Lạc Long Quân

Lạc Long Quân (literally "Dragon Lord of Lạc"; also called Hùng Hiền Vương) as known as Hùng Vương II, is considered the second Hùng king of the semi-mythical Hồng Bàng Dynasty of ancient Vietnam (known then as Văn Lang and before that as Xích Quỷ). Quân was the son and sole successor of Kinh Dương Vương (the first Hung king), who ruled over Xích Quỷ. He is thought to have become king in 2793 BC. He is also a significant figure in Vietnamese legend.

Lạc Long Quân
Hùng Vương of Văn Lang
Đền thờ Lạc Long Quân.jpg
Temple of Lạc Long Quân
Hùng Vương of Văn Lang
Reign2793 BC–2524 BC
PredecessorHùng Vương II
SuccessorHùng Vương III
Born?
?
Died?
SpouseÂu Cơ
Issue100 sons and daughters
Full name
Sùng Lãm
FatherKinh Dương Vương
MotherLong Mẫu Thần Long

In modern day, his life is mixed with many legends. Quân's wife, Âu Cơ, gave birth to a sac containing 100 eggs from which 100 children were born; this is the origin of the story of the 100 Vietnamese family names, later the Bách Việt tribes. One day Lạc Long Quân told Âu Cơ: "I am descended from dragons, you from fairies. We are as incompatible as water is with fire. So we cannot continue in harmony." This said, the husband and wife parted. The man went to the seawards with 50 of their children, while his wife went to the mountainous region with the other half of the clan. The eldest son, who followed his mother,[1] later installed himself as Quân's successor.[2][3]

GenealogyEdit

Lạc Long Quân's father was Kinh Dương Vương and Lạc Long Quân's mother is Long Mẫu Thần Long (Divine Mother Goddess of Dragons).[4]

In Vietnamese literatureEdit

The books Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư (from the 15th century) and Lĩnh Nam chích quái ("Wonders plucked from the dust of Linh-nam", from the 14th century) mention the legend with Âu Cơ.[5]

MythologyEdit

Slaying of NGƯ TINH

During Lạc Long Quân's time, the people of Van Lang was still undeveloped and isolated. In the Eastern sea, there appears a giant Fish called Ngư Tinh (Vietnamese for "fish monster" or "fish spirit"). This fish has lived for centuries, with the size of its mouth, it can consume a ship with 10 fisherman at the same time. Whenever the Fish swim, waves can reach the sky, drown multiple ships, all the people passing through the area were all eaten by the fish. Ngư Tinh lives in a big cave under the sea, above the cave is a huge mountain which divide the sea into two areas.

Lạc Long Quân decided to slay the beast to help the people. He built a huge ship, made a burning human-shaped piece of metal, then sailed straight to Ngư Tinh nest. There he held the human-shaped piece of metal up to trick Ngư Tinh. Ngư Tinh thought it was a human than opened its mouth and tried to swallow to burning metal. Quân threw the burning metal into Ngư Tinh's mouth. Ngư Tinh 's throat was burning, it struggled but tried to sink Quân's ship. Quân then took his sword out and slew the beast, slicing it into three pieces.

Slaying of the nine-tailed fox

After slaying Ngư Tinh, Quân went down to Long Biên. There appears a nine-tailed fox that live for thousand years, called Hồ Tinh (Vietnamese for "fox monster" or "fox spirit"). The fox lived in a deep cave, under a rock mountain in the West Long Biên. This fox often disguised into human shape, lure the women, then bring them to the cave and feed on them. This fox has been harassing people from Long Biên to Tản Viên mountain. The innocents were so afraid of the fox that they have to leave their homes, farms to other places in order to live peacefully. Quân brought his sword to the beast's nest and tried to slay the beast. When Quân reached the cave, the fox smelled human, then suddenly attacked, Quân then used magic to call the elements of wind and thunders to trap the beast. After 3 days, the beast has weakened, tried to find a way to run away. Quân caught the beast and sliced its head off. The beast revealed itself as a huge nine-tailed fox. Quân got into the cave and rescued everybody that was alive and tortured by the fox.

Descendant of Dragon and Fairy

Lạc Long Quân is a son of Long Mẫu Thần Long, the dragon goddess that rules the sky and the ocean.

Lạc Long Quân was married to Đế Lai's daughter, Âu Cơ. She gave birth to a sac of a hundred eggs, which were hatched into a hundred boys. One day, Quân confessed to her: "I am a descendant of the Dragon, you are descendant of the Fairy, fire and water cannot live together in harmony." The two of them then divided their children. Fifty sons followed their mother to the mountainous north, the other fifty followed their father to live in the south; these children are ancestor of Bách Việt. The oldest brother followed Âu Cơ to Phong Châu (Phú Thọ), became Quân's successor and ruled as Hung King.[6]

 
Lạc Long Quân's temple at Sim Hill (Phú Thọ)
 
Lạc Long Quân 's temple at Sim hill.

LegacyEdit

Most cities in Vietnam have named major streets after him.[7] He features both in primary education,[8] and in some forms of popular religious belief as a god.[9][10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Ngô Thì Sĩ, Việt sử Tiêu án]
  2. ^ Roseane M Santos An Unashamed Defense of Coffee - Page 268 2009 "A Vietnamese myth claims that the Vietnamese people of various tribes were born outside the womb following the marriage of Lạc Long Quân (Dragon Chief) and Âu Cơ (the Fairy), but Vietnamese historians consider the Dong Son civilization ..."
  3. ^ Nghia M. Vo Saigon: A History 2011 -- Page 285 "According to legend, King Lạc Long Quân wed fairy Âu Cơ who gave him 100 children. Both considered to be the ancestors of the Vietnamese nation, they later split up; taking 50 children, he settled along the coastal area and founded the ..."
  4. ^ Keith Weller Taylor: The Birth of Vietnam. Revision of thesis (Ph.D), Appendix A, pg. 304. University of California Press (1991). ISBN 0-520-07417-3
  5. ^ Keith Weller Taylor: The Birth of Vietnam. Revision of thesis (Ph.D.). Appendix A, page 303. University of California Press (1991). ISBN 0-520-07417-3
  6. ^ http://myvietnamhandbook.com/vietnamese-culture/[permanent dead link] Linh Nam Chich Quai, Dai Viet Su Ky Toan Thu
  7. ^ Vietnam Country Map. Periplus Travel Maps. 2002–2003. ISBN 0-7946-0070-0.
  8. ^ Marie-Carine Lall, Edward Vickers - Education As a Political Tool in Asia - Page 143 2009 "'Vietnamese-ness'. The history of the country really started around 800 bc with the Văn Lang kingship. Children learn about the legends of the nation's birth, which feature heroic figures such as Kinh Dương Vương, Âu Cơ – Lạc Long Quân ..."
  9. ^ Andrea Lauser, Kirsten W. Endres - Engaging the Spirit World: Popular Beliefs and Practices in Modern Vietnam 2012 - Page 93 "of the Water Palace are linked to the mythical foundation of the country and they are considered to be descendants of the Dragon King of Động Đình, father of the mythic founder of the country, Lạc Long Quân. Images from this past are enacted ..."
  10. ^ Philip Taylor Modernity and Re-Enchantment: Religion in Post-Revolutionary Vietnam Page 68 2007 "According to legend, all Vietnamese people can trace their ancestry back to the marriage of the dragon father Lạc Long Quân and the fairy mother Âu Cơ. This magical union produced an egg sac from which hatched one hundred human ..."

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit

Lạc Long Quân
Hồng Bàng Dynasty
Preceded by
Kinh Dương Vương
King of Văn Lang
2793 BC – ?
Succeeded by
Hùng Quốc Vương