List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points

  (Redirected from List of GSSPs)

This is a list of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points. Since 1977, Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (abbreviated GSSPs) are internationally agreed upon reference points on stratigraphic sections of rock which define the lower boundaries of stages on the geologic time scale. They are selected by the International Commission on Stratigraphy based on multiple factors, but their accessibility and the degree to which they are representative of the same boundary on sections worldwide are among the most important.

Since GSSPs require well-preserved sections of rock without interruptions in sedimentation, and since most are defined by different stages of animal life, defining them becomes progressively more difficult as one goes further back in time.

Organization of this listEdit

This list is divided first into the geologic eras of the Phanerozoic (the Cenozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Paleozoic) and then into the geologic periods of each era. Each period is marked below the era bar on top of its subdivided epochs and stages. Each stage is assigned an age in mya, an acronym for million years ago, which is the age at which it began. Most of these ages are derived from astronomical cycles in sediments, magnetic data, biostratigraphic data, and radiometric dating methods. The GSSP assigned to each stage is that stage's lower boundary and oldest point.

Ages are given in "million year ago" (mya). They are obtained with different radiometric dating methods depending on the type of rock and its age. Ages that have a tilde (~) prefix are approximate ages for GSSPs that have not been defined or not been accurately dated.

The Status column has a "golden spike" for every GSSP which has been formally agreed by the ICS. Those without have only candidate sections which have not yet been formally ratified. The clock stands for times that are currently defined only by an age.

The "Defining markers" column lists the evidence in the rock used to define the boundary. (Ideally, these are applicable in rock sections worldwide.) Most of the boundaries rely on the fossil record (biologic), paleomagnetic data (magnetic), and/or climate data determined by carbon and oxygen isotopes.

ListEdit

CenozoicEdit

QuaternaryEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Holocene 0.0117 NGRIP2 ice core,

Greenland

75°06′00″N 42°19′12″W / 75.1000°N 42.3200°W / 75.1000; -42.3200 [1]
Pleistocene
Tarantian 0.126 Amsterdam-Terminal borehole,

Netherlands

52°22′45″N 4°54′52″E / 52.3792°N 4.9144°E / 52.3792; 4.9144 [2]
Ionian
or
Chibanian
0.781 Candidate sections: - [3]
Calabrian 1.8 Vrica Section,

Calabria, Italy

39°02′19″N 17°08′05″E / 39.0385°N 17.1348°E / 39.0385; 17.1348 [4]
Gelasian 2.58 Monte San Nicola Section,

Gela, Sicily, Italy

37°08′49″N 14°12′13″E / 37.1469°N 14.2035°E / 37.1469; 14.2035 [5]

NeogeneEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Pliocene
Piacenzian 3.6 Punta Piccola Section,

Porto Empedocle, Sicily, Italy

37°17′20″N 13°29′36″E / 37.2889°N 13.4933°E / 37.2889; 13.4933 [6]
Zanclean 5.333 Heraclea Minoa section

Heraclea Minoa, Cattolica Eraclea, Sicily, Italy

37°23′30″N 13°16′50″E / 37.3917°N 13.2806°E / 37.3917; 13.2806 [7]
Miocene
Messinian 7.246 Oued Akrech section,

Rabat, Morocco

33°56′13″N 6°48′45″W / 33.9369°N 6.8125°W / 33.9369; -6.8125 [8]
Tortonian 11.63 Monte dei Corvi Beach section,

Ancona, Italy

43°35′12″N 13°34′10″E / 43.5867°N 13.5694°E / 43.5867; 13.5694 [9]
Serravallian 13.82 Ras il Pellegrin section,

Fomm ir-Riħ Bay, Malta

35°54′50″N 14°20′10″E / 35.9139°N 14.3361°E / 35.9139; 14.3361 [10]
Langhian 15.97 Candidate sections: - [3]
Burdigalian 20.44 Candidate sections:
  • Astronomically tuned ODP core (e.g. Ceara Rise, Leg 154)
- [3]
Aquitanian 23.03 Lemme-Carrosio Section,

Carrosio, Italy

44°39′32″N 8°50′11″E / 44.6589°N 8.8364°E / 44.6589; 8.8364 [11]

PaleogeneEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Oligocene
Chattian 28.1 Candidate section:
  • Potentially extinction of planktonic foraminifer Chiloguembelina (Base of Foram Zone P21b); or an isotopic/climatic event
- -
Rupelian 33.9 Massignano quarry section,

Massignano, Ancona, Italy

43°31′58″N 13°36′04″E / 43.5328°N 13.6011°E / 43.5328; 13.6011 [12]
Eocene
Priabonian 37.8 Alano section,

Piave river, Venetian Prealps, Belluno, Italy

- -
Bartonian 41.2 Contessa highway section

Gubbio, Central Apennines, Italy

- -
Lutetian 47.8 Gorrondatxe sea-cliff section,

Western Pyrenees, Basque Country, Spain

43°22′47″N 3°00′51″W / 43.3796°N 3.0143°W / 43.3796; -3.0143 [13]
Ypresian 56 Dababiya section,

Luxor, Egypt

  • Climatic: Base of negative Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE).
25°30′00″N 32°31′52″E / 25.5000°N 32.5311°E / 25.5000; 32.5311 [14][15]
Paleocene
Thanetian 59.2 Zumaia Section,

Basque Country, Spain

  • Magnetic: Base of magnetic polarity chronozone C26n.
43°17′59″N 2°15′39″W / 43.2996°N 2.2609°W / 43.2996; -2.2609 [16]
Selandian 61.6 Zumaia Section,

Basque Country, Spain

  • Chemical: Onset of sea-level drop and carbon isotope shift.
  • Magnetic: 30 precession cycles after the top of magnetic polarity Chron 27n
43°17′57″N 2°15′40″W / 43.2992°N 2.2610°W / 43.2992; -2.2610 [16]
Danian 66 El Kef Section,

El Kef, Tunisia

36°09′13″N 8°38′55″E / 36.1537°N 8.6486°E / 36.1537; 8.6486 [17]

MesozoicEdit

CretaceousEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Maastrichtian 72.1 Grande Carrière quarry,

Landes, France

43°40′46″N 1°06′48″W / 43.6795°N 1.1133°W / 43.6795; -1.1133 [18]
Campanian 83.6 Candidate sections: - [3]
Santonian 86.3 Olazagutia, Spain - [3]
Coniacian 89.8 Candidate sections: - [3]
Turonian 93.9 Rock Canyon,

Colorado, United States

38°16′56″N 104°43′39″W / 38.2822°N 104.7275°W / 38.2822; -104.7275 [19]
Cenomanian 100.5 Mont Risoux,

Hautes-Alpes, France

44°23′33″N 5°30′43″E / 44.3925°N 5.5119°E / 44.3925; 5.5119 [20]
Lower
Albian 113 Candidate section:
  • France

Candidates:

- -
Aptian 125 Candidate section: - -
Barremian 129.4 Candidate section: - -
Hauterivian 132.9 Candidate section: - -
Valanginian 139.8 Candidates sections: - -
Berriasian 145 Candidate section:

Candidates:

JurassicEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Tithonian 152.1 Candidate sections: - -
Kimmeridgian 157.3 Candidate section: 57°36′00″N 6°12′00″W / 57.6000°N 6.2000°W / 57.6000; -6.2000 -
Oxfordian 163.5 Candidate sections: - -
Middle
Callovian 166.1 Candidate sections: - -
Bathonian 168.3 Ravin du Bès, Bas-Auran, Alpes de Haute, France 43°57′38″N 6°18′55″E / 43.9606°N 6.3153°E / 43.9606; 6.3153 [22]
Bajocian 170.3 Cabo Mondego, Portugal 40°11′57″N 8°54′15″W / 40.1992°N 8.9042°W / 40.1992; -8.9042 [23]
Aalenian 174.1 Fuentelsaz, Spain 41°10′15″N 1°50′00″W / 41.1708°N 1.8333°W / 41.1708; -1.8333 [24]
Lower
Toarcian 182.7 Peniche, Portugal - -
Pliensbachian 190.8 Robin Hood's Bay, Yorkshire, England 54°24′25″N 0°29′51″W / 54.4069°N 0.4975°W / 54.4069; -0.4975 [25]
Sinemurian 199.3 East Quantoxhead, West Somerset, England 51°11′27″N 3°14′11″W / 51.1909°N 3.2364°W / 51.1909; -3.2364 [26]
Hettangian 201.3 Kuhjoch section, Karwendel mountains, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria 47°29′02″N 11°31′50″E / 47.4839°N 11.5306°E / 47.4839; 11.5306

TriassicEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Rhaetian 208.5 Candidate sections: - -
Norian 227 Candidate sections: - -
Carnian 237 Prati di Stuores, Dolomites, Italy 46°31′37″N 11°55′49″E / 46.5269°N 11.9303°E / 46.5269; 11.9303 [27]
Middle
Ladinian 242 Bagolino, Lombardian pre-Alps, Italy 45°49′09″N 10°28′16″E / 45.8193°N 10.4710°E / 45.8193; 10.4710 [28]
Anisian 247.2 Candidate sections: 45°04′27″N 28°48′08″E / 45.0742°N 28.8022°E / 45.0742; 28.8022
Lower
Olenekian 251.2 Candidate sections: 31°57′55″N 78°01′29″E / 31.9654°N 78.0246°E / 31.9654; 78.0246
Induan 251.902 Meishan, Zhejiang, China 31°04′47″N 119°42′21″E / 31.0798°N 119.7058°E / 31.0798; 119.7058

PaleozoicEdit

PermianEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Lopingian
Changhsingian 254.14 Zhejiang, China 31°04′55″N 119°42′23″E / 31.0819°N 119.7064°E / 31.0819; 119.7064 [29]
Wuchiapingian 259.1 Penglaitan Section,

Laibin, Guangxi, China

23°41′43″N 109°19′16″E / 23.6953°N 109.3211°E / 23.6953; 109.3211 [30]
Guadalupian
Capitanian 265.1 Nipple Hill, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A. 31°54′33″N 104°47′21″W / 31.9091°N 104.7892°W / 31.9091; -104.7892 [3]
Wordian 268.8 Guadalupe Pass, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A. 31°51′57″N 104°49′58″W / 31.8658°N 104.8328°W / 31.8658; -104.8328 [3]
Roadian 272.95 Stratotype Canyon, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas, U.S.A. 31°52′36″N 104°52′36″W / 31.8767°N 104.8768°W / 31.8767; -104.8768 [3]
Cisuralian
Kungurian 283.5 Candidate section: - [3]
Artinskian 290.1 Candidate section: - [3]
Sakmarian 295 Candidate section: - [3]
Asselian 298.9 Aidaralash, Ural Mountains, Kazakhstan 50°14′45″N 57°53′29″E / 50.2458°N 57.8914°E / 50.2458; 57.8914 [31]

CarboniferousEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Pennsylvanian
Gzhelian 303.7 Candidate sections: - [3]
Kasimovian 307 Candidate sections: - [3]
Moscovian 315.2 Candidate sections: - [3]
Bashkirian 323.2 Arrow Canyon, Nevada, United States 36°44′00″N 114°46′40″W / 36.7333°N 114.7778°W / 36.7333; -114.7778 [32]
Mississippian
Serpukhovian 330.9 Candidate sections: - [3]
Visean 346.7 Pengchong Section,

Guangxi, China

24°26′00″N 109°27′00″E / 24.4333°N 109.4500°E / 24.4333; 109.4500 [3]
Tournaisian 358.9 La Serre, Montagne Noire, France 43°33′20″N 3°21′26″E / 43.5555°N 3.3573°E / 43.5555; 3.3573 [33]

DevonianEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Famennian 372.2 Coumiac quarry,

Montagne Noire, France

43°27′41″N 3°02′25″E / 43.4613°N 3.0403°E / 43.4613; 3.0403 [34]
Frasnian 382.7 Col du Puech de la Suque, Montagne Noire, France 43°30′12″N 3°05′12″E / 43.5032°N 3.0868°E / 43.5032; 3.0868 [35]
Middle
Givetian 387.7 Jebel Mech Irdane, Tafilalt, Morocco 31°14′15″N 4°21′15″W / 31.2374°N 4.3541°W / 31.2374; -4.3541 [36]
Eifelian 393.3 Wetteldorf Richtschnitt section,

Wetteldorf, Eifel, Germany

50°08′59″N 6°28′18″E / 50.1496°N 6.4716°E / 50.1496; 6.4716 [37]
Lower
Emsian 407.6 Zinzil'ban Gorge, Uzbekistan 39°12′00″N 67°18′20″E / 39.2000°N 67.3056°E / 39.2000; 67.3056 [38]
Pragian 410.8 Velká Chuchle quarry

Velká Chuchle, Prague, Czech Republic

50°00′53″N 14°22′21″E / 50.0147°N 14.3726°E / 50.0147; 14.3726 [39]
Lochkovian 419.2 Klonk, Prague, Czech Republic 49°51′18″N 13°47′31″E / 49.8550°N 13.7920°E / 49.8550; 13.7920 [3]

SilurianEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Přídolí 423 Požáry Section,

Řeporyje District, Prague, Czech Republic

50°01′40″N 14°19′30″E / 50.0277°N 14.3249°E / 50.0277; 14.3249 [40]
Ludlow
Ludfordian 425.6 Sunnyhill, Ludlow, England 52°21′33″N 2°46′38″W / 52.3592°N 2.7772°W / 52.3592; -2.7772 [41]
Gorstian 427.4 Pitch Coppice, Ludlow, U.K. 52°21′33″N 2°46′38″W / 52.3592°N 2.7772°W / 52.3592; -2.7772 [41]
Wenlock
Homerian 430.5 Whitwell Coppice, Homer, England 52°36′56″N 2°33′53″W / 52.6156°N 2.5647°W / 52.6156; -2.5647 [41]
Sheinwoodian 433.4 Hughley Brook, Apedale, U.K.
  • Imprecise GSSP. Will be reexamined.
  • Biologic: Currently between acritarch biozone 5 and last appearance of Pterospathodus amorphognathoides. Candidate boundaries are a conodont boundary (Ireviken datum 2) which is close to the murchisoni graptolite biozone.
52°34′52″N 2°38′20″W / 52.5811°N 2.6389°W / 52.5811; -2.6389 [3][41]
Llandovery
Telychian 438.5 Cefn-cerig Road,

Llandovery, Wales

51°58′12″N 3°47′24″W / 51.9700°N 3.7900°W / 51.9700; -3.7900 [40]
Aeronian 440.8 Trefawr Track, Llandovery, U.K. 52°01′48″N 3°42′00″W / 52.0300°N 3.7000°W / 52.0300; -3.7000 [40]
Rhuddanian 443.8 Dob's Linn, Moffat, U.K. 55°26′24″N 3°16′12″W / 55.4400°N 3.2700°W / 55.4400; -3.2700 [40]

OrdovicianEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Upper
Hirnantian 445.2 Wangjiawan section

Wangjiawan, Yichang, China

  • Biologic: First appearance of Normalograptus extraordinarius (Graptolite).
  • Climatic: Base of major positive carbon isotope excursion.
  • Climatic: Beginning of sea-level fall associated with onset of a major glaciation.
30°59′03″N 111°25′11″E / 30.9841°N 111.4197°E / 30.9841; 111.4197 [42]
Katian 453 Black Knob Ridge section,

Oklahoma, United States

34°25′50″N 96°04′29″W / 34.4305°N 96.0746°W / 34.4305; -96.0746 [43]
Sandbian 458.4 Fågelsång section

Sularp Brook, Skåne, Sweden

55°42′49″N 13°19′32″E / 55.7137°N 13.3255°E / 55.7137; 13.3255 [44]
Middle
Darriwilian 467.3 Huangnitang Section

Huangnitang Village, Changshan, Zhejiang, China

28°51′14″N 118°29′23″E / 28.8539°N 118.4897°E / 28.8539; 118.4897 [45]
Dapingian 470 Huanghuachang section

Huanghuachang, Yichang, China

30°51′38″N 111°22′26″E / 30.8605°N 111.3740°E / 30.8605; 111.3740 [46][47]
Lower
Floian 477.7 Diabasbrottet quarry,

Västergötland, Sweden

58°21′32″N 12°30′09″E / 58.3589°N 12.5024°E / 58.3589; 12.5024 [48]
Tremadocian 485.4 Greenpoint section

Green Point, Newfoundland, Canada

49°40′58″N 57°57′55″W / 49.6829°N 57.9653°W / 49.6829; -57.9653 [49]

CambrianEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Furongian
Stage 10 489.5 Candidate sections:

Candidates:

- [50]
Jiangshanian 494 Duibian B Section

Duibian, Zhejiang, China

28°48′57″N 118°36′54″E / 28.815967°N 118.614933°E / 28.815967; 118.614933 [51]
Paibian 497 Paibi section

Paibi, Hunan, China

28°23′22″N 109°31′33″E / 28.3895°N 109.5257°E / 28.3895; 109.5257 [52]
Series 3
Guzhangian 500.5 Luoyixi section

Luoyixi, Guzhang, Hunan, China

28°43′12″N 109°57′53″E / 28.7200°N 109.9647°E / 28.7200; 109.9647 [53]
Drumian 504.5 Drumian section

Wheeler Shale, Utah, U.S.A.

39°30′42″N 112°59′29″W / 39.5117°N 112.9915°W / 39.5117; -112.9915 [54]
Stage 5 509 Candidate sections: - [55]
Series 2
Stage 4 514 None - [56]
Stage 3 521 None - [57][58]
Terreneuvian
Stage 2 529 None - -
Fortunian 541 Fortune head section,

Newfoundland, Canada

47°04′34″N 55°49′52″W / 47.0762°N 55.8310°W / 47.0762; -55.8310 [59]

PrecambrianEdit

ProterozoicEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Neoproterozoic
Ediacaran 635 Enorama Creek section

Flinders Ranges, South Australia

  • Geologic: Worldwide distinct cap carbonates.
  • Isotopic: Beginning of a distinctive pattern of secular changes in carbon isotopes.
31°19′53″S 138°38′00″E / 31.3314°S 138.6334°E / -31.3314; 138.6334 [60]
Cryogenian 720 Defined chronometrically now. GSSP is in progress. - - [61]
Tonian 1000 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Mesoproterozoic
Stenian 1200 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Ectasian 1400 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Calymmian 1600 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Paleoproterozoic
Statherian 1800 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Orosirian 2050 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Rhyacian 2300 Defined chronometrically - - [61]
Siderian 2500 Defined chronometrically - - [61]

ArcheanEdit

Epoch Stage Age (mya) Status GSSP location Defining markers Geographic Coordinates References
Neoarchean 2800
Mesoarchean 3200
Paleoarchean 3600
Eoarchean 4000
Hadean 4567

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Walker, Mike; Johnsen, Sigfus; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Popp, Trevor; Steffensen, Jørgen-Peder; Gibbard, Phil; Hoek, Wim; Lowe, John; Andrews, John; Björck, Svante; Cwynar, Les C.; Hughen, Konrad; Kershaw, Peter; Kromer, Bernd; Litt, Thomas; Lowe, David J.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Newnham, Rewi; Schwander, Jakob (1 January 2009). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records". Journal of Quaternary Science. 24 (1): 3–17. Bibcode:2009JQS....24....3W. doi:10.1002/jqs.1227.
  2. ^ Litt, Thomas; Gibbard, Philip (2008). "Definition of a Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Upper (Late) Pleistocene Subseries (Quaternary System/Period)". Episodes. 31 (2): 260–263. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2008/v31i2/015.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point". International Commission of Stratigraphy. Archived from the original on 15 November 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  4. ^ Aguirre, E; G. Pasini (1985). "The Pliocene - Pleistocene Boundary" (PDF). Episodes. 8 (2): 116–120. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/1985/v8i2/009. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  5. ^ Rio, Domenico; R. Sprovieri; D. Castradori; E. Di Stefano (1998). "The Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): A new unit of the global standard chronostratigraphic scale" (PDF). Episodes. 21 (2): 82–87. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/1998/v21i2/002. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  6. ^ Castradori, D.; D. Rio; F. J. Hilgen; L. J. Lourens (1998). "The Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Piacenzian Stage (Middle Pliocene)" (PDF). Episodes. 21 (2): 88–93. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/1998/v21i2/003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  7. ^ Couvering, John A. Van; Castradori, Davide; Maria Bianca Cita; Frederik J. Hilgen; Rio, Domenico (2000). "The base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series" (PDF). Episodes. 23 (3): 179. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2000/v23i3/005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
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  10. ^ Hilgen, F. J.; H. A. Abels; S. Iaccarino; W. Krijgsman; I. Raffi; R. Sprovieri; E. Turco; W. J. Zachariasse (2009). "The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Serravallian Stage (Middle Miocene)" (PDF). Episodes. 32 (3): 152–166. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2009/v32i3/002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
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