The Kitáb-i-Aqdas or Aqdas is the central book of the Bahá'í Faith written by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the religion, in 1873. The work was written in Arabic under the Arabic title al-Kitābu l-Aqdas (Arabic: الكتاب الأقدس / al-Kitāb al-ʾaqdās), but it is commonly referred to by its Persian title, Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Persian: كتاب اقدس / Ketâb Âqdas), which was given to the work by Bahá'u'lláh himself. It is sometimes also referred to as "the Most Holy Book", "the Book of Laws" or the Book of Aqdas. The word Aqdas has a significance in many languages as the superlative form of a word with its primary letters Q-D-Š.
Bahá'u'lláh had manuscript copies sent to Bahá'ís in Iran some years after the revelation of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in 1873, and in 1890–91 (1308 AH, 47 BE) he arranged for the publication of the original Arabic text of the book in Bombay, India.
The Aqdas is referred to as "the Mother-Book" of the Bahá'í teachings, and the "Charter of the future world civilization". It is not, however, only a 'book of laws': much of the content deals with other matters, notably ethical exhortations and addresses to various individuals, groups, and places. The Aqdas also discusses the establishment of Bahá'í administrative institutions, Bahá'í religious practices, mysticism, laws of personal status, criminal law, spiritual and ethical exhortations, social principles, miscellaneous laws and abrogations, and prophecies.
Bahá'u'lláh stated that the observance of the laws that he prescribed should be subject to "tact and wisdom", and that they do not cause "disturbance and dissension." Bahá'u'lláh thus provided for the progressive application of his laws; for example certain Bahá'í laws are only applicable to Middle Eastern Bahá'ís such as the limit to the period of engagement, while any Bahá'í may practice the laws if they so decide. Shoghi Effendi also stated that certain other laws, such as criminal laws, that are dependent upon the existence of a predominantly Bahá'í society would only be applicable in a possible future Bahá'í society. He also stated that if the laws were in conflict with the civil law of the country where a Bahá'í lives the laws could not be practiced. Furthermore, some laws and teachings are, according to Bahá'í teaching, not meant to be applied at the present time and their application depends on decisions by the Universal House of Justice. Baha'is believe the Aqdas supersedes and succeeds previous revelations such as the Quran and the Bible.
Form and styleEdit
The text of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas consists of several hundred verses, which have been grouped in 189 numbered paragraphs in the English translation most of which are just a few sentences. The style combines elements of both poetry (shi'r) and rhymed prose (saj') and the text contains instances of literary devices like alliteration, assonance, repetition, onomatopoeia, juxtaposition and antithesis, metaphors, alternation of person and personification.
Rules and principles are interspersed and guide interpretation, and authority and limits for authorized interpretation are also specified. It defines a Bahá'í Administration as part of the Covenant of Bahá'u'lláh, and also speaks to the individual reader, as there are no clergy in the religion to rely on for guidance. The text also moves between statements said to be plain and statements suggesting the key to understanding the book is to look at the text for clues to itself. Some statements reflect on the teachings in the religion on various themes and underscore a relationship of the Aqdas as a 'motherhood' in relation to all the other scriptural works and they to it. It also relates to scriptures of other religions by abrogation, explanation, affirmation or reformation — an example of progressive revelation as a principle of the religion. While it is the core text on laws of the religion, it is not the exclusive source of laws in the religion, nor of Bahá'u'lláh's own writings, and complementarily the reader is told explicitly to not view the text as a "mere code of laws".
|1961||Translation published by the Royal Asiatic Society|
|1973||Synopsis and codification |
|1992||Official Bahá'í translation in English|
The Kitáb-i-Aqdas was completed by Bahá'u'lláh in 1873. It was published in the Arabic for circulation among Bahá'ís speaking the language circa 1890. A Russian translation was undertaken by Alexander Tumansky in 1899 and was his most important contribution to Bahá'í studies. Around 1900 an informal English translation was made by Bahá'í Anton Haddad, which circulated among the early American Bahá'í community in a typewritten form. In 1961, an English scholar of Arabic, Dr. Earl E. Elder, and William McElwee Miller, who (according to Laurence Elwell-Sutton) is an openly hostile Christian minister, published an English translation, "Al-Kitab Al-Aqdas", through the Royal Asiatic Society, however its translation of the notes section was problematic and overall lacked "poetic sensibility, and skill in Arabic translation". Indeed, Miller only ever used it to further his polemical agenda. In 1973 a "Synopsis and Codification" of the book was published in English by the Universal House of Justice, with 21 passages of the Aqdas that had already been translated into English by Shoghi Effendi with additional terse lists of laws and ordinances contained in the book outside of any contextual prose. Finally, in 1992, a full and authorized Bahá'í translation in English was published. This version is used as the basis of translation into many other languages highlighting the practice of an indirect translation and how the purpose of the translation affects the act of translation. The Bahá'í Library Online provides a side-by-side comparison of the authorized translation with earlier translations of Anton Haddad and Earl Elder.
The Kitáb-i-Aqdas is supplemented by the
- "Questions and Answers"', which consists of 107 questions submitted to Bahá'u'lláh by Zaynu'l-Muqarrabin concerning the application of the laws and Bahá'u'lláh's replies to those questions
- "Some Texts Revealed by Bahá'u'lláh"
- Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances, prepared by Shoghi Effendi
- explanatory notes prepared by the Universal House of Justice
The book was divided into six main themes in the Synopsis and Codification by Shoghi Effendi:
- The appointment of 'Abdu'l-Bahá as the successor of Bahá'u'lláh
- Anticipation of the Institution of the Guardianship
- The Institution of the Universal House of Justice
- Laws, Ordinances and exhortations
- Specific admonitions, reproofs and warnings
- Miscellaneous subjects
Further, the laws were divided into four categories:
- A. Prayer
- B. Fasting
- C. Laws of personal status
- D. Miscellaneous laws, ordinances and exhortations
Scholarly review finds the Aqdas has themes of laws of worship, societal relations and administrative organization, or governance, of the religion. Through the authority vested in 'Abdu'l-Bahá in the Aqdas there is an expanse of internationalism related to the law in works like The Secret of Divine Civilization and through his extended authority to Shoghi Effendi works like his World Order of Bahá'u'lláh further elaborates on the internationalism theme. This stands in some distinction from other scriptures by not using triumphal tones as the voice of God is given to be viewed but rather one of progressive development, social context, and outright delay in application until another day. Indeed, it insists that divine law is applicable only in situations with requisite conditions, where it is likely to have certain social effects. The goal of application of the law and its methods are not to cause disturbance and dissension and requires an appreciation for context and intention. Additionally one is to eschew emphasis in the development of textualist and intentionalist arguments about the law though some of this is visible in scholarship on the Aqdas. Such methods of application of law in a religious context are, in the opinion of Roshan Danish, common in Islam and Judaism.
The Aqdas is understood by Bahá'ís to be a factor in the process of ongoing developments in world order. This can be seen comparing the Bahá'í approach to history and the future to that of the theory of The Clash of Civilizations on the one hand and the development of a posthegemony system on the other (compared with work of Robert Cox, for example, in Approaches to World Order, (Robert Cox & Timonthy Sinclair eds, Cambridge University Press, 1996).)
Certain possible sources of law are specifically abrogated: laws of the Bábí religion, notably in the Persian Bayán, oral traditions (linked with pilgrim notes, and natural law, (that is to say God's sovereign will through revelation is the independent authority.) Divine revelation's law-making is both unconditioned in terms of the divine right to choose, and conditioned in the sense of the progress of history from one revelation to the next.
Laws of personal statusEdit
Marriage and divorceEdit
Baha'u'llah's statements about marriage in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas are brief. Marriage is highly recommended but is stated to not be obligatory. Bahá'u'lláh states that the maximum number of wives is two, but also states that having only one wife would add more tranquility to both partners. These statements were later interpreted by 'Abdu'l-Bahá that having a second wife is conditional upon treating both wives with justice and equality and was not possible in practice, thus establishing monogamy.
That Bahá'u'lláh had three wives, while his religion teaches monogamy, which has been the subject of criticism. The writing of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas and Bahá'í teachings on gender equality and monogamy post-date Bahá'u'lláh's marriages and are understood to be evolutionary in nature, slowly leading Bahá'ís away from what had been a deeply rooted cultural practice.
The institutional status of the authority of 'Abdu'l-Bahá and a House of Justice are specifically delineated. On the basis of the authority granted 'Abdu'l-Bahá he extended forms of the authority vested in him to the Guardianship, whose sole member was Shoghi Effendi, and the Universal, or International, House of Justice through his Will and Testament. This was confirmed and amplified in other texts, notably the Kitáb-i-'Ahd. The Universal House of Justice is specifically empowered to write and rescind any laws it is felt necessary aside from those of the text of scripture and actual application of the laws of the Aqdas among Bahá'ís are dependent on the choice of the Universal House of Justice.
- Saiedi, 2000, pp. 224-235.
- Effendi 1944, pp. 213
- Smith, Peter (2000). "law". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 223–225. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Bahá'u'lláh 1873, p. 6
- Smith 2008, pp. 160
- The Aqdas; Universal House of Justice A DESCRIPTION OF THE AQDAS BY SHOGHI EFFENDI
- Danesh, Roshan (2003–2004). "Internationalism and Divine Law: A Bahá'í Perspective". Journal of Law and Religion. 19 (2): 209–242. JSTOR 3649175.
- Bushrui 1994, pp. 39–53
- Schaefer, Udo (2002–2003). "An Introduction to Baha'i Law: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures". Journal of Law and Religion. 18 (2): 307–372. JSTOR 1602268.
- Christopher Buck (1 January 1995). Symbol & Secret. Kalimat Press. pp. 19, 26–27. ISBN 978-0-933770-80-5.
- Jahangir Dorri (15 August 2009). "TUMANSKIǏ, Aleksandr Grigor'evich". Encyclopedia Iranica. online. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Loni Bramson-Lerche (1988). "Establishment of the Guardianship". In Moojan Momen (ed.). Studies in the Bábí & Bahá'í Religions. Kalimat Press. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-933770-72-0.
- Elwell-Sutton, L.P. (1976). "Review of "The Baha'i Faith" Its History and Teaching by William McElwee Miller". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (2): 157–158. JSTOR 25203713.
- Bahā'-Allāh (1961) . Al-kitab al-aqdas or The most holy book. Translated by Elder, Earl E.; Miller, William McE. London: The Royal Asiatic Society.
- A. Bausani (9 August 2011). "AQDAS". Encyclopedia Iranica. online. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
- Lawson, Todd (Winter–Spring 1996). "Review of: The Kitáb-i-Aqdas: The Most Holy Book by Baha'Allah, Haifa: Baha'i World Center, 1992". Iranian Studies. 29 (1–2): 207–209. doi:10.1080/00210869608701848. JSTOR 4310986.
- Synopsis and Codification of the Laws and Ordinances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas by Bahá'u'lláh and Shoghi Effendi, Baha'i World Center, 1973
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Aqdas, Kitáb-i-". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 43–44. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- See also the Kitab-i-Aqdas Multilinear Translation project.
- Nobel Perdu Honeyman (27 January 2005). "From Arabic to other languages through English". In Albert Branchadell; Lovell Margaret West (eds.). Less Translated Languages. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 67–74. ISBN 978-90-272-9478-4.
- Bahá'u'lláh. Winters, Jonah (ed.). "Kitáb-i-Aqdas (Most Holy Book): "Multilinear" Translation project and Glossary". Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "marriage". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 232–234. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Polygamy". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 273. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.
- Schaefer, Udo (2002–2003). "An Introduction to Baha'i Law: Doctrinal Foundations, Principles and Structures". Journal of Law and Religion. 18 (2): 321, 333. JSTOR 1602268.
- Smith 2008, pp. 16
- Bahá'u'lláh (1992) . Kitáb-i-Aqdas [The Most Holy Book]. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-85398-999-0.
- Bushrui, Suheil (1995). The Style of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas - Aspects of the Sublime. College Park, Maryland, USA: University Press of Maryland. ISBN 1-883053-08-0.
- Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-020-9.
- Hatcher, J.S. (1997). The Ocean of His Words: A Reader's Guide to the Art of Bahá'u'lláh. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-259-7.
- Rouhani Ma'ani, Baharieh; Ma'ani Ewing, Sovaida. The Laws of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 978-0-85398-475-7.
- Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.
- Taherzadeh, Adib (1984). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 3: 'Akka, The Early Years 1868-77. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-144-2.
- Walbridge, John (1996). Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-406-9.
- The Kitab-i-Aqdas: its place in Baha'i literature. Published in Bahá'í World, 1992-1993. pp. 105–117.
- Danesh, Roshan (2015). Some Reflections on the Structure of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas in Journal of Bahá'í Studies, 25:3, pp. 81–94.
- Goswami, Samarendra Nath, ed. (1994). Principles of Bahá'í Personal Law, The. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Law Times. OL 24280885M.
- Saiedi, Nader (2000). "Chapter 7: The Kitab-i-Aqdas: Date and Constitutive Principles". Logos and Civilization - Spirit, History, and Order in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh. USA: University Press of Maryland and Association for Baha'i Studies. pp. 213–293. ISBN 1883053609.