Saimaa (// SY-mah, Finnish: [ˈsɑi̯mɑː]; Swedish: Saimen) is a lake in southeastern Finland. At approximately 4,400 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi), it is the largest lake in Finland, and the fourth largest natural freshwater lake in Europe.
View from Joutseno town in western direction
|Primary outflows||Vuoksi River, Saimaa Canal|
|Surface area||4,400 km2 (1,700 sq mi) total |
(1,377 km2 (532 sq mi) largest basin)
|Average depth||17 m (56 ft)|
|Max. depth||82 m (269 ft)|
|Water volume||36 km3 (8.6 cu mi)|
|Shore length1||13,700 km (8,500 mi)|
|Surface elevation||76 m (249 ft)|
|Settlements||Lappeenranta, Imatra, Savonlinna, Mikkeli, Joensuu|
|1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.|
It was formed by glacial melting at the end of the Ice Age. Major towns on the lakeshore include Lappeenranta, Imatra, Savonlinna, Mikkeli, Varkaus, and Joensuu. About 6000 years ago, ancient Lake Saimaa, estimated to cover nearly 9,000 km2 (3,500 sq mi) at the time, was abruptly discharged through a new outlet. The event created thousands of square kilometres of new residual wetlands. Following this event, the region saw a population maximum in the decades following only to later return to an ecological development towards old boreal conifer forests which saw a decline in population.
The Vuoksi River flows from Saimaa to Lake Ladoga. Most of the lake is spotted with islands, and narrow canals divide the lake in many parts, each having their own names (major basins include Suur-Saimaa, Orivesi, Puruvesi, Haukivesi, Yövesi, Pihlajavesi, and Pyhäselkä). Thus, Saimaa exhibits all major types of lake in Finland at different levels of eutrophication.
In places in the Saimaa basin (an area larger than the lake), "there is more shoreline here per unit of area than anywhere else in the world, the total length being nearly 15,000 kilometres (9,300 mi). The number of islands in the region, 14,000, also shows what a maze of detail the system is."
Due to its rich, easily accessible asbestos deposits, the shores of the lake are the most probable origin of asbestos-ceramic, a type of pottery made between c. 1900 BC – 200 AD.
The areas around Saimaa lake are very popular location for summer cabins as well as lake cruises.
The Saimaa Canal from Lauritsala, Lappeenranta to Vyborg connects Saimaa to the Gulf of Finland. Other canals connect Saimaa to smaller lakes in Eastern Finland and form a network of waterways. These waterways are mainly used to transport wood, minerals, metals, pulp and other cargo, but tourists also use the waterways.
- Markku Oinonen et al. (2014) Event reconstruction through Bayesian chronology: Massive mid-Holocene lake-burst triggered large-scale ecological and cultural change; url=http://hol.sagepub.com/content/24/11/1419.abstract
- Making of Järven tarina.
- Hämäläinen, Arto (November 2001). "Saimaa – Finland's largest lake". Virtual Finland. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008.
- McClane, A.J. (April 1973). "Fishing: The Missing Link". Field & Stream. LXXVII (12): 144. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- Figes, Orlando: A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891–1924. The Bodley Head, London (2014). p. 202
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saimaa.|
- www.ymparisto.fi – Saimaa, nimet ja rajaukset (in Finnish)
- Visit Saimaa official website, Mikkeli and Savonlinna regions
- Saimaa – the heart of Finnish lakeland, from thisisFinland website
- Awarded "EDEN – European Destinations of Excellence" non traditional tourist destination 2010