Landau–Squire jet

In fluid dynamics, Landau–Squire jet or Submerged Landau jet describes a round submerged jet issued from a point source into an infinite fluid medium of the same kind. This is an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, which was first discovered by Lev Landau in 1944[1][2] and later separately by Herbert Squire in 1951.[3]

Mathematical descriptionEdit

Landau-Squire jet streamlines for c=0.01
Landau-Squire jet streamlines for c=0.1
Landau-Squire jet streamlines for c=1

The problem is described in spherical coordinates   with velocity components  . The flow is axisymmetric, i.e., independent of  . Then the continuity equation and the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations reduce to




A self-similar description is available for the solution in the following form,


Substituting the above self-similar form into the governing equations and using the boundary conditions   at infinity, one finds the form for pressure as


where   is a constant. Using this pressure, we find again from the momentum equation,


Replacing   by   as independent variable, the velocities become


(for brevity, the same symbol is used for   and   even though they are functionally the same, but takes different numerical values) and the equation becomes


After two integrations, the equation reduces to


where   and   are constants of integration. The above equation is a Riccati equation. After some calculation, the general solution can be shown to be


where   are constants. The physically relevant solution to the jet corresponds to the case   (Equivalently, we say that  , so that the solution is free from singularities on the axis of symmetry, except at the origin).[4] Therefore,


The function   is related to the stream function as  , thus contours of   for different values of   provides the streamlines. The constant   describes the force at the origin acting in the direction of the jet (this force is equal to the rate of momentum transfer across any sphere around the origin plus the force in the jet direction exerted by the sphere due to pressure and viscous forces), the exact relation between the force and the constant is given by


The solution describes a jet of fluid moving away from the origin rapidly and entraining the slowly moving fluid outside of the jet. The edge of the jet can be defined as the location where the streamlines are at minimum distance from the axis, i.e.,e the edge is given by


Therefore, the force can be expressed alternatively using this semi-angle of the conical-boundary of the jet,


When the force becomes large, the semi-angle of the jet becomes small, in which case,


and the solution inside and outside of the jet become


The jet in this limiting case is called the Schlichting jet. On the other extreme, when the force is small,


the semi-angle approaches 90 degree (no inside and outside region, the whole domain is considered as single region), the solution itself goes to


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Landau, L. D. (1944). New exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. In Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (Vol. 44, pp. 311-314).
  2. ^ Ter Haar, Dirk, ed. Collected papers of LD Landau. Elsevier, 2013.
  3. ^ Squire, H. B. (1951). The round laminar jet. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 4(3), 321-329.
  4. ^ Batchelor, G. K. (2000). An introduction to fluid dynamics. Cambridge university press.