List of Polish monarchs

Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes and princes (10th to 14th centuries) or by kings (11th to 18th centuries). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th to 18th centuries).

Monarchy of Poland
Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.svg
Stanislaw poniatowski bacciarelli.jpg
Stanislaus II Augustus
Details
Style
First monarchMieszko I
Last monarchStanislaus II Augustus
Formationc. 960 (First Christian Monarch)
Abolition25 November 1795
Residence
Appointer
Pretender(s)

The first known Polish ruler is Duke Mieszko I who adopted Christianity under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth. The dynasty ceased to exist with the death of Casimir III the Great in 1370. In the same year, the Capetian House of Anjou became the ruling house with Louis I as king of both Poland and Hungary. His daughter, Jadwiga, later married Jogaila, the pagan Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized and crowned as Władysław II Jagiełło, thus creating the Jagiellonian dynasty and a personal union between Poland and Lithuania.

During the reign of Casimir IV Jagiellon and Sigismund I the Old, culture flourished and cities developed. This era of progress, also known as the Polish Renaissance, continued until the Union of Lublin under Sigismund II Augustus, which unofficially marked the end of the Polish Golden Age. After the death of the last Jagiellonian king, the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became an elective monarchy with mostly foreigners elected as monarchs such as Henry III of France, who witnessed the introduction of the Golden Liberty system and Stephen Báthory, a capable military commander who strengthened the nation. The meaningful rule of the Vasa dynasty initially expanded the Commonwealth as the arts and crafts developed, as well as trade and commerce. King Sigismund III Vasa, a talented but somewhat despotic ruler, involved the country in many wars, which subsequently resulted in the successful capture of Moscow and the loss of Livonia to Sweden. His son, Władysław IV Vasa, fiercely defended the Commonwealth's borders and continued the policy of his father until his death, unlike John II Casimir whose tragic rule resulted in his abdication.

The election of John III Sobieski to the Polish throne proved to be beneficial for the Commonwealth. A brilliant military tactician, John III led the coalition forces to victory at Vienna in 1683 and he partially recaptured land from the Ottoman Empire. However, the years that followed were not as successful.[4] The long and ineffective rule of the Wettin dynasty (Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III) placed the Commonwealth under the influence of Saxony and the Russian Empire. Additional feuds with rebel nobility (szlachta) and most notably Stanislaus I Leszczyński and France diminished the influence of Poland-Lithuania in the region, which led to the partitions that occurred under King Stanislaus II Augustus, yet another enlightened, but ineffective monarch. The Duchy of Warsaw existed from 1807 to 1815. The last sovereign of Poland was Frederick Augustus I as Duke of Warsaw, who throughout his political career attempted to rehabilitate the Polish state. The monarchy was abolished and a parliamentary republican authority was established when Poland was re-constituted as a sovereign state in 1918.

LegendaryEdit

Most of the legendary Polish rulers appear for the first time in chronicles from the 13th century and their existence has not been determined.

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim House
Lech   Unknown Unknown Unknown Legendary founder of the Polish nation according to folktales, tribal leader Lechites (Tribe)
Krakus I
also Krak or Grakch
c. 8th century
  c. 8th century Unknown c. 8th century Legendary founder of Kraków Lechites (Tribe)
Krakus II
c. 8th century
  c. 8th century
Son of Krakus I
Unknown c. 8th century Succession Lechites (Tribe)
Lech II

c. 8th century
  c. 8th century
Son of Krakus I, brother of Krakus II
Unknown c. 8th century Succession Lechites (Tribe)
Wanda
also Wąda
c. 8th century
  c. 8th century
Daughter of Krakus, sister of Krakus II and Lech II
Unknown c. 8th century Succession Lechites (Tribe)
Duke
Leszko I
also Leszek
c. 7th centuries

c. 8th centuries
  c. 7th centuries

c. 8th centuries
Unknown c. 7th centuries[5]

c. 8th centuries
Birth name Przemysław, defeated the Hungarians and was crowned
Elected
Goplans and Polans (Tribes)
Duke
Leszko II
c. 8th century
  c. 8th centuries
Presumed son of Leszko I, Alleged progenitor of the Popielids dynasty
Unknown c. 8th centuries Succession Popielids
Duke
Leszko III
c. 8th century
  c. 8th centuries
Presumed son of Leszko II
Unknown c. 8th centuries Succession Popielids
Duke
Popiel I
c. 8th century
  c. 8th centuries
Presumed son of Leszko III
Unknown c. 8th centuries Succession Popielids
Duke
Popiel II
c. 9th century
  c. 9th century
Presumed son of Popiel I
(1) NN, A German Princess c. 9th century A legendary ruler dethroned by Piast. He appears (without the number) in the oldest Polish chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum from the early 12th century
Succession
Popielids
Piast the Wheelwright
c. 9th century
  c. 9th century
Son of Chościsko
(1) Rzepicha c. 9th century Legendary founder of the Piast dynasty. He appears in the oldest Polish chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum from the early 12th century Piast

Semi-legendaryEdit

The three direct predecessors of Mieszko I are known only from the account of Gallus Anonymus, who wrote the oldest Polish chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum at the beginning of 12th century. Though their historicity was once debatable, now historians tend to consider them actually existing rulers.[6]

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim House Ref.
Duke
Siemowit
also Ziemowit

9th century
  9th century
Presumed son of Piast the Wheelwright
and Rzepicha
Unknown 9th century Named the Duke of the Polans after his father, Piast the Wheelwright, refused to take the place of legendary Duke Popiel
Elected
Piast [7]
Duke
Lestek
also Leszek or Lestko
9th century

10th century
  c. 870–880
Presumed son of Siemowit
Unknown c. 930–950 Named the Duke of the Polans after succeeding his father
Succession
Piast [8][9]
Duke
Siemomysł
also Ziemomysł
Latin: Zemomislaus

10th century

c. 950/960
  c. 900
Presumed son of Lestek
Unknown c. 950–960 Named the Duke of the Polans after succeeding his father
Succession
Piast [10]

House of PiastEdit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim House
Duke
Mieszko I
Latin: Misico, dux Wandalorum
960

25 May 992
(31–32 years)
  c. 930
Son of semi-legendary Siemomysł
(1) Doubravka of Bohemia
c. 965
2 children
(2) Oda of Haldensleben
c. 980
3 children
25 May 992
Poznań
Aged about 62
First Christian ruler of Poland
Succession
Piast
King
Bolesław I the Brave
also Boleslaus I the Great
Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)

992–1025 (as Duke)
18 April 1025–17 June 1025 (as King)
(32–33 years)
  c. 967
Poznań
Son of Mieszko I and Doubravka of Bohemia
(1) Hunilda, daughter of Rikdag
(2) Judith of Hungary
(3) Emnilda of Lusatia
(4) Oda of Meissen
17 June 1025
Kraków
Aged about 58
First crowned King
Succession
Piast
King
Mieszko II Lambert
25 December 1025–1031
(5–6 years)
  c. 990
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Emnilda of Lusatia
(1) Richeza of Lotharingia, 4 children 10/11 May 1034
Poznań
Aged about 44
Crowned King
Succession
Deposed as a result of the Pagan Rebellion
Piast
Duke
Bezprym
1031–1032 (0–1 years)
  c. 986
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Judith of Hungary
Unknown c. 1032
Aged about 46
Country divided, ruler of a Duchy
Usurped
Piast
Duke
Otto
1032–1033 (0–1 years)
  c. 1000
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Emnilda of Lusatia
Unknown c. 1033
Aged about 33
Country divided, ruler of a Duchy
Usurped
Piast
Duke
Dytryk
also Dietrich and Theoderick
1032–1033 (0–1 years)
  c. 992
Son of Lambert Mieszkowic or Mieszko Mieszkowic
Unknown c. 1033
Aged about 41
Country divided, ruler of a Duchy
Usurped
Piast
Duke
Mieszko II Lambert
1033–1034
(0–1 years)
  c. 990
Son of Bolesław I the Brave and Emnilda of Lusatia
(1) Richeza of Lotharingia, 4 children 10/11 May 1034
Poznań
Aged about 44
Restored as Duke Piast
Duke
Bolesław the Forgotten
Polish: Bolesław Zapomniany
1034–1038/1039
(4–5 years)
  before 1016
Presumed son of Mieszko II Lambert
Unknown 1038/1039 Semi-legendary, existence disputed Piast
Duke
Casimir I the Restorer
Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel
1034/1040–1058
(17–18 years)
  25 July 1016
Son of Mieszko II Lambert and Richeza of Lotharingia
(1) Maria Dobroniega, 5 children 19 March 1058
Poznań
Aged 41
Made Prince in 1034, returned from abroad in 1040
Restoration
Piast
King
Bolesław II the Generous
Polish: Bolesław II Szczodry (Śmiały)
1058–1076 (as Duke)
26 December 1076–1079 (as King)
(20–21 years)
  1042
Son of Casimir I the Restorer and Maria Dobroniega
(1) Wyszesława, 1 son 2/3 April 1081
Hungary or Ossiach
Aged about 39
Crowned King in 1076
Deposed and exiled in 1079 after slaying Saint Stanislaus
Piast
Duke
Władysław I Herman
1079–4 June 1102
(22–23 years)
  1044
Son of Casimir I the Restorer and Maria Dobroniega
(1) Przecława
(2) Judith of Bohemia
(3) Judith of Swabia
24 June 1102
Płock
Aged about 58
Succeeded brother after his exile Piast
Duke
Zbigniew
1102–1107
(4–5 years)
  c. 1073
Son of Władysław I Herman and Przecława (?)
Unknown 8 July 1113
Aged about 40
Succession Piast
Duke
Bolesław III Wrymouth
also Boleslaus III
Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty

1107–1138
(30–31 years)
  20 August 1086
Płock
Son of Władysław I Herman and Judith of Bohemia
(1) Zbyslava of Kiev
(2) Salomea of Berg
28 October 1138
Sochaczew
Aged 52
Succession
His death led to the fragmentation of Poland
Piast

Fragmentation of Poland (1138–1320)Edit

Name Portrait Birth Marriages Death Claim House
High Duke
Władysław II the Exile
Polish: Władysław II Wygnaniec
1138–1146
(7–8 years)
  1105
Kraków
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Zbyslava of Kiev
(1) Agnes of Babenberg, 5 children 30 May 1159
Altenburg
Aged 54
Succession
Deposed and exiled
Piast
High Duke
Bolesław IV the Curly
Polish: Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy
1146–1173
(26–27 years)
  c. 1125
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Salomea of Berg
(1) Viacheslava of Novgorod, 3 children 5 January 1173
Aged about 51
Succeeded exiled half-brother Piast
High Duke
Mieszko III the Old
Polish: Mieszko III Stary
1173–1177
(3–4 years)
  c. 1127
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Salomea of Berg
(1) Elisabeth of Hungary
(2) Eudoxia of Kiev
13 March 1202
Kalisz
Aged about 75
Succession
Deposed by brother in 1177
Piast
High Duke
Casimir II the Just
Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy
1177–1190
(12–13 years)
  c. 1138
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth and Salomea of Berg
(1) Helen of Znojmo, 7 children 5 May 1194
Kraków
Aged about 56
Usurped power from brother Piast
Mieszko III the Old
1190–1190
- - - - Usurped Piast
Casimir II the Just
1190–1194
- - - - Usurped Piast
High Duke
Leszek I the White
Polish: Leszek Biały
1194–1198
(3–4 years)
  c. 1184/1185
Son of Casimir II the Just and Helen of Znojmo
(1) Grzymisława of Luck, 2 children 24 November 1227
Marcinkowo Górne
Aged about 43
Succession Piast
Mieszko III the Old
1198–1199
- - - - Usurped Piast
Leszek I the White
1199–1199
- - - - Restored Piast
Mieszko III the Old
1199–1202
- - - - Usurped Piast
High Duke
Władysław III Spindleshanks
Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi
1202–1206
(3–4 years)
  c. 1167
Son of Mieszko III the Old and Eudoxia of Kiev
(1) Lucia of Rügen, 2 children 3 November 1231
Aged about 64
Usurped Piast
Leszek I the White
1206–1210
- - - - Restored Piast
High Duke
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot
Polish: Mieszko I Plątonogi
1210–1211
(0–1 years)
  c. 1130
Son of Władysław II the Exile and Agnes of Babenberg
(1) Ludmila, 5 children 16 May 1211
Aged about 81
Usurped Piast
Leszek I the White
1211–1227
(15–16 years)
- - - - Restored
Murdered in 1227
Piast
Władysław III Spindleshanks
1227–1229
- - - - Usurped Piast
High Duke
Konrad I of Masovia
1229–1232
(2–3 years)
  c. 1187/1188
Son of Casimir II the Just and Helen of Znojmo
(1) Agafia of Rus, 10 children 31 August 1247
Aged about 60
Usurped Piast
High Duke
Henry I the Bearded
Polish: Henryk I Brodaty
1232–1238
(5–6 years)
  c. 1165/1188
Głogów
Son of Bolesław I the Tall and Christina (?)
(1) Hedwig of Andechs, 7 children 19 March 1238
Krosno Odrzańskie
Aged about 73
Usurped Piast
High Duke
Henry II the Pious
Polish: Henryk II Pobożny
1238–1241
(2–3 years)
  c. 1196
Głogów
Son of Henry the Bearded and Hedwig of Andechs
(1) Anne of Bohemia, 10 children 9 April 1241
Legnickie Pole
Aged about 45
Succession
Killed at the Battle of Legnica
Piast
High Duke
Bolesław II the Horned
Polish: Bolesław II Rogatka
1241–1241
  c. 1220/1225
Głogów
Son of Henry II the Pious and Anne of Bohemia
(1) Anne of Bohemia, 10 children 26 December 1278
Legnica
Succession
Deposed
Piast
High Duke
Konrad I of Masovia
1241–1243
(1–2 years)
  c. 1187/1188
Son of Casimir II the Just and Helen of Znojmo
(1) Agafia of Rus, 10 children 31 August 1247
Aged about 60
Usurped Piast
High Duke
Bolesław V the Chaste
Polish: Bolesław V Wstydliwy
1243–1279
(35–36 years)
  21 June 1226
Stary Korczyn
Son of Leszek I the White and Grzymisława of Luck
(1) Kinga of Poland, no children 7 December 1279
Kraków
Aged 52
Restored as rightful Duke Piast
High Duke
Leszek II the Black
Polish: Leszek Czarny
1279–1288
(8–9 years)
  c. 1241
Brześć Kujawski
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
(1) Gryfina of Halych 30 September 1288
Kraków
Aged about 47
Succession Piast
High Duke
Henryk IV Probus
English: Henry the Righteous
Polish: Henryk IV Prawy

1288–1290
(8–9 years)
  c. 1257/1258
Son of Henry III the White and Judith of Masovia
(1) Constance of Opole
(2) Matilda of Brandenburg
23 June 1290
Wrocław
Aged about 32
Succession Piast

Attempt at restoration (1295–1296)Edit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
King
Przemysł II
English: Premislaus II
1290–1291 (as Duke)
1295–1296 (as King)
(1 year)
    14 October 1257
Poznań
Son of Przemysł I of Greater Poland and Elisabeth of Wrocław
(1) Ludgarda of Mecklenburg
(2) Richeza of Sweden
(3) Margaret of Brandenburg
8 February 1296
Rogoźno
Aged 38
Crowned King in 1295
Granted Poland its Coat of Arms
Assassinated
Piast

House of PřemyslidEdit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
King
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Polish: Wacław II Czeski
1291–1300 (as High Duke)
1300–1305 (as King)
(4–5 years)
    27 September 1271
Prague
Son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
(1) Judith of Habsburg
(2) Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
21 June 1305
Prague
Aged 33
Crowned himself King of Poland in 1300 Přemyslid
(Uncrowned)
Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
Polish: Wacław III Czeski
1305–1306
(1 year)
    6 October 1289
Prague
Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
(1) Viola of Teschen 4 August 1306
Olomouc
Aged 16
Succession
Uncrowned and assassinated
Přemyslid

House of Piast (restored)Edit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
King
Ladislaus the Short
Polish: Władysław I Łokietek
1306–1320
(as High Duke)
20 January 1320

2 March 1333
(as King)
(26 years, 183 days)
    c. 1260
Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Euphrosyne of Opole
(1) Jadwiga of Kalisz, 6 children 2 March 1333
Kraków
Aged about 73
Reunited the Kingdom of Poland after fragmentation
Crowned King in 1320
Piast
King
Casimir III the Great
Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki
25 April 1333

5 November 1370
(37 years, 195 days)
    30 April 1310
Kowal
Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high and Jadwiga of Kalisz
(1) Aldona of Lithuania
(2) Adelaide of Hesse
(3) Christina Rokiczana
(4) Hedwig of Sagan
5 November 1370
Kraków
Aged 60
Succession
Strengthened Poland's position in Europe
Died without a male heir
Last monarch from the Piast Dynasty
Piast

House of AnjouEdit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
King
Louis I of Hungary
Polish: Ludwik Węgierski
17 November 1370

10 September 1382
(11 years, 298 days)
    5 March 1326
Visegrád
Son of Charles I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Poland
(1) Margaret of Bohemia
(2) Elizabeth of Bosnia
10 September 1382
Nagyszombat (Trnava)
Aged 56
Succeeded his uncle, Casimir III, to the Polish throne Anjou
Queen
Hedwig
Polish: Jadwiga
16 October 1384

17 July 1399
(11 years, 298 days)
    3 October 1374–18 February 1374
Buda
Daughter of Louis I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Bosnia
(1) Władysław II Jagiełło (Jogaila) 17 July 1399
Kraków
Aged 25
Succeeded her father in Poland
Her husband was crowned jure uxoris on 4 March 1386
Anjou

House of JagiellonEdit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
King
Jogaila
Polish: Władysław II Jagiełło
4 March 1386

1 June 1434
(48 years, 90 days)
    c. 1352/1362
Vilnius
Son of Algirdas and Uliana of Tver
(1) Hedwig of Poland (Jadwiga)
(2) Anna of Cilli
(3) Elisabeth of Pilica
(4) Sophia of Halshany
1 June 1434
Gródek
Aged 72–82
Born a pagan
Previously Grand Duke of Lithuania
Crowned co-ruler with wife Hedwig
Longest-reigning Polish monarch
Jagiellon
King
Władysław III
English: Ladislaus III of Varna
Polish: Władysław III Warneńczyk

25 July 1434

10 November 1444
(10 years, 109 days)
    31 October 1424
Kraków
Son of Jogaila and Sophia of Halshany
Unmarried and childless 10 November 1444
Varna
Aged 20
Succeeded his father in Poland
Killed at the Battle of Varna
Interregnum until 1447
Jagiellon
King
Casimir IV
Polish: Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk
25 June 1447

7 June 1492
(44 years, 349 days)
    30 November 1427
Kraków
Son of Jogaila and Sophia of Halshany
Elizabeth of Habsburg, 13 children 7 June 1492
Grodno
Aged 64
Succession
Previously Grand Duke of Lithuania
Divided the Polish-Lithuanian realm between John and Alexander
Jagiellon
King
John I Albert
Polish: Jan I Olbracht
23 September 1492

17 June 1501
(8 years, 268 days)
    27 December 1459
Kraków
Son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg
Unmarried and childless 17 June 1501
Toruń
Aged 41
Succeeded his father in Poland
Laid foundation for the Sejm and Senate (Polish Parliament)
Jagiellon
King
Alexander
Polish: Aleksander Jagiellończyk
12 December 1501

19 August 1506
(4 years, 251 days)
    5 August 1461
Kraków
Son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg
(1) Helena of Moscow, childless 19 August 1506
Vilnius
Aged 45
Succeeded his brother in Poland
Previously Grand Duke of Lithuania
Buried in Lithuania
Jagiellon
King
Sigismund I the Old
Polish: Zygmunt I Stary
8 December 1506

1 April 1548
(41 years, 116 days)
    1 January 1467
Kozienice
Son of Casimir IV and Elizabeth of Habsburg
(1) Barbara Zápolya
(2) Bona Sforza of Milan
1 April 1548
Kraków
Aged 81
Succeeded his brother in Poland and Lithuania Jagiellon
King
Sigismund II Augustus
Polish: Zygmunt II August
1 April 1548

7 July 1572
(24 years, 98 days)
    1 August 1520
Kraków
Son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
(1) Elizabeth of Austria
(2) Barbara Radziwiłł
(3) Catherine of Austria
7 July 1572
Knyszyn
Aged 51
Succession
Formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with an elective monarchy
Last male member of the Jagiellonian Dynasty, died heirless
Jagiellon

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569–1795Edit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
King
Henry
Polish: Henryk Walezy
16 May 1573

12 May 1575
(1 year, 362 days)
    19 September 1551
Fontainebleau
Son of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici
(1) Louise of Lorraine, no children 2 August 1589
Saint-Cloud
Aged 37
Elected
Left Poland in June 1574 to succeed his brother in France
Interregnum until 1575
Valois
Queen
Anna
Polish: Anna Jagiellonka
15 December 1575

18 September 1587
(11 years, 278 days)
    18 October 1523
Kraków
Daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
(1) Stephen Báthory, no children 9 September 1596
Warsaw
Aged 72
Elected co-monarch with Stephen Báthory
Sole ruler until Báthory's arrival and coronation in May 1576
Ruled after husband's death until her nephew was crowned
Jagiellon
King
Stephen Báthory
Polish: Stefan Batory
1 May 1576

12 December 1586
(10 years, 226 days)
    27 September 1533
Szilágysomlyó (Șimleu Silvaniei)
Son of Stephen Báthory of Somlyó and Catherine Telegdi
(1) Anna Jagiellon, no children 12 December 1586
Grodno
Aged 53
Elected as co-monarch with Anna Jagiellon
Previously Prince of Transylvania
Báthory
King
Sigismund III
Polish: Zygmunt III Waza
18 September 1587

19 April 1632
(44 years, 215 days)
    20 June 1566
Gripsholm
Son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagiellon
(1) Anne of Austria
(2) Constance of Austria
30 April 1632
Warsaw
Aged 65
Elected, nephew of Anna Jagiellon
Transferred capital from Kraków to Warsaw
Hereditary King of Sweden until deposition in 1599
Vasa
King
Władysław IV
also Ladislaus IV
Polish: Władysław IV Waza
8 November 1632

20 May 1648
(15 years, 195 days)
    9 June 1595
Łobzów
Son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
(1) Cecilia Renata of Austria
(2) Marie Louise Gonzaga
20 May 1648
Merkinė
Aged 52
Elective succession
Also titular King of Sweden and elected Tsar of Russia (1610–1613) when the Polish army captured Moscow
Vasa
King
John II Casimir
Polish: Jan II Kazimierz
20 November 1648

16 September 1668
(19 years, 302 days)
    22 March 1609
Kraków
Son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
(1) Marie Louise Gonzaga
(2) Claudine Françoise Mignot (morganatic marriage)
16 December 1672
Nevers
Aged 63
Elective succession, succeeded half-brother
Previously a cardinal
Titular King of Sweden
Abdicated
Vasa
King
Michael
Polish: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
19 June 1669

10 November 1673
(4 years, 145 days)
    31 May 1640
Biały Kamień
Son of Jeremi Wiśniowiecki and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
(1) Eleonora Maria of Austria, no children 10 November 1673
Lwów
Aged 33
Elected
Born into nobility of mixed heritage, the son of a military commander and governor
Wiśniowiecki
King
John III Sobieski
Polish: Jan III Sobieski
19 May 1674

17 June 1696
(22 years, 30 days)
    17 August 1629
Olesko
Son of Jakub Sobieski and Teofila Zofia
(1) Marie Casimire d'Arquien, 13 children 17 June 1696
Wilanów
Aged 66
Elected
Born into nobility
A successful military commander
Sobieski
King
Augustus the Strong
Polish: August II Mocny
15 September 1697

1706
(1st reign, 9 years)
    12 May 1670
Dresden
Son of John George III and Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark
(1) Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 1 son by wife 1 February 1733
Warsaw
Aged 62
Elected
Previously Elector and ruler of Saxony
Dethroned by Stanislaus I in 1706 during the Great Northern War
Wettin
King
Stanislaus I
Polish: Stanisław I Leszczyński
12 July 1704

8 July 1709
(1st reign, 4 years, 362 days)
    20 October 1677
Lwów
Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
(1) Catherine Opalińska, 2 children 23 February 1766
Lunéville
Aged 88
Usurped
Nominated as ruler in 1704, crowned in 1705 and deposed predecessor in 1706
Exiled in 1709
Leszczyński
King
Augustus the Strong
Polish: August II Mocny
8 July 1709

1 February 1733
(2nd reign, 23 years, 209 days)
    12 May 1670
Dresden
Son of John George III and Princess Anna Sophie of Denmark
(1) Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 1 son by wife 1 February 1733
Warsaw
Aged 62
Restored Wettin
King
Stanislaus I
Polish: Stanisław I Leszczyński
12 September 1733

26 January 1736
(2nd reign, 2 years, 137 days)
    20 October 1677
Lwów
Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
(1) Catherine Opalińska, 2 children 23 February 1766
Lunéville
Aged 88
Elected
His election sparked the War of the Polish Succession
Deposed by Augustus III in 1736
Leszczyński
King
Augustus III
Polish: August III Sas
5 October 1733

5 October 1763
(30 years)
    17 October 1696
Dresden
Son of Augustus II the Strong and Christiane Eberhardine
(1) Maria Josepha of Austria, 16 children 5 October 1763
Dresden
Aged 66
Usurped
Proclaimed King of Poland in 1733, crowned in 1734
Dethroned rightfully elected predecessor in 1736
Wettin
King
Stanislaus II Augustus
Polish: Stanisław II August
7 September 1764

25 November 1795
(31 years, 80 days)
    17 January 1732
Wołczyn
Son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
Unmarried 1 February 1798
Saint Petersburg
Aged 66
Elected
Born into nobility
Last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, his reign ended in the Partitions of Poland
Poniatowski

Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815Edit

Name Portrait Arms Birth Marriages Death Claim House
Duke
Frederick Augustus I
Polish: Fryderyk August I
9 June 1807

22 May 1815
'(7 years, 348 days)
    23 December 1750
Dresden
Son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony and Maria Antonia of Bavaria
(1) Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld,
1 daughter
5 May 1827
Dresden
Aged 76
Treaties of Tilsit
Designated as a king of Poland by General Confederation of the Kingdom of Poland, 1812.
Wettin

Pretenders to the Polish throneEdit

Not recognized royal electionsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Since 1574
  2. ^ It was not allowed to use abbreviations and acronyms
  3. ^ In the 17th century and later Poland was usually known as the Most Serene Republic of Poland (Polish: Najjaśniejsza Rzeczpospolita Polska, Latin: Serenissima Res Publica Poloniae).
  4. ^ Henry Elliot Malden (4 July 2014). Salus Vienna Tua: The great siege of 1683. Soldiershop Publishing. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-88-96519-84-4.
  5. ^ dated around 700 by Marcin Bielski
  6. ^ Jasiński, Kazimierz (1992). Rodowód pierwszych Piastów. Wrocław-Warszawa. p. 46.
  7. ^ Janusz Roszko (1980). Kolebka Siemowita. "Iskry". p. 170. ISBN 978-83-207-0090-9. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  8. ^ https://www.google.com.au/books/edition/Quaestiones_Medii_Aevi_Novae/n5bxAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=lestek+950&dq=lestek+950&printsec=frontcover
  9. ^ https://www.google.com.au/books/edition/Polski_Indeks_Biograficzny/TnHDPbau3Q4C?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=lestek+870&pg=PA908&printsec=frontcover
  10. ^ Lukowski, Jerzy; Hubert Zawadzki (2006). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-521-61857-1.

BibliographyEdit

  • Duczmal M., Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków 1996.
  • Dybkowska A., Żaryn J., Żaryn M., Polskie dzieje. Od czasów najdawniejszych po współczesność, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1995. ISBN 83-01-11870-9
  • Gierowski J.A., Rzeczpospolita w dobie złotej wolności (1648–1763), Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-56-3
  • Grodziski S., Polska w czasach przełomu (1764–1815), Kraków 2001. ISBN 83-85719-45-8
  • Grodziski S., Porównawcza historia ustrojów państwowych, Kraków 1998. ISBN 83-7052-840-6
  • Grzybowski S., Dzieje Polski i Litwy (1506–1648), Kraków 2000. ISBN 83-85719-48-2
  • Morby J.E., Dynastie świata. Przewodnik chronologiczny i genealogiczny, Kraków 1995, s. 261-263. ISBN 83-7006-263-6
  • Wyrozumski J., Dzieje Polski piastowskiej (VIII w.-1370), Kraków 1999. ISBN 83-85719-38-5
  • Zientara B., Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1997.

External linksEdit