Age (Ma)
Quaternary Pleistocene Gelasian younger
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzian 2.58 3.600
Zanclean 3.600 5.333
Miocene Messinian 5.333 7.246
Tortonian 7.246 11.63
Serravallian 11.63 13.82
Langhian 13.82 15.97
Burdigalian 15.97 20.44
Aquitanian 20.44 23.03
Paleogene Oligocene Chattian older
Subdivision of the Neogene Period
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

The Langhian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, an age or stage in the middle Miocene epoch/series. It spans the time between 15.97 ± 0.05 Ma and 13.65 ± 0.05 Ma (million years ago) during the Middle Miocene.[2]

The Langhian was a continuing warming period[3] defined by Lorenzo Pareto in 1865, it was originally established in the Langhe area north of Ceva in northern Italy, hence the name. The Langhian is preceded by the Burdigalian and followed by the Serravallian stage.

Stratigraphic definitionEdit

The base of the Langhian is defined by the first appearance of foraminifer species Praeorbulina glomerosa and is also coeval with the top of magnetic chronozone C5Cn.1n. A GSSP for the Langhian stage was not yet established in 2009.

The top of the Langhian stage (the base of the Serravallian stage) is at the first occurrence of fossils of the nanoplankton species Sphenolithus heteromorphus and is located in magnetic chronozone C5ABr.

The Langhian is coeval with the Orleanian and Astaracian European Land Mammal Mega Zones (more precisely: with biozones MN5 and MN6, MN6 starts just below the Langhian-Serravallian boundary[4]), with the upper Hemingfordian to mid-Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages,[2] with mid-Relizian to Luisian Californian regional stages (the Luisian extends barely into the early Serravallian[2]), with the early-mid Badenian Paratethys stage of Central and eastern Europe,[4] with the Tozawan stage in Japan (which runs barely into the early Serravallian[2]), with the late Batesfordian through Balcombian to early Bairnsdalian Australian stages[2] and with the mid-Cliffdenian to mid-Lillburnian New Zealand stages.[2]



Cartilaginous fishEdit

Sharks, rays, skates and relatives

Grizzled Giant Squirrel, Ratufa macroura. Its genus was probably already distinct in the Langhian.


See alsoEdit



  1. ^ "ICS Timescale Chart".
  2. ^ a b c d e f GeoWhen (2007)
  3. ^ Edward Petuch, Ph.D. Florida Atlantic University, Department of Geosciences."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-20. Retrieved 2010-05-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), Author, Cenozoic Seas: The View From Eastern North America. ISBN 0-8493-1632-4
  4. ^ a b Palaeos (2003)


  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Pareto, L.; 1865: Note sur les subdivisions que l'on pourrait établir dans les terrains tertaires de l'Apennin septentrional, Bulletin de la Societé Géologique de France 2(22), p. 210-277. PDF (in French)

External linksEdit