Larong language

Larong or Zlarong (autonym: la˥ rɔ˥; Tibetan name: la˥ ruŋ˥) is a recently documented Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Zogang and Markam counties of southeastern Chamdo, Tibet. It was recently documented by Zhao (2018)[2] and Suzuki & Nyima (2018).[3] Zhao (2018) tentatively classifies Zlarong as a Qiangic language.

Larong
Zlarong
Native toChina
RegionZogang County, Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologzlar1234[1]

NamesEdit

Larong is referred to by the Changdu Gazetteer (2005)[4] as Rumei 如美话, as it is spoken in Rumei Township 如美乡, Markam County.

Zhao (2018) reports the autonym la˥rɔ˥ and the Tibetan exonym la˥ruŋ˥ for the speakers. Their language is referred to as mə˥kə˥ by speakers, and by Tibetans as ma˧˩ke˥˧ (Zhao 2018).

Nyina & Suzuki (2019) report the autonym m̥a55, which is identical to the Drag-yab autonym also reported by them (m̥a55 ~ ma55).[5]

LocationsEdit

Larong villages by township:[5]

Township, County Villages
Renguo Township 仁果乡, Dzogang Dongba 东坝村, Deqinggang, Zuoke 左科村, Xindi 新德村, Shalong 沙龙村 (Sano), Paba 坝巴村, Jiaka 加卡村, Languo 兰果村, Woba, etc.
Cuowa Township 措瓦乡, Markham Tongsha 通沙村, Wuba, Zhongri 仲日村, Kuzi 库孜村, Taya 它亚村, Dangreqiaya, etc.
Rumei Town 如美镇, Markham Rumei 如美村, Zhuka 竹卡村, Lawu 拉乌村, and Dari 达日村
Qudeng Township 曲登乡, Markham Qudeng 曲登村 and Dengba 登巴村

DialectsEdit

Larong is spoken in four townships in the Larong valley, along the Lancang River (also known as the Zla chu or Lachu River in Tibetan). The four townships are:[5]

  • Ringo (Chinese: Renguo)
  • Tshonga (Chinese: Cuowa): Larong villages are Tshonga, Rushul, Thosa, Thaya, Drori, and Kuze
  • Rongsmad (Chinese: Rumei): Larong speakers in entire town
  • Choedan (Chinese: Qudeng): Dempa (Chinese: Dengba) and Choedan village clusters, both Larong-speaking

The dialect spoken in Ringo and Tshonga differs from that of the dialect spoken in Rongsmad and Choedan.[5]

ClassificationEdit

Suzuki & Nyima (2018)[3] note that Zlarong (Larong) is closely related to two other recently documented Sino-Tibetan languages of Chamdo, eastern Tibet, namely Lamo and Drag-yab (spoken in southern Zhag'yab County).

VocabularyEdit

Zhao (2018: 1-3) lists the following Zlarong words.

Gloss Zlarong
name mɛ˥
medicine rɛ˥˧
cloth rɛ˩˧
ice ndza˥
you ȵo˥˧
horse rɛ˥˧
road rə˩˧
blood sɛ˥˧
meat tɕʰi˩˧
urine pi˩˧
snow wi˩˧
water tɕi˥
smoke mu˥kʰu˥
wind ma˧˩mi˥
cloud ndə˥rə˥
belly wu˩˧
white tʂʰɔ̃˧˩tʂʰɔ̃˥˧
black ȵi˧˩ȵi˥˧
red nɛ˥nɛ˥˧
yellow nɛ˥nɛ˥˧
short wɛ˧˩wɛ˥˧
wide pʰa˥pʰa˥˧
thick mbo˧˩mbo˥
fish ȵɛ˩˧
sand tɕy˧˩mɛ˥˧
doctor mɛ̃˥pɛ˥˧
ground sɛ˥˧
zero lɛ˥kɔ˥
one ti˩˧kʰi˥
two nɛ˧˩ji˥˧
three sɔ̃˩˧
four ɣə˩˧
five ŋa˩˧
six tɕʰu˩˧
seven ȵɛ˩˧
eight ɕɛ˩˧
nine ŋgo˩˧
ten a˥kõ˥

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zlarong". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Zhao, Haoliang. 2018. A brief introduction to Zlarong, a newly recognized language in Mdzo sgang, TAR. Proceedings of the 51st International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics (2018). Kyoto: Kyoto University.
  3. ^ a b c d Suzuki, Hiroyuki and Tashi Nyima. 2018. Historical relationship among three non-Tibetic languages in Chamdo, TAR. Proceedings of the 51st International Conference on Sino-Tibetan Languages and Linguistics (2018). Kyoto: Kyoto University.
  4. ^ Xizang Changdu Diqu Difangzhi Bianzuan Weiyuanhui 西藏昌都地区地方志编纂委员会 (2005). Changdu Diquzhi 昌都地区志. Beijing: Fangzhi Chubanshe 方志出版社.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Tashi Nyima; Hiroyuki Suzuki (2019). "Newly recognised languages in Chamdo: Geography, culture, history, and language". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 42 (1): 38–81. doi:10.1075/ltba.18004.nyi. ISSN 0731-3500.