In solid-state physics, the Landau–Lifshitz equation (LLE), named for Lev Landau and Evgeny Lifshitz, is a partial differential equation describing time evolution of magnetism in solids, depending on 1 time variable and 1, 2, or 3 space variables.


Landau–Lifshitz equationEdit

The LLE describes an anisotropic magnet. The equation is described in (Faddeev & Takhtajan 2007, chapter 8) as follows: It is an equation for a vector field S, in other words a function on R1+n taking values in R3. The equation depends on a fixed symmetric 3 by 3 matrix J, usually assumed to be diagonal; that is,  . It is given by Hamilton's equation of motion for the Hamiltonian


(where J(S) is the quadratic form of J applied to the vector S) which is


In 1+1 dimensions this equation is


In 2+1 dimensions this equation takes the form


which is the (2+1)-dimensional LLE. For the (3+1)-dimensional case LLE looks like


Integrable reductionsEdit

In general case LLE (2) is nonintegrable. But it admits the two integrable reductions:

a) in the 1+1 dimensions, that is Eq. (3), it is integrable
b) when  . In this case the (1+1)-dimensional LLE (3) turns into the continuous classical Heisenberg ferromagnet equation (see e.g. Heisenberg model (classical)) which is already integrable.

See alsoEdit


  • Faddeev, Ludwig D.; Takhtajan, Leon A. (2007), Hamiltonian methods in the theory of solitons, Classics in Mathematics, Berlin: Springer, pp. x+592, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69969-9, ISBN 978-3-540-69843-2, MR 2348643
  • Guo, Boling; Ding, Shijin (2008), Landau-Lifshitz Equations, Frontiers of Research With the Chinese Academy of Sciences, World Scientific Publishing Company, ISBN 978-981-277-875-8
  • Kosevich A.M., Ivanov B.A., Kovalev A.S. Nonlinear magnetization waves. Dynamical and topological solitons. – Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1988. – 192 p.