Lander, Wyoming

Lander is a city in Wyoming, United States, and the county seat of Fremont County. Named for transcontinental explorer Frederick W. Lander,[7] Lander is located in central Wyoming, along the Middle Fork of the Popo Agie River. A tourism center with several guest ranches nearby, Lander is located just south of the Wind River Indian Reservation. The population was 7,487 at the 2010 census.

Lander
City
Downtown Lander, 2008
Downtown Lander, 2008
Official seal of Lander
Seal
Motto(s): 
"Real. Western. Spirit."
Location of Lander in Fremont County, Wyoming.
Location of Lander in Fremont County, Wyoming.
Lander is located in the United States
Lander
Lander
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 42°49′59″N 108°43′57″W / 42.83306°N 108.73250°W / 42.83306; -108.73250Coordinates: 42°49′59″N 108°43′57″W / 42.83306°N 108.73250°W / 42.83306; -108.73250[1]
CountryUnited States
StateWyoming
CountyFremont
Area
 • Total9.38 sq mi (24.30 km2)
 • Land9.38 sq mi (24.30 km2)
 • Water0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation
5,358 ft (1,633 m)
Population
 • Total7,487
 • Estimate 
(2019)[4]
7,458
 • Density794.93/sq mi (306.92/km2)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain (MST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP code
82520
Area code(s)307
FIPS code56-44760[5]
GNIS feature ID1609112[6]
Websitewww.landerwyoming.org

HistoryEdit

Lander was known as Pushroot, Old Camp Brown,[8] and Fort Augur prior to its current name. The name Lander was chosen in 1875 in reference to General Frederick W. Lander, a transcontinental explorer who surveyed the Oregon Trail's Lander Cutoff.[9]

Nineteenth centuryEdit

The townsite was part of the Wind River Indian Reservation under the Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868 which set the reservation border near the Sweetwater River.[10] By the early 1870s, however, rising tensions between white settlers illegally living on the reservation, the Shoshone and other tribes were resulting in isolated conflicts.[10][11] The U.S. Government had also learned most of the desirable land east of the Wind River Mountains was on the reservation.[10] As a result, in 1872 Congress authorized a delegation to meet with the elders of the Shoshone, including Chief Washakie to negotiate the trade or purchase of lands south of the North Fork of the Popo Agie River.[10] After several meetings at Camp Stambaugh in the summer of 1872, the Shoshone agreed to sell the southern part of the reservation to the U.S. for $25,000, $5,000 in stock cattle and a five-year annual salary of $500 to Chief Washakie.[10] The next year in 1873 The Jones Expedition further explored and documented the area that would eventually become Lander while finding a route to Yellowstone National Park.[12] The expedition documents everything from hot springs to oil reserves and hieroglyphs in the area.[12] Several miles southeast of town near present-day U.S. Route 287 is Dallas Dome, the site of Wyoming's first oil well completed in 1883.[13] The town was incorporated on July 17, 1890.[14]

Twentieth centuryEdit

On October 1, 1906, Lander became the westward terminus of the "Cowboy Line" of the Chicago and North Western Railway, thus originating the slogan "where rails end and trails begin." Originally intended to be a transcontinental mainline to Coos Bay, Oregon, or Eureka, California, the line never went further west, and service to Lander was abandoned in 1972.[15] With the arrival of the railroad, Lander's population more than doubled between 1900 and 1910.[16] At the turn of the century the town and surrounding valley were promising places for agricultural development due to the area's climate and potential for irrigation.[17] At the time there were several new ventures around the town producing wool, wheat, oats, alfalfa, hay, vegetables, small fruit and in some cases orchards.[17] However, a report from the State of Wyoming published in 1907 says agriculture around Lander only supplies local demand.[17] In 1962 U.S. Steel opened the Atlantic City iron ore and mill, 35 miles south of Lander near Atlantic City[18] The mine was a significant employer in Lander, but by 1983 it ceased operations.[18]

Twenty First CenturyEdit

Lander continues to evolve and faces similar issues as many small towns in the Western U.S. Education and outdoor recreation play a large role in the town's economy with the Wyoming Catholic College and National Outdoor Leadership School both based in Lander. Though agriculture and resource extraction no longer play a large role in the town's economy, its population has continued to grow since the year 2000.[19][20]

EconomyEdit

 
Suburban Lander

Lander's economy is based on an array of industries and like Wyoming as a whole is supported by substantial tourism.[21] Outdoor recreation along with healthcare, education, construction and retail sales make up much of the economy.[19] The tourism season is primarily during summer months and though Lander and Fremont County are not near any major Interstate highway, the county generates significant income from travel related taxes.[22]

Present day Lander is home to numerous state and federal government offices, including the U.S. Forest Service (Washakie Ranger District, Shoshone National Forest),[23] the Bureau of Land Management (Lander Field Office),[24] the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,[25] and a Resident Agency of the Denver Field Office of the FBI, as well as the Wyoming Life Resource Center[26] and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality.[27] A major bronze foundry, Eagle Bronze, is located in Lander,[28] as is the headquarters of the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) [29] and other environment and land-related non profit organizations including offices of the Wyoming Outdoor Council, the Wyoming office of The Nature Conservancy, the Wyoming Wildlife Federation, and Wyoming Catholic College.

2017 Economic sector statisticsEdit

Sectors of the Lander Economy in 2017[19]
Occupation Percent of Workforce
Office & Administrative Support Occupations 13%
Education, Training, & Library Occupations 12%
Health Diagnosing & Treating Practitioners & Other Technical Occupations 7%
Construction & Extraction Occupations 7%
Management Occupations 7%
Installation, Maintenance, & Repair Occupations 6%
Sales & Related Occupations 6%
Personal Care & Service Occupations 5%
Food Preparation & Serving Related Occupations 5%
Building & Grounds Cleaning & Maintenance Occupations 4%
Community & Social Service Occupations 3%
Healthcare Support Occupations 3%
Transportation Occupations 3%
Production Occupations 3%
Life, Physical, & Social Science Occupations 2%
Material Moving Occupations 2%
Business & Financial Operations Occupations 2%
Health Technologists & Technicians 1%
Architecture & Engineering Occupations 1%
Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, & Media Occupations 1%
Law Enforcement Workers Including Supervisors 1%
Legal Occupations 1%
Fire Fighting & Prevention, & Other Protective Service Workers Including Supervisors 1%
Farming, Fishing, & Forestry Occupations 1%

Arts and cultureEdit

The Lander Art Center downtown displays rotating art exhibits, holds biannual art fairs, and hosts varying art classes.[30] The work of William Shakespeare is performed by the touring Wyoming Shakespeare Festival Company, a non-profit organization based out of Lander. The Lander Community Concerts Association has brought in various performing artists since 1947.[31] Lander's local library is the main branch of the Fremont County Library System,[32] the original local Carnegie library still stands as part of the current building.

In the early 1990s, the St. Louis based chamber-pop band, Lydia's Trumpet, recorded their song, "Lander" on the cassette release entitled: Valentine Waffle. The song is based on the city, its founder, and a nostalgic summer road trip there.

The town is one of the headquarters of Asthmatic Kitty Records, founded by Sufjan Stevens.

Annual cultural eventsEdit

The Pioneer Days Parade and Rodeo takes place on July 3 and 4 every year.

 
Lander's Fourth of July Parade in 1962.

The Lander Brew Festival features samples from Rocky Mountain-area breweries and has been held since 2002.[33]

Lander is also home to the Wyoming State Winter Fair.[34] In addition to Livestock showings, there are also plenty of rodeo activities to see or participate in.

Other annual events include the International Climbers Festival, and the Annual One Shot Antelope Hunt.[35]

AttractionsEdit

 
Lander City Park located on the south end of town provides camping space and hosts a number of events in summer.

Outdoor attractions near Lander include Sinks Canyon State Park, Worthen Meadow Reservoir, Shoshone National Forest, the Wind River Mountains, and the Red Desert. Additionally, Lander is home to a number of museums,[36] including the Fremont County Pioneer Museum, which focuses on the history of the Lander area; the Museum of the American West, which maintains a complex of historic structures; the Sacagawea Cemetery, the cemetery is located near Fort Washakie, 15 miles north of Lander on the Wind River Indian Reservation; the Lander Children's Museum, with hands-on exhibits; and the Evans Dahl Memorial Museum, dedicated to the Annual One Shot Antelope Hunt.[37]

GovernmentEdit

Lander's city government is made up of an elected mayor, six-member city council, city clerk, treasurer and other departments, committees and appointed boards.[38] City elections are on a non-partisan basis with council members elected based on wards where they live with two council members elected for each ward.[38]

Since 1998, Lander and Fremont County have been represented in the Wyoming State Senate by economist/businessman Cale Case, a Republican.

EducationEdit

Public educationEdit

Public education in the city of Lander is provided by Fremont County School District #1. Lander Valley High School is the main high school. It is located just west of Main Street after the demolition of the historic high school. Despite attempts to preserve the school the land was sold and is now a business complex. Pathfinder is the alternative high school.

National Outdoor Leadership SchoolEdit

The National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) was founded in Lander and is headquartered in the city. Its Rocky Mountain branch operates out of Lander. NOLS operates the Noble Hotel on Main Street for its instructors, students and alumni.

Wyoming Catholic CollegeEdit

In 2007, Wyoming Catholic College, a four-year, coeducational, private college was founded in Lander. The college was only the second four-year brick and mortar institution of higher education ever in Wyoming. It was designed to give students a general liberal arts education via a Great Books curriculum, while allowing them to develop morally and spiritually in a small Catholic community. It uses an Outdoor Adventure Program to take students into the nearby Wind River Mountains to teach leadership, decision-making skills, and to ignite their imaginations. The college received its Apostolic Blessing in 2005 from Most Reverend David L. Ricken, DD, JCL, the Bishop of Cheyenne. As of 2019, Wyoming Catholic College received full accreditation by the Higher Learning Commission.

InfrastructureEdit

Health careEdit

The Wyoming Department of Health Wyoming Life Resource Center (WLRC), originally the Wyoming State Training School (WSTS), a residential facility for physically and mentally disabled people, is located in Lander.[39][40] The facility was operated by the Wyoming Board of Charities and Reform until that agency was dissolved as a result of a state constitutional amendment passed in November 1990.[41]

Postal serviceEdit

The United States Postal Service operates the Lander Post Office.[42]

AirportsEdit

There is a small general aviation airport in Lander, called Hunt Field. Scheduled passenger airline service is available via the nearby Riverton Regional Airport located near Riverton, Wyoming.

Law EnforcementEdit

The law enforcement within Lander consists of the Lander Police Department.

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.67 square miles (12.10 km2), all of it land.[43]

Sinks Canyon in the Wind River Range is close to Lander.[44]

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880193
1890525172.0%
190073740.4%
19101,812145.9%
19202,13317.7%
19301,826−14.4%
19402,59442.1%
19503,34929.1%
19604,18224.9%
19707,12570.4%
19807,86710.4%
19907,023−10.7%
20006,867−2.2%
20107,4879.0%
Est. 20197,458[4]−0.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[16]

2010 censusEdit

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 7,487 people, 3,161 households, and 1,932 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,603.2 inhabitants per square mile (619.0/km2). There were 3,385 housing units at an average density of 724.8 per square mile (279.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.2% African American, 7.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 1.0% from other races, and 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population.

There were 3,161 households, of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.2% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 38.9% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.85.

The median age in the city was 40.3 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.3% were from 25 to 44; 27.3% were from 45 to 64; and 17% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female.

2000 censusEdit

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 6,867 people, 2,794 households, and 1,824 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,554.0 people per square mile (599.9/km2). There were 3,036 housing units at an average density of 687.0 per square mile (265.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 90.81% White, 0.15% African American, 5.99% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.70% from other races, and 2.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.48% of the population.

There were 2,794 households, out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.7% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,397, and the median income for a family was $41,958. Males had a median income of $30,602 versus $20,916 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,389. About 9.9% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.

ClimateEdit

As with much of the state, Lander experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with cold, dry winters and hot, wetter summers. Lander has been known to go from one extreme to another in the course of a day.

Climate data for Lander, Wyoming (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1891–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 64
(18)
68
(20)
76
(24)
83
(28)
93
(34)
100
(38)
102
(39)
101
(38)
94
(34)
86
(30)
72
(22)
65
(18)
102
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 33.1
(0.6)
36.5
(2.5)
47.4
(8.6)
56.4
(13.6)
66.5
(19.2)
77.5
(25.3)
86.8
(30.4)
85.0
(29.4)
72.8
(22.7)
58.5
(14.7)
42.8
(6.0)
31.8
(−0.1)
57.9
(14.4)
Average low °F (°C) 10.2
(−12.1)
13.9
(−10.1)
23.6
(−4.7)
31.3
(−0.4)
40.1
(4.5)
48.4
(9.1)
55.6
(13.1)
54.3
(12.4)
44.4
(6.9)
32.7
(0.4)
19.7
(−6.8)
9.6
(−12.4)
32.0
(0.0)
Record low °F (°C) −39
(−39)
−40
(−40)
−24
(−31)
−11
(−24)
13
(−11)
25
(−4)
32
(0)
23
(−5)
7
(−14)
−14
(−26)
−31
(−35)
−40
(−40)
−40
(−40)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.41
(10)
0.58
(15)
1.16
(29)
1.87
(47)
2.20
(56)
1.28
(33)
0.78
(20)
0.61
(15)
1.05
(27)
1.29
(33)
0.86
(22)
0.58
(15)
12.65
(321)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.6
(19)
10.3
(26)
16.1
(41)
16.8
(43)
4.8
(12)
0.1
(0.25)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2.7
(6.9)
9.8
(25)
13.1
(33)
10.1
(26)
91.4
(232.15)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.9 5.1 6.7 8.0 8.2 6.3 5.9 5.4 6.0 5.6 5.2 4.5 70.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.3 5.2 5.8 5.2 1.6 0.1 0 0 0.9 3.5 5.0 5.1 36.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.2 203.4 257.3 270.0 294.5 330.0 347.2 328.6 273.0 232.5 174.0 173.6 3,076.3
Percent possible sunshine 66.3 68.6 69.8 67.2 64.9 71.7 74.5 76.0 72.7 67.8 59.6 62.1 68.4
Source: NOAA,[45] HKO (sun only, 1961−1990)[46]

Notable peopleEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  2. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
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  5. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  8. ^ Stamm, Henry (1999). People of the Wind River : the Eastern Shoshones, 1825-1900. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press. p. 195. ISBN 0806131756.
  9. ^ Thiesse, Carol; Foutz, Traci; Spriggs, Joe (2010). Lander Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 9781439625309.
  10. ^ a b c d e Shoshone_Report (Report). U.S. Government Printing Office. 1872.
  11. ^ Stamm, Henry (1999). People of the Wind River : the Eastern Shoshones, 1825-1900. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press. p. 79. ISBN 0806131756.
  12. ^ a b Jones, William A. (1875). Report Upon the Reconnaissance of Northwestern Wyoming, Including Yellowstone National Park, Made in the Summer of 1873. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 1. ISBN 0331948184.
  13. ^ "The Oil Business in Wyoming". Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  14. ^ "Incorporation Election". The Fremont Clipper. Lander, Wyoming. July 18, 1890. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  15. ^ "Timeline". thecbandqinwyoming.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  16. ^ a b "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  17. ^ a b c State of Wyoming (1907). The State of Wyoming a book of reliable information (Report). The S. A. Bristol co. printers and binders. p. 23. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  18. ^ a b Marjane Ambler (March 18, 1985). "A busted Wyoming mining town remains haunted by 550 lost jobs". High Country News. Lander, Wyoming. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  19. ^ a b c "Lander city, Wyoming". Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  20. ^ STORROW, BENJAMIN (November 18, 2014). "Lander, a mining town turned outdoor recreation hotbed, contemplates the revival of an old iron mine". Billings Gazette. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  21. ^ Reynolds, Nick (May 6, 2019). "Wyoming's tourism industry accounted for $3.8 billion in spending last year". Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  22. ^ Dean Runyan Associates (April 2018). The Economic Impact of Travel on Wyoming (Report). Wyoming Office of Tourism. p. 28. Retrieved October 16, 2019.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  23. ^ "USFS Lander Office". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  24. ^ "BLM Lander Office". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  25. ^ "FWS Lander Office". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  26. ^ "WLRC Lander Office". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  27. ^ "WDEQ Lander Office". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  28. ^ "Eagle Bronze". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  29. ^ "NOLS about US". Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  30. ^ "About the Lander Art Center". Lander Art Center. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  31. ^ "Arts/Music/Theatre". Lander Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  32. ^ "Fremont County Library System". Fremont County Library System. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  33. ^ "Fremont Toyota LANDER BREWFEST | REAL * WESTERN * BEER". landerbrewfest.com. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  34. ^ "Wyoming State Winter Fair Home Page". wyomingstatewinterfair.org. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  35. ^ "Festivals & Entertainment". Lander Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  36. ^ "Historic Sites | Lander Chamber". landerchamber.org. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  37. ^ "Museums & Historic Sites". Lander Chamber of Commerce. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  38. ^ a b City of Lander (2020). City of Lander Code Book (PDF). City of Lander, Wy. p. 181.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  39. ^ "WDH Who We Are - Wyoming Life Resource Center[permanent dead link]." Wyoming Department of Health. Retrieved on December 12, 2010.
  40. ^ "Lander city, Wyoming[permanent dead link]." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on December 12, 2010.
  41. ^ "About the Department of Corrections." Wyoming Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 22, 2010.
  42. ^ "Post Office Location - LANDER Archived 2011-01-06 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 12, 2010.
  43. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  44. ^ Osthoff, Rich (1999). Fly-Fishing the Rocky Mountain Backcountry. Stackpole Books. ISBN 9780811727662.
  45. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 2, 2013.
  46. ^ "Climatological Normals of Lander". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
  47. ^ Cultural Trust Fund Newsletter

External linksEdit