid type C [84] · [72]
Leda
38
57.705±0.665 5.71±5.47 belt asteroid type C [72] · [72]
Victoria
12
57.544±0.599 2.45±0.46 belt asteroid type S [122] · [72]
Odysseus
1143
57.312±0.296 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D [123]
Alcathous
2241
56.841±0.858 Jupiter trojan (L5) type D [124]
Melete
56
56.62±0.85 4.61 belt asteroid type P [85] · [72]
Mnemosyne
57
56.295±1.4 ≈ 12.6±2.4 belt asteroid type S [125] · [72]
Nestor
659
56.16±0.925 Jupiter trojan (L4) type XC [126]
Harmonia
40
55.626±0.196 belt asteroid type S [127]
Leleākūhonua
541132
55+7
−5
sednoid [128]
Euterpe
27
54.895±0.77 1.67±1.01 belt asteroid type S [81] · [72]
Antilochus
1583
54.421±0.272 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D [84]
Thorondor
Manwë I
54 0.5 secondary of 385446 Manwë [106] · [106]
Thalia
23
53.765±1.1 1.96±0.09 belt asteroid type S [129] · [72]
Erato
62
53.461±0.329 belt asteroid type BU/type Ch [130]
Astraea
5
53.349±1.57 2.9 belt asteroid type S [131] · [114]
Pabu
Borasisi I
52.5+10
−21
secondary of 66652 Borasisi [30]
Eos
221
51.76±2.8 ≈ 5.87±0.34 belt asteroid type S/type K [72] · [72]
Aegina
91
51.701±0.242 belt asteroid type C [132]
Leukothea
35
51.528±0.601 belt asteroid type C [133]
Menoetius
Patroclus I
51.4±0.25 secondary of 617 Patroclus [134]
Isis
42
51.365±1.365 1.58±0.52 belt asteroid type S [72] · [72]
Klotho
97
50.359±0.321 1.33±0.13 belt asteroid type M [84] · [72]
Troilus
1208
50.239±0.549 Jupiter trojan (L5) type FCU [135]

From 20 to 49 kmEdit

This list includes few examples since there are about 589 asteroids in the asteroid belt with a measured radius between 20 and 49 km.[136] Many thousands of objects of this size range have yet to be discovered in the trans-Neptunian region. The number of digits is not an endorsement of significant figures. The table switches from ×1018 kg to ×1015 kg (Eg). Most mass values of asteroids are assumed.[72][108]

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2]
(km)
Mass
(1015 kg)
Type – notes Refs[note 6]
r · M
Asterope
233
49.836±0.573 belt asteroid type T/type K [137]
Pholus
5145
49.5+7.5
−7
centaur [90]
Thebe
Jupiter XIV
49.3±2 moon of Jupiter [102]
Lutetia
21
49±1 1700±17 belt asteroid type M [138] · [139]
Kalypso
53
48.631±13.299 ≈ 5630±5000 belt asteroid type XC [140] · [72]
Proserpina
26
47.4±0.85 748±895 belt asteroid type S [141] · [72]
Juliet
Uranus XI
46.8±4 moon of Uranus [5]
Urania
30
46.394±1.02 1740±490 belt asteroid type S [142] · [72]
Ausonia
63
45.816±2.181 1530±150 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Beatrix
83
44.819±1.326 belt asteroid type X [84]
Concordia
58
44.806±0.419 belt asteroid type C [84]
Echidna
Typhon I
44.5±3 moon of 42355 Typhon [109]
Automedon
2920
44.287±0.898 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D [143]
90 Antiope 43.9±0.5 828±22 belt asteroid type C; binary [144] · [144]
Prometheus
Saturn XVI
43.1±2.7 159.5±1.5 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Danaë
61
42.969±1.076 2890±2780 belt asteroid type S [145] · [72]
Thetis
17
42.449±1.014 1200 belt asteroid type S [146] · [108]
Pandora
55
42.397±1.251 belt asteroid type M [147]
Huenna
379
42.394±0.779 383±19 belt asteroid type B/type C; binary [148] · [95]
Virginia
50
42.037±0.121 2310±700 belt asteroid type X/type Ch [149] · [72]
Feronia
72
41.975±2.01 ≈ 3320±8490 belt asteroid type TDG [72] · [72]
S/2000 (90) 1
Antiope I
41.9±0.5 secondary of 90 Antiope [144]
Poulydamas
4348
41.016±0.313 Jupiter trojan (L5) type C [150]
Logos
58534
41±9 458±6.9 cubewano; binary [151] · [151]
Pandora
Saturn XVII
40.7±1.5 137.1±1.9 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Thalassa
Neptune IV
40.7±2.8 moon of Neptune [91]
Niobe
71
40.43±0.4 belt asteroid type S [81]
Pomona
32
40.38±0.8 belt asteroid type S [152]
Belinda
Uranus XIV
40.3±8 moon of Uranus [5]
Elara
Jupiter VII
39.95±1.7 moon of Jupiter [153]
Cressida
Uranus IX
39.8±2 moon of Uranus [5]
Amycus
55576
38.15±6.25 centaur [60]
Hylonome
10370
37.545 centaur [154]
1974 FV1
3708
37.831±0.404 Jupiter trojan (L5) type C [84]
Nysa
44
37.83±0.37 belt asteroid type E [81]
Rosalind
Uranus XIII
36±6 moon of Uranus [5]
Maja
66
35.895±0.46 belt asteroid type C [81]
Ariadne
43
35.67±0.627 ≈ 1210±220 belt asteroid type S [155] · [72]
Iphigenia
112
35.535±0.26 ≈ 1970±6780 belt asteroid type C [72] · [72]
Dike
99
33.677±0.208 belt asteroid type C [156]
Echeclus
60558 or 174P
32.3±0.8 centaur [90]
Desdemona
Uranus X
32±4 moon of Uranus [5]
Eurybates
3548
31.943±0.149 Jupiter trojan (L4) type CP [84]
Eurynome
79
31.739±0.476 belt asteroid type S [157]
Eurydike
75
31.189±0.802 belt asteroid type M [158]
Halimede
Neptune IX
≈ 31 moon of Neptune [5]
Phocaea
25
30.527±1.232 599±60 belt asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Naiad
Neptune III
30.2±3.2 moon of Neptune [91]
Schwassmann–
Wachmann 1

29P
30.2±3.7 comet [159]
Neso
Neptune XIII
≈ 30 moon of Neptune [5]
Angelina
64
29.146±0.541 belt asteroid type E [160]
Pasiphae
Jupiter VIII
28.9±0.4 moon of Jupiter [153]
Alkmene
82
28.811±0.357 belt asteroid type S [161]
Nessus
7066
28.5±8.5 centaur [90]
Polana
142
27.406±0.139 belt asteroid type F [162]
Bianca
Uranus VIII
27±2 moon of Uranus [5]
Mathilde
253
26.4 103.3±4.4 belt asteroid type C [163] · [164]
Hidalgo
944
26.225±1.8 centaur [81]
Orus
21900
25.405±0.405 Jupiter trojan (L4) type C/type D [84]
Amalthea
113
25.069±0.633 belt asteroid type S; binary [84]
Prospero
Uranus XVIII
≈ 25 moon of Uranus [5]
Setebos
Uranus XIX
≈ 24 moon of Uranus [5]
Carme
Jupiter XI
23.35±0.45 moon of Jupiter [153]
Klytia
73
22.295±0.471 belt asteroid type S [165]
Sao
Neptune XI
≈ 22 moon of Neptune [5]
Echo
60
21.609±0.286 315±32 belt asteroid type S [166] · [72]
Metis
Jupiter XVI
21.5±2 ≈ 119.893 moon of Jupiter [102] · [167]
Ophelia
Uranus VII
21.4±4 moon of Uranus [5]
Lysithea
Jupiter X
21.1±0.35 moon of Jupiter [153]
Caliban
Uranus XVI
21+10
−6
moon of Uranus [105]
Laomedeia
Neptune XII
≈ 21 moon of Neptune [5]
Cordelia
Uranus VI
20.1±3 moon of Uranus [5]
Psamathe
Neptune X
≈ 20 moon of Neptune [5]

From 1 to 19 kmEdit

This list contains some examples of Solar System objects between 1 and 19 km in radius. This is a common size for asteroids, comets and irregular moons.

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2]
(km)
Mass
(1015 kg)
Type – notes Refs[note 6]
r · M
Urda
167
19.968±0.132 belt asteroid type S [168]
Hydra
Pluto III
19.65 48±42 moon of Pluto [169] · [170]
Siarnaq
Saturn XXIX
19.65±2.95 moon of Saturn [153]
Koronis
158
19.513±0.231 belt asteroid type S [171]
Nix
Pluto II
19.017 45±40 moon of Pluto [169] · [170]
Ganymed
1036
18.838±0.199 ≈ 167±318 Amor asteroid type S [84] · [72]
Okyrhoe
52872
18±0.6 centaur [172]
Helene
Saturn XII
17.6±0.4 moon of Saturn; Dione trojan (L4) [26]
Sinope
Jupiter IX
17.5±0.3 moon of Jupiter [153]
Hippocamp
Neptune XIV
17.4±1 ≈ 50 moon of Neptune [91] · [91]
Leucus
11351
17.078±0.323 Jupiter trojan (L4) type D [84]
Stephano
Uranus XX
≈ 16 moon of Uranus [5]
Arrokoth
486958
15.85±0.25 cubewano; contact binary [173]
Ida
243
15.7 42±6 belt asteroid type S; binary [174] · [175]
Atlas
Saturn XV
15.1±0.9 6.6 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Ananke
Jupiter XII
14.55±0.3 moon of Jupiter [153]
Albiorix
Saturn XXVI
14.3±2.7 moon of Saturn [153]
Pan
Saturn XVIII
14.1±1.3 4.95 moon of Saturn [26] · [176]
Linus
Kalliope I
14±1 ≈ 60 asteroid moon of 22 Kalliope [101] · [177]
Dioretsa
20461
14±3 centaur; damocloid [178]
Perdita
Uranus XXV
13±1 moon of Uranus [5]
Telesto
Saturn XIII
12.4±0.4 moon of Saturn; Tethys trojan (L4) [26]
Mab
Uranus XXVI
12±1 moon of Uranus [5]
Phobos
Mars I
11.267 10.659 moon of Mars [179] · [180]
Paaliaq
Saturn XX
≈ 11 moon of Saturn [5]
Francisco
Uranus XXII
≈ 11 moon of Uranus [5]
Leda
Jupiter XIII
10.75±0.85 moon of Jupiter [153]
Calypso
Saturn XIV
10.7±0.7 moons of Saturn; Tethys trojan (L5) [26]
Polymele
15094
10.548±0.068 Jupiter trojan (L4) type P [85]
Margaret
Uranus XXIII
≈ 10 moon of Uranus [5]
Ferdinand
Uranus XXIV
≈ 10 moon of Uranus [5]
Cupid
Uranus XXVII
9±1 moon of Uranus [5]
Ymir
Saturn XIX
≈ 9 moon of Saturn [5]
Trinculo
Uranus XXI
≈ 9 moon of Uranus [5]
Eros
433
8.42±0.02 6.687±0.003 Amor asteroid type S [181] · [181]
Adrastea
Jupiter XV
8.2±2 moon of Jupiter [5]
Kiviuq
Saturn XXIV
≈ 8 moon of Saturn [5]
Tarvos
Saturn XXI
≈ 7.5 moon of Saturn [5]
Kerberos
Pluto IV
≈ 6.333 16±9 moon of Pluto [182] · [183]
Gaspra
951
6.266 20–30 belt asteroid type S [184] · [185]
Deimos
Mars II
6.2±0.18 1.476 moon of Mars [5] · [186]
Skamandrios
Hektor I
6±1.5 asteroid moon of 624 Hektor [82]
Ijiraq
Saturn XXII
≈ 6 moon of Saturn [5]
Halley's Comet
1P
5.75 0.22 comet [187] · [188]
Styx
Pluto V
≈ 5.5 ≈ 7.65 moon of Pluto [182] · [183]
Romulus
Sylvia I
5.4±2.8 asteroid moon of 87 Sylvia [189]
Masursky
2685
5.372±0.085 belt asteroid type S [190]
Erriapus
Saturn XXVIII
≈ 5 moon of Saturn [5]
Callirrhoe
Jupiter XVII
4.8±0.65 moon of Jupiter [153]
Alexhelios
Kleopatra I
4.45±0.8 asteroid moon of 216 Kleopatra [191]
Esclangona
1509
4.085±0.3 inner belt asteroid type S; binary [192]
Themisto
Jupiter XVIII
≈ 4 moon of Jupiter [5]
Daphnis
Saturn XXXV
3.8±0.8 0.077±0.015 moon of Saturn [26] · [26]
Petit-Prince
Eugenia I
3.5±1 asteroid moon of 45 Eugenia [89]
Praxidike
Jupiter XXVII
3.5±0.35 moon of Jupiter [153]
Bestla
Saturn XXXIX
≈ 3.5 moon of Saturn [5]
Remus
Sylvia II
≈ 3.5 asteroid moon of 87 Sylvia [189]
Kalyke
Jupiter XXIII
3.45±0.65 moon of Jupiter [153]
Cleoselene
Kleopatra II
3.45±0.8 asteroid moon of 216 Kleopatra [191]
S/2019 (31) 1
Euphrosyne I
3.35±1.2 asteroid moon of 31 Euphrosyne [193]
Tempel 1
9P
3±0.1 Jupiter-family comet; Deep Impact flyby and impacted [194]
Phaethon
3200
2.9 Apollo asteroid type F [195]
1999 JM8
53319
2.7±0.6 Apollo asteroid type X [196]
Borrelly
19P
2.66 Jupiter-family comet [197]
Šteins
2867
2.58±0.084 belt asteroid type E [84]
Atira
163693
2.4±0.25 Atira asteroid type S; binary [198]
Annefrank
5535
2.4 belt asteroid type S [199]
Balam
3749
2.332±0.107 0.51±0.02 belt asteroid type S; trinary [200] · [201]
Pallene
Saturn XXXIII
2.22±0.07 moon of Saturn [202]
Florence
3122
2.201±0.015 0.079±0.002 Amor asteroid type S; trinary [73] · [203]
Wild 2
81P
2.133 Jupiter family comet [204]
Litva
2577
2.115 Mars-crosser type EU; trinary [205]
Churyumov–Gerasimenko
67P
2 0.00998 Jupiter-family comet [206] · [207]
Donaldjohanson
52246
1.948±0.007 belt asteroid type C [208]
Cuno
4183
1.826±0.051 Apollo asteroid type S/type Q [209]
1986 DA
6178
1.575 Amor asteroid type M [210]
Pichi üñëm
Alauda I
1.55±0.45 asteroid moon of 702 Alauda [211]
Toutatis
4179
1.516 0.0505 Apollo asteroid type S [212] · [212]
Methone
Saturn XXXII
1.45±0.03 moon of Saturn [202]
1998 QE2
285263
1.375 Amor asteroid type S; binary [213]
Polydeuces
Saturn XXXIV
1.3±0.4 moon of Saturn; Dione trojan (L5) [26]
2001 SN263
153591
1.315±0.2 0.00951±0.00013 Amor asteroid type C; trinary [214] · [215]
S/2003 (1509) 1
Esclangona I
1.285 asteroid moon of 1509 Esclangona [216]
APL
132524
≈ 1.25 belt asteroid type S [217]
Camillo
3752
1.153±0.044 Apollo asteroid type S [73]
Cruithne
3753
1.036±0.053 Aten asteroid type Q; quasi-satellite of Earth [218]

Below 1 kmEdit

This list contains examples of objects below 1 km in radius. That means that irregular bodies can have a longer chord in some directions, hence the mean radius averages out.

In the asteroid belt alone there are estimated to be between 1.1 and 1.9 million objects with a radius above 0.5 km,[219] many of which are in the range 0.5–1.0 km. Countless more have a radius below 0.5 km.

Very few objects in this size range have been explored or even imaged. The exceptions are objects that have been visited by a probe, or have passed close enough to Earth to be imaged. Radius is by mean geometric radius. Number of digits not an endorsement of significant figures. Mass scale shifts from × 1015 to 109 kg, which is equivalent to one billion kg or 1012 grams (Teragram – Tg).

Currently most of the objects of mass between 109 kg to 1012 kg (less than 1000 teragrams (Tg)) listed here are near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The Aten asteroid 1994 WR12 has less mass than the Great Pyramid of Giza, 5.9 × 109 kg.

For more about very small objects in the Solar System, see meteoroid, micrometeoroid, and interplanetary dust cloud. (See also Visited/imaged bodies.)

Body[note 1] Image Radius[note 2]
(m)
Mass
(109 kg)
Type – notes Refs[note 6]
r · M
Ra-Shalom
2100
990±25 Aten asteroid type C [81]
Geographos
1620
980±30 Apollo asteroid type S [84]
Midas
1981
975±35 Apollo asteroid type S [81]
Mithra
4486
924.5±11 Apollo asteroid type S [73]
1998 OH
12538
831.5±164.5 Apollo asteroid type S [73]
Tantalus
2102
824.5±22.5 Apollo asteroid type Q [220]
Braille
9969
820 Mars-crosser type Q [221]
2005 GO21
308242
780 Aten asteroid type S [222]
Apollo
1862
≈ 750 Apollo asteroid type Q [223]
1999 JD6
85989
731±10.5 Aten asteroid type K; contact binary [224]
Icarus
1566
730 Apollo asteroid type S [225]
Dactyl
Ida I
700 asteroid moon of 243 Ida [226]
Castalia
4769
700 Apollo asteroid type S; contact binary [227]
2007 PA8
214869
675±70 Apollo asteroid type Q [228]
Moshup
66391
658.5±20 2490±54 Aten asteroid type S; binary [229] · [230]
1950 DA
29075
653 ≈ 2000 Apollo asteroid type S [231] · [232]
2006 HY51
394130
609±114 Apollo asteroid [233]
Hartley 2
103P
570±80 ≈ 300 Jupiter-family comet [234] · [234]
2003 SD220
163899
515 Aten asteroid type S [235]
Nyx
3908
500±75 Amor asteroid type V [236]
2001 WN5
153814
466±5.5 Apollo asteroid [237]
2017 YE5 450±25 Apollo asteroid type S; binary [238]
Ryugu
162173
432.5±7.5 ≈ 450 Apollo asteroid type Cg [239] · [240]
1997 AE12
162058
423.5±6.5 Amor asteroid type S [241]
2014 JO25 409 Apollo asteroid type S; contact binary [242]
Hermes
69230
400±50 Apollo asteroid type Sq [243]
Didymos
65803
390±4 527 Apollo asteroid type Xk; binary [244] · [245]
Aten
2062
365±15 Aten asteroid type S [84]
Aegaeon
Saturn LIII
330±60 moon of Saturn [202]
2015 TB145 325±15 Apollo asteroid type S [246]
1994 CC
136617
310±30 266±32.9 Apollo asteroid type Sq; trinary [247] · [248]
2001 WR1
172034
315.5±9 Amor asteroid type S [249]
Golevka
6489
265±15 Apollo asteroid type Q [250]
Bennu
101955
262.5±37.5 78±9 Apollo asteroid type B [251] · [252]
2000 WO107
153201
255±41.5 Aten asteroid type X [253]
2002 CU11
163132
230±8.5 Apollo asteroid [254]
Squannit
1999 KW4 I
225.5±13.5 asteroid moon of 66391 Moshup [230]
2014 HQ124 204.5±84 Aten asteroid type S [84]
2013 YP139 201±13 Apollo asteroid [255]
2008 EV5
341843
200±7 Aten asteroid type X/type C [73]
2006 DP14
388188
≈ 200 Apollo asteroid type S; contact binary [256]
1988 EG
6037
199.5±1.35 Apollo asteroid type S [257]
2010 TK7 189.5±61.5 Aten asteroid; Earth trojan (L4) [258]
2006 SU49
292220
≈ 188.5 ≈ 73 Apollo asteroid [259] · [259]
2005 YU55
308635
180±20 Apollo asteroid type C [260]
2010 SO16 178.5±63 Apollo asteroid; co-orbital with Earth [255]
Itokawa
25143
173 35.1±1.05 Apollo asteroid type S [261] · [261]
Apophis
99942
162.5±7.5 ≈ 61 Aten asteroid type Sq [262] · [263]
S/2009 S 1 ≈ 150 moon of Saturn [264]
2005 WK4 142 Apollo asteroid type S [265]
2004 BL86
357439
131.5±13 Apollo asteroid type V; binary [266]
2007 TU24 125 Apollo asteroid type S [267]
2002 VE68 ≈ 118 Aten asteroid type X; co-orbital with Venus [268]
2011 UW158
436724
110±20 Apollo asteroid type S [269]
Dimorphos
Didymos I
85±15 asteroid moon of 65803 Didymos [245]
2017 BQ6 78 Apollo asteroid type S [270]
YORP
54509
61.8 Apollo asteroid type S [271]
Kamoʻoalewa
469219
41 Apollo asteroid type S; quasi-satellite of Earth [272]
Duende
367943
23.75 Aten asteroid type L [273]
1998 KY26 ≈ 15 Apollo asteroid type X [274]
2012 TC4 11.5 Apollo asteroid type E/type Xe [275]
2014 RC ≈ 11 Apollo asteroid type Sq [276]
2010 RF12 ≈ 3.5 ≈ 0.0005 Apollo asteroid [277] · [277]
2011 MD 3+2
−1
Apollo asteroid/Amor asteroid type S [278]
2008 TC3 2.05 0.00008 Apollo asteroid type F/type M [279] · [279]
2008 TS26 ≈ 0.49 Apollo asteroid [280]

Surface gravityEdit

The surface gravity at the equator of a body can in most cases be accurately calculated using Newton's law of universal gravitation and centrifugal force.

The gravitational acceleration at the equator is given by Newton's law of universal gravitation. The formula that follows from this law is:

 

where

ag is the magnitude of the gravitational acceleration
G is the gravitational constant
m is the mass of the celestial body
r is the equatorial radius of the celestial body (if this varies significantly, the mean equatorial radius is used)

The magnitude of the outward acceleration due to centrifugal force is given by

 

where

T is the rotation period of the celestial body

The surface gravity at the equator is then given by:

 

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Radius estimated using equatorial radius and assuming body is spherical
  2. ^ a b Radius has been determined by various methods, such as optical (Hubble), thermal (Spitzer), or direct imaging via spacecraft
  3. ^ a b c d Radius estimated by using three radii and assuming body is spheroid
  4. ^ a b Best fit, assuming Haumea is in hydrostatic equilibrium
  5. ^ Calculated in Wolfram Alpha using semi axes of 1050 × 840 × 537 (Ellipsoid volume: 1.98395×10^9 km³)
  6. ^ The mass estimate is based on the assumed density of 1.2 g/cm³, and a volume of 3.5 ×106 km³ obtained from a detailed shape model in Stooke (1994).[92]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Name of body, including alternative names using Roman numerals to designate moons (such as "Saturn I" for Mimas), and numbers to designate minor planets
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Mean radius including uncertainties
  3. ^ Given as surface gravity (1 bar for gaseous planets)
  4. ^ Ranking by radius and mass. Bodies under 500km in radius cannot be meaningfully ranked, as there are a number of known TNOs that may be in this range.
  5. ^ Figures from default source Johnston's Archive—List of Known Trans-Neptunian Objects,[28] if otherwise not mentioned in the References column
  6. ^ a b c d e f Reference column specifically for radius (r) and mass (M) citations

ReferencesEdit

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