Lamo language

Lamo (also called mBo; IPA: mbo˥; ’Bo skad) is an unclassified Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Tshawarong, Zogang County, Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet. It was recently documented by Suzuki & Nyima (2016). sMad skad, a closely related language variety, is also spoken in Tshawarong.

Lamo
mBo
’Bo skad
Native toChina
RegionZogang County, Chamdo Prefecture, Tibet
Sino-Tibetan
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologlamo1245[1]

Suzuki & Nyima (2018) document the Kyilwa 格瓦 variety of Dongba Township 东坝乡.

NamesEdit

Lamo is referred to by the Changdu Gazetteer (2005: 819)[2] as Dongba 东坝话, as it is spoken in Dongba Township 东坝乡, Zogang County.

Khams Tibetan people refer to Lamo speakers as mBo or mBo mi (’bo mi). Traditionally, Lamo speakers also referred to themselves as Po mi, although this autonym is not known by all Lamo speakers. They refer to their own language as Lamo. Some Lamo speakers also refer to their town language as ˊmbo hkə.[3]

Lamo autonyms by location (gSerkhu, discussed below, is a minor mutually intelligible variety):[3]

Language Autonym Location
Lamo [la55 mo55] Dongba Township 东坝乡, Dzogang County
Lamo [la55 mɛ53] Zhonglinka Township 中林卡乡, Dzogang County
gSerkhu [sə55 khu55] Shangchayu Town 下察隅镇, Dzayul County

DemographicsEdit

Lamo is spoken by about 4,000 speakers, with 2,000 in Dongba Township, and 2,000 in Zhonglinka Township. Both townships are located along the Nujiang River in Dzogang County.[3]

Lamo and gSerkhu villages by township:[3]

Language Township, County Villages
Lamo Dongba Township 东坝乡, Dzogang Junyong 军拥村, Gewa 格瓦村, Puka 普卡村, Bazuo, and Jiaba 加坝村
Lamo Zhonglinka Township 中林卡乡, Dzogang Shizika 十字卡村, Luoba 洛巴村, Ruoba 若巴村, Wadui 瓦堆村, and Wamei 瓦美村
gSerkhu Shangchayu Town 上察隅镇, Dzayul Benzhui 本堆村, Muzong, Cuixi 翠兴村, and Sangba

DialectsEdit

There are two dialects:[3]

  • Lamo (Tibetan name for the language: mBo-skad)
  • Lamei

There are 5 Lamo-speaking village clusters in Dongba Township, which are Kyilwa, Phurkha, Gewa, Gyastod and Gyasmed. The remaining village clusters, out of a total of 13 village clusters in Dongba Township, are Khams Tibetan-speaking villages.[3]

Lamei is spoken by 1,500 to 2,000 people in 5 village clusters in is spoken in Zhonglinka Township. Sitrikhapa, Wangtod, Wangmed, Rongba, and Laba village clusters have only Lamei speakers. Woba, Pula, and Zuoshod village clusters have both Lamei and Khams Tibetan speakers.[3]

gSerkhu is a variety of Lamo, with which it is mutually intelligible. Khams Tibetan speakers refer to the language as Sikhu. gSerkhu is spoken by about 400 people (80 households) in 4 villages of the gSerkhu Valley, which are Benzhui, Muzong, Cuixi, and Sangba, all located in Shangchayu Town, Dzayul County. Dzayul County also has Khams Tibetan speakers who had originally migrated from the Lamo-speaking area of Dongba Township, Dzogang County.[3]

ClassificationEdit

Suzuki & Nyima (2016, 2018) suggest that Lamo may be a Qiangic language. Guillaume Jacques (2016)[4] suggests that mBo is a rGyalrongic language belonging to the Stau-Khroskyabs (Horpa-Lavrung) branch.

Suzuki & Nyima (2018) note that Lamo is closely related to two other recently documented languages of Chamdo, eastern Tibet, namely Larong (spoken in the Lancang River valley of Zogang County and Markam County) and Drag-yab (spoken in southern Zhag'yab County).

Lamo compared with Written Tibetan and Proto-Tibeto-Burman (Nyima & Suzuki 2019):[3]

Gloss Lamo Written Tibetan Proto-Tibeto-Burman
one ˉdə gcig *tyak ~ *g-t(y)ik
four ˉlə̰ bzhi *b-ləy
seven ˉn̥i bdun *s-ni-s
ten ˉʁɑ bcu *ts(y)i(y) ~ *tsyay
you ˉnə khyod *na-ŋ
horse ˊre rta *s/m-rang
blood ˉse khrag *s-hywəy-t
urine ˉqo gcin *kum

LexiconEdit

Suzuki & Nyima (2016) list the following Lamo words.

Gloss Lamo
one də˥
two na˥
three sɔ̰̃˩
four lə̰˥
five ɴʷɚ̰˥
six tɕi˩
seven n̥i˥
eight ʱdʑə˥
nine ᵑɡo˥
ten ʁɑ˥
hundred ʱdʑi˥
1.SG pronoun ŋa˥
2.SG pronoun nə˥
3.SG pronoun kə˥
blood sa˥
urine qo˩
meat tɕʰi˥
iron ʰtɕɑ˥
needle ʁɑ˩
fish ɲɛ˩ (Tibetic loan)
pig pʰo˥ ɦu
horse re˩
sky nɑ˥
land sɛ˥ tɕʰɛ (Tibetic loan)
sand ɕe˩ mɛ (Tibetic loan)
hillside ɴɢa˥
snow jʉ˥
road tɕɯ˥
water tɕə˥
eat wə˥-
sleep nə˥-

MorphologyEdit

Directional prefixes in Lamo:[3]

  • n-: ˊnə- sə̰ ‘kill’, ˊna-qɑ ‘chew’, ˊnu-pho ‘drop’
  • th-: ˊtho-xɯ ‘go’, ˊtho-ndzo ‘gather’, ˊthe-ji ‘sell’
  • k-: ˊka-tɵ ‘buy’, ˉko’-ɕa ‘break into pieces’
  • t-: ˉtu’-rɑ ‘receive’, ˉtə’-tɕa ‘wear (a hat)’
  • l-: ˉla’-mbo ‘overthrow’
  • w-: ˉwo’-ɕa ‘tear up’, ˊwu-ndzə ‘eat’

Directional prefixes with le ‘come’ in Lamo:[3]

  • ˊne-le: ‘come downwards/come down’
  • ˊthe-le: ‘(he) has arrived’ (perfect/aorist only)
  • k-: (does not occur)
  • ˊtə’-le: ‘arrive upwards/come here close to the speaker’
  • ˉle-le: ‘come to a place closer to the speaker but not necessarily near them’
  • ˊwu-le: ‘come towards the speaker on the same horizontal level’

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Lamo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Xizang Changdu Diqu Difangzhi Bianzuan Weiyuanhui 西藏昌都地区地方志编纂委员会 (2005). Changdu Diquzhi 昌都地区志. Beijing: Fangzhi Chubanshe 方志出版社.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Tashi Nyima; Hiroyuki Suzuki (2019). "Newly recognised languages in Chamdo: Geography, culture, history, and language". Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area. 42 (1): 38–81. doi:10.1075/ltba.18004.nyi. ISSN 0731-3500.
  4. ^ Jacques, Guillaumes. 2016. Les journées d'études sur les langues du Sichuan.