Khalifa Haftar

Field Marshal Khalifa Belqasim Haftar (Arabic: خليفة بلقاسم حفتر‎, romanizedḴalīfa Bilqāsim Ḥaftar; born 1943) is a Libyan-American warlord and the commander of the Tobruk-based Libyan National Army (LNA).[2] On 2 March 2015, he was appointed commander of the armed forces loyal to the elected legislative body, the Libyan House of Representatives.[3]

Khalifa Haftar
خليفة حفتر
General Haftar.jpg
Haftar in 2011
Birth nameKhalifa Belqasim Haftar
Born1943 (age 76–77)
Ajdabiya, Italian Libya
Allegiance Kingdom of Libya (1966–69)
Libyan Arab Republic (1969–77)
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–87)
National Front for the Salvation of Libya (1987–2011)
 State of Libya (House of Representatives) (2011–current)
Service/branchLibyan National Army
Years of service1966–1987; 2011–present
RankLibya-Army-OF-10.svg Field Marshal[1]
Commands heldLibyan National Army
Battles/wars
AwardsRed diploma (high honours) – M.V. Frunze Military Academy

Haftar was born in the Libyan city of Ajdabiya. He served in the Libyan army under Muammar Gaddafi, and took part in the coup that brought Gaddafi to power in 1969. He took part in the Libyan contingent against Israel in the Yom Kippur War of 1973.[4] In 1987, he became a prisoner of war during the war against Chad after being lured into a trap and captured, which was then a major embarrassment for Gaddafi and represented a major blow to Gaddafi's ambitions in Chad. While being held prisoner, he and his fellow officers formed a group hoping to overthrow Gaddafi. He was released around 1990 in a deal with the United States government and spent nearly two decades living in the US in Langley, Virginia, and gained U.S. citizenship.[5][6] In 1993, while living in the United States, he was convicted in absentia of crimes against the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and sentenced to death.

Haftar held a senior position in the forces which overthrew Gaddafi in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. In 2014, he was commander of the Libyan Army when the General National Congress (GNC) refused to give up power in accordance with its term of office. Haftar launched a campaign against the GNC and its Islamic fundamentalist allies. His campaign allowed elections to take place to replace the GNC but then developed into a civil war. In 2017, Ramzi al-Shaeri, Vice-President of the Derna city council and lawyers Ryan Goodman and Alex Whiting accused Haftar of the war crime of ordering the killing of prisoners of war during the recapture of Derna.[7][8]

Haftar has been described as "Libya's most potent warlord", having fought "with and against nearly every significant faction" in Libya's conflicts, as having a "reputation for unrivalled military experience"[9][10] and as governing "with an iron fist".[11] Although Haftar is reportedly an anti-Islamist,[12][13][14][15] his allies include the Salafi Madkhali militias.[16]

Early life and educationEdit

Haftar was born in Ajdabiya around 1943,[17][18] and is a member of the al-Farjani tribe.[19] He studied at al-Huda School in Ajdabiya in 1957 and then moved to Derna to obtain his secondary education between 1961 and 1964.[20] He joined the Benghazi Military University Academy (also known as Benghazi Royal Military College) on 16 September 1964 and graduated from there in 1966.[21] In the late 1970s, he went on to receive military training in the Soviet Union, completing a special three-year degree for foreign officers sent to study in the USSR, at the M. V. Frunze Military Academy. Haftar later pursued further military training in Egypt.[4][22] He was also stationed with the artillery corps.[23]

Early years in the Gaddafi governmentEdit

As a young army officer, Haftar took part in the coup that brought Muammar Gaddafi to power in 1969, assisting Gaddafi in the overthrow of Libya's King Idris. Shortly thereafter, Haftar became a top military officer for Gaddafi.[24] He commanded Libyan troops supporting Egyptian troops entering Israeli-occupied Sinai in 1973.[4]

Like other members of the Free Unionist Officers (the junta that toppled the monarchy), Haftar is a secularist and was a Nasserist.[22][25] He was a member of the Revolutionary Command Council which governed Libya in the immediate aftermath of the coup.[22] Haftar later became Gaddafi's military chief of staff.[26] In the late 1980s, Haftar commanded Libyan forces during the Chadian–Libyan conflict, which ended in defeat for Libya.[27]

War with ChadEdit

By 1986, Haftar had attained the rank of colonel, and was then the chief officer in command of Gaddafi's military forces in Chad in the Chadian–Libyan conflict. During the war, in which the Libyan forces were either captured or driven back across the border, Haftar and 600–700 of his men were captured as prisoners of war, and incarcerated in 1987 after their defeat in the Ouadi Doum air raid.[28] Shortly after this disastrous battle, Gaddafi disavowed Haftar and the other Libyan prisoners of war who were captured by Chad. One possible contributing factor to Gaddafi's repudiation of Haftar and of other captured prisoners of war may have been the fact that Gaddafi had earlier signed an agreement to withdraw all Libyan forces from Chad, and Haftar's operations inside of Chad had been in violation of this agreement.[29][30] Another possible reason given for Gaddafi's abandonment of Haftar was the potential that Haftar might return to Libya as a hero and thus pose a threat to Gaddafi's rule itself.[22] In any event, Gaddafi's repudiation clearly served to embitter Haftar towards Gaddafi.

In 1986 and 1987 the Government of Chad accused Libya of using toxic gas and napalm against central government forces and against rebel forces. Libya may have used mustard gas delivered in bombs by AN-26 aircraft in final phases of the war against Chad in September 1987. [31]

Opposition from the United StatesEdit

Gaddafi demanded Haftar's soldiers be returned to Libya, but the Americans arranged for them to fly to Zaire instead. There, half of his soldiers decided to return to Libya. In late 1987, Haftar and a group of officers aligned themselves with the National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL), a U.S. supported opposition group.[9][23] On 21 June 1988, he declared the establishment of the military wing of the NFSL, called the Libyan National Army under his leadership.[23] When U.S. financial aid to Zaire was not forthcoming, Zaire expelled the remainder to Kenya.[30] Kenya only provided temporary residence, and the CIA negotiated a settlement around 1990, enabling Haftar and 300 of his soldiers to move to the United States under the U.S. refugee programme.[24][30] In fact, the end of the Cold War diminished Libya's geo-strategic relevance and the CIA funding program to Haftar's brigade was suspended.[32]

In March 1996, Haftar took part in a failed uprising against Gaddafi in the mountains of eastern Libya, before returning to the U.S.[30]

Haftar moved to suburban Virginia outside Washington, D.C., living in Falls Church until 2007. He then moved to Vienna, Virginia.[30][33] From there, and mostly through his close contacts within the DIA / CIA, he consistently supported several attempts to topple and assassinate Gaddafi.[34] He spelled his name "Hifter" in legal documents in the United States.[33]

Early role in the First Libyan Civil WarEdit

In 2011, he returned to Libya to support the Libyan Revolution. In March, a military spokesperson announced that Haftar had been appointed commander of the military, but the National Transitional Council denied this.[35] By April, Abdul Fatah Younis held the role of commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, Omar El-Hariri was serving as Younis's Chief of Staff, and Haftar had assumed the third most senior position as the commander of ground forces with the rank of lieutenant general.[36][37] Younis was assassinated later that summer.[38] On 17 November 2011, Haftar was chosen as the overall commander of the new Libyan Army due to his military experience and loyalty to the revolution that overthrew Gaddafi.[39]

Launch of Operation DignityEdit

In February 2014, Haftar appeared in a televised announcement to reveal that the General National Congress (GNC), the elected parliament which had recently unilaterally extended its mandate, had been dissolved.[34] Haftar called for a caretaker government to oversee new elections, and urged Libyans to revolt against the GNC, the mandate of which was still in force at the time. Ultimately, his appeal did not lead to a general uprising due to the substantial lack of resources and local support for his initiative.[32][34] His announcement was soon dismissed with great skepticism by the then acting Prime Minister Ali Zeidan. Haftar's actions were condemned as a "coup attempt" and "ridiculous".[40][41]

Haftar's strategy was to embark on a series of "town hall" meetings around Libya and, with the support of fellow ex-officers from the military, to secretly build an army.[9] Three months later on 16 May in Operation Dignity, Haftar began a combined air and ground assault against the pro-Islamic militias of Benghazi, as well as a sustained heavy weapons attack against the Libyan parliament.[42] At the time of the Benghazi assault, Haftar, who had already been the target of assassination attempts,[43] reportedly explained to a friend that he was fully aware of the personal safety risks involved in his actions.[44] On 20 May 2014, four days after the Benghazi assault, the GNC announced that it had finally scheduled the long postponed national elections that were to replace the then-interim legislature (the Tripoli-based GNC) with the Tobruk-based House of Representatives. These elections were scheduled for 25 June 2014.[45]

Later in May, after having been ousted from office by the GNC, Ali Zeidan endorsed Operation Dignity,[46] as did 40 members of parliament,[47] the heads of the navy[48] and the air-force, and much of the army. On 4 June 2014, a suicide car bomber detonated his vehicle at Haftar's residence at Ghut al-Sultan near Abayar, east of Benghazi, killing 4 people and injuring at least 3 others. Haftar was not injured in the attack.[23][49]

In eastern Libya, Haftar's air and ground forces remained in place and seemed to be gaining general support. Over the course of May and June, numerous pro–Operation Dignity marches were held throughout Libya,[50] and in the 25 June parliamentary elections the secularists gained a clear mandate over and against the Islamist agenda.[51] Meanwhile, despite its initial denouncement of Operation Dignity in May,[52] Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thani's administration subsequently refrained from further official endorsement or denouncement of Haftar's Operation Dignity. However, the newly elected parliament branded Haftar's enemies "terrorists".[53]

On 24 November 2014 and the following day, warplanes affiliated with Operation Dignity forces attacked Mitiga International Airport in Tripoli, temporarily shutting down the airport, but also damaging nearby houses.[54][55] In response to the attack on Mitiga, a court in Tripoli issued an arrest warrant for Khalifa Haftar.[56]

Leading role in the Second Libyan Civil WarEdit

Haftar was officially made commander of the Libyan National Army (LNA) by the internationally recognized House of Representatives on 2 March 2015.[57] The Libyan armed forces split up later in the year into the LNA under Haftar's control and the Libyan Army controlled by the Government of National Accord (GNA).[16][58]

After three years of military campaigns, in early July 2017 Haftar announced in a televised speech that his forces had finally taken full control of Benghazi, the second largest Libyan city. Haftar's military victory has been regarded by many as the expression of his growing military and political ambitions, and especially of his intention to secure military control over critical areas in eastern Libya. Some of his critics claimed that he deliberately dragged his militias through years of fighting against diverse groups which he framed as Islamist enemies in order to consolidate a future political role through his military leadership.[59][60]

Similarly, while some have celebrated Haftar's role in unifying and successfully leading the fight against the Islamic State, several sources have claimed that Haftar's role in the fighting of ISIS has been largely overstated or motivated by self-serving calculus. For instance, as of early 2016 Haftar's forces were reported to have bombed an Islamist group known as the Derna Mujahideen Shura Council who was behind the successful ouster of IS from Derna.[61][62]

Furthermore, experts have questioned whether the LNA could establish its control over the entire national territory, or whether Haftar would allow any military or elected political leader other than himself to guide a national army or government should that opportunity materialize in the future through a new general election.[62]

Haftar remains resolute that one of the aims of Operation Dignity is to completely dismantle the Libyan branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, as well as what he considers to be any other Islamist terrorist organizations within Libya.[63] However, in recent years journalists and critics have observed that, in spite of his formal anti-Islamism mission, Haftar has continuously cooperated with Salafi organizations based in eastern Libya. His ties to these groups have produced a mutually beneficial partnership in the administration of the areas controlled by Haftar's forces as well as in the military fight against their Islamist counterpart, especially against the Muslim Brotherhood and Ansar al-Sharia.[64][65] Some of the Salafi groups allied with Haftar were part of the militias based in Barqa that have fought under his leadership and eventually spread in Benghazi, Jabal al-Akhdar, and Ajdabiya.[64] As Ahmed Salah Ali emphasized in his June 2017 report published by the Atlantic Council, Haftar needs the Salafi support due to his lack of troops and resources on the ground, while his Salafi allies have greatly benefited from their control over religious discourse and their growing military strength in eastern Libya, which have led to an increase in their appeal to unemployed youth.[64]

In July 2017 a video posted online featured the execution of 20 suspected ISIS fighters by Haftar's forces, and this led the United Nations to call for the LNA to investigate summary executions of prisoners.[66] In general, in many areas under his control several sources have denounced the abuses perpetrated by his militias and the several repressive actions undertaken to limit civil liberties.[62][67]

As of August 2016, Haftar had refused to support the new United Nations Security Council endorsed Government of National Accord, which led the United States and allies to believe that he was jeopardizing the stability of Libya. Libya specialist and RUSI Senior Research Fellow Alison Pargeter pointed out that Haftar may plausibly be regarded as the "biggest single obstacle to peace in Libya" in that he allegedly fears that cooperating with the GNA may lead to the end of his influence in eastern Libya.[61]

The United Arab Emirates and Egypt continue to support Haftar.[68] Middle East Eye has reported that British, French, U.S. and United Arab Emirates air forces have assisted Haftar's forces, after analysing leaked air traffic control recordings.[69][70] According to the Guardian, Egypt's Sisi openly displays unequivocal support for Haftar bombarding Tripoli. He also receives private support by the leaders of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates for the assault on Tripoli.[71]

In November 2016, Haftar made a second trip to Russia to meet with Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu. It was reported that while he was seeking weapons and Russia's backing, Russia was holding off pending the new Trump Administration.[72][73] On 26 December, it was reported that Russia had thrown its weight behind Haftar, saying he must have a role in the leadership of Libya.[74]

 
Military situation in the Libyan Civil War in 2020.
  Under the control of the Tobruk-led Government and Libyan National Army

Russia has since then treated wounded LNA soldiers, printed Libyan dinars for the Tobruk-based government, and signed exclusive agreements that will allow the Russian government to establish two additional military bases in eastern Libya.[75][76][77] Global risk experts Giorgio Cafiero and Daniel Wagner recently observed that "Moscow appears to view Haftar – not the weak UN/Western-backed government – as the only realistic bulwark against extremism in post-Gaddafi Libya."[77]

In 2017, Ramzi al-Shaeri, Vice-President of the Derna city council and lawyers Ryan Goodman and Alex Whiting accused Haftar of war crimes in the recapture of Derna. They alleged that Haftar had been complicit in calling for extrajudicial killings, arguing that Haftar had called on LNA fighters to take no prisoners, and saying in a speech, "Never mind consideration of bringing a prisoner here. There is no prison here. The field is the field, end of the story".[7][8]

On 5 November 2017, a former commander in the ranks of Operation Dignity and its former spokesperson, Mohammed Hijazi, described Khalifa Haftar as being "the main cause of the crisis that is crippling the country."[78] Having left Operation Dignity in January 2016 citing corrupt leadership, Hijazi has since spoken out against Haftar, calling him a "tyrant" and describing "his killings, kidnappings, destruction, and forced disappearances."[79] As a former commander and spokesman for the Operation, Mohammed Hijazi claims to have knowledge that Haftar is deliberately delaying the war, specifically in Benghazi. Hijazi concluded the recent interview by stating that his life is in great danger "especially as he is in possession of formal documents that could damage Dignity Operation forces and their leaders."[78]

On 4 April 2019, Haftar called on his military forces to advance on Tripoli, the capital of the internationally recognized government of Libya, in the 2019–20 Western Libya campaign[80] This was met with reproach from United Nations Secretary General António Guterres and the United Nations Security Council.[81][82]

On 7 April, eastern Libyan forces launched an airstrike on the southern part of Tripoli, the Bab al-Azizia military compound.[83]

On 21 April, Haftar launched several airstrikes and explosions were launched over Tripoli. The GNA and eyewitnesses alleged about the use of drones. They said that a plane circled around for over 10 minutes, before finally opening fire.[84]

In May 2019, Amnesty International accused Haftar of participating in actions that amounted to war crimes during his battle for control of Tripoli.[85][86]

Following the huge military setbacks in June 2019, when his forces failed to seize Tripoli, Haftar ordered the LNA to target Turkish ships and companies, ban flights and arrest Turkish nationals in the country.[87] After making these threats against Turkey, six Turkish civilians were kidnapped on a ship in Libya by the Libyan National Army on 1 July. The Turkish foreign ministry commented on the kidnappings saying "We expect our citizens to be released immediately. Otherwise, Haftar elements will become legitimate targets".[88]

The United Arab Emirates killed 8 civilians and wounded 27 on 18 November 2019. Emirates forces carried a drone strike on factory that makes food products in Wadi al-Rabie, Libya, south of Tripoli, a Human Rights Watch investigation found.[89]

On 28 August 2020, a leading media site uncovered new evidence, which implicated the United Arab Emirates in a drone strike, where 26 unarmed cadets were hit and killed by a Chinese Blue Arrow 7 missile in January 2020 at a military academy in Libya's capital, Tripoli. The missiles were fired by a Wing Loong II drone, which were supplied by the Emirates and were operating from the UAE-controlled Al-Khadim air base.[90]

Haftar governmentEdit

Haftar was the effective head of the de facto "Tobruk" system of government of much of the east and some of the south and west parts of Libya during the Second Libyan Civil War. The 2019 Libyan local elections were prevented from taking place on 27 April 2019, during his leadership, in Sabratha and Sorman.[91] The head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), Ghassan Salamé, described Haftar in April 2019 as "not a great democrat" (ce n'est pas un grand démocrate) and his methods of governance as "using an iron fist" (il gouverne avec une main de fer).[11] During Haftar's Tobruk government, nine municipal councils out of 27 in total under the LNA's control were replaced by military administrators.[92]

The Government of National Accord in June 2019 captured weapon systems in Libya's rebel compound, which included Javelin anti-tank missiles made by the US and labelled for the "armed forces of the United Arab Emirates" inside a wooden crate packaging. The four Javelin anti-tank missiles holding a value of more than $170,000 each, were found in a rebel base, reinforcing the army of Gen. Hafter.[93]

On 27 April 2020, Haftar made a televised address where he declared that the LNA would accept a popular mandate to govern Eastern Libya, making Haftar the de facto leader. Haftar's announcement raised the question of the outcome of the Libyan House of Representatives, who up until Haftar's announcement was the governing civilian government for areas controlled by the LNA.[94]

At the Alexandria US District Court hearing on 29 September 2020, Judge Leonie Brinkema rejected the plea from Khalifa Haftar's side to drop the charges that accused him of war atrocities. The lawsuit was filed by the families of victims who were killed during Haftar's military coup attempt, which was backed by the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Russia.[95]

Personal lifeEdit

Haftar has at least five sons and a daughter. Captain Saddam Haftar and Captain Khalid Haftar are officers in the Libyan National Army, while Al-Sadiq Haftar is also in Libya. Two other sons, Uqba Haftar, who works in real estate, and Al-Muntasir Haftar as well as his daughter Asma Haftar live in Virginia in the United States.[96] Haftar is a dual Libyan-US citizen.[7]

On 12 April 2018, it was reported that Haftar was in a coma after suffering a stroke and was hospitalized under intensive care in Paris.[97][98] A spokesman for the LNA initially denied the reports.[99] Local media later reported he was dead, however sources close to him insisted he was alive.[100] On 25 April, it was confirmed that Haftar was alive and had been returned to Benghazi following treatment in Paris.[101]

Besides his native Arabic, Haftar also speaks English, Italian and Russian, and is conversational in French.[102]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Tobruk's HoR promotes Khalifa Haftar to a Marshal following capture of oil ports". Libyan Express. 15 September 2016. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
  2. ^ Daragahi, Borzou (22 January 2020). "How this Libyan warlord's quest for power is quashing his country's hopes for peace". The Independent. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  3. ^ Al-Warfalli, Ayman (2 March 2015). "Libya's Haftar appointed army chief for recognized government". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Borzou Daragahi (23 May 2014). "Khalifa Haftar, a hard-headed Libyan warrior". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  5. ^ Nick Paton Walsh (5 April 2019). "A US citizen wants to overthrow a US-backed government in Libya. Here's why". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  6. ^ Chorin, Ethan (27 May 2014). "The New Danger in Benghazi". New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  7. ^ a b c Stephanie Kirchgaessner, Ruth Michaelson (25 September 2017). "General accused of war crimes courted by west in Libya". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  8. ^ a b al-Shaeri, Ramzi (13 November 2018). "Libya's Haftar Brutally Strangled My City. He Should Not be Legitimized by the West". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 20 April 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Anderson, Jon Lee (23 February 2015). "The Unravelling: Libya's New Strongman". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  10. ^ "Fighting Islamic State in Libya". The Economist. 14 May 2016. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  11. ^ a b "Offensive du maréchal Haftar en Libye : l'ONU met en garde la "tentation de l'homme fort"" [Marshal Haftar offensive in Libya: the UN warns of the "strongman temptation"] (in French). France 24. 29 April 2019. Archived from the original on 30 April 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  15. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ a b el-Gamaty, Guma (7 November 2019). "Militias and mercenaries: Haftar's army in Libya". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  17. ^ John Pearson (5 March 2015). "Newsmaker: Khalifa Haftar". The National. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
  18. ^ Hamid, Hoda (14 April 2011). "The Real Battle Is Yet To Come". Aljazeera/ Information Clearing House. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  19. ^ John Ruedy (1996). Islamism and Secularism in North Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 195. ISBN 0-312-16087-9. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  20. ^ "خليفة حفتر" (in Arabic). Al Jazeera Encyclopedia. 15 October 2014. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  21. ^ "خليفة بلقاسم حفتر" (in Arabic). Al-Awsat News. 13 March 2015. Archived from the original on 15 November 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  22. ^ a b c d Saadah, Ali (22 May 2014). "Khalifah Haftar – A New Al-Sisi in Libya". Middle East Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d "خليفة حفتر" (in Arabic). Sholf. 20 January 2015. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  24. ^ a b Mohamed Madi (20 May 2014). "Profile: Libya's renegade General Khalifa Haftar". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  25. ^ Basturk, Levent (20 May 2014). "Khalifa Haftar: A portrait of a coup general". World Bulletin. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  26. ^ Mohamed, Esam (18 May 2014). "Renegade Libyan general says parliament suspended". Tripoli, Libya. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  27. ^ Baker, Russ (1 April 2011). "The Fake Arab Spring, 2011". Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  28. ^ Valiente, Alexandra (28 August 2011). "Khalifa Haftar: Libyan CIA Asset". Libya: Libya 360-degree Archive. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  29. ^ M. Brecher & J. Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis, p. 92
  30. ^ a b c d e Russ Baker (22 April 2014). "Is General Khalifa Hifter The CIA's Man in Libya?". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  31. ^ Schneider, Berry. "Weapons of Mass Destruction, 2014". Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  32. ^ a b Stephen, Chris; Black, Ian; Ackerman, Spencer (22 May 2014). "Khalifa Haftar: renegade general causing upheaval in Libya". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  33. ^ a b Hauslohner, Abigail; Abdel Kouddous, Sharif (20 May 2014). "Khalifa Hifter, the ex-general leading a revolt in Libya, spent years in exile in Northern Virginia". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  34. ^ a b c "Profile: Libya's military strongman Khalifa Haftar". BBC News. 15 September 2016. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  35. ^ McGreal, Chris (3 April 2011). "Libyan rebel efforts frustrated by internal disputes over leadership". The Guardian. Benghazi, Libya. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  36. ^ "The colonel feels the squeeze". The Economist. 19 May 2011. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
  37. ^ Mark Urban (15 April 2011). "The task of forming a more effective anti-Gaddafi army". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
  38. ^ "Mystery over Libyan rebel commander's death". Al Jazeera. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
  39. ^ "Libya: New Chief for Revamped National Army". AllAfrica.com. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  40. ^ Baroud, Ramzy (20 February 2014). "The Libyan Bedlam: General Hifter, the CIA and the Unfinished Coup". London, UK: Middle East Online. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  41. ^ Priyanka Boghani (31 May 2014). "The man at the center of the chaos in Libya: Khalifa Haftar". Global Post. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  42. ^ Elumami, Ahmed; Ulf Laessing (18 May 2014). "Gunmen loyal to ex-general storm Libyan parliament, demand suspension". Reuters. Tripoli, Libya. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  43. ^ "Libyan army, ex-rebels clash near airport". The Washington Times. Associated Press. 11 December 2011. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014.
  44. ^ Oakes, John (30 May 2014). "Karama – Some Notes on Khalifa Hafter's Operation Dignity". Libya Stories. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  45. ^ "Libya announces elections: Will it help calm the violence?". CNN. 20 May 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  46. ^ "Operation Dignity gathers support". Libya Herald (in English and Arabic). Tripoli. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  47. ^ "40 Libyan MPs pledge support to renegade general Haftar". Istanbul, Turkey: Worldbulletin News. 25 May 2014. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  48. ^ "Rogue general gets more top allies". Cape Town, South Africa: News 24. 21 May 2014. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  49. ^ Esam Mohamed (4 June 2014). "Suicide bomber targets rogue Libyan general's home". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  50. ^ Kouddous, Sharif (24 May 2014). "Thousands march for 'dignity and reforms". Gulf News. Dubai. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  51. ^ "Ahram Weekly". weekly.ahram.org.eg. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  52. ^ Alaa al-Ameri (17 May 2014). "Actually, There Are a Bunch of Benghazi Conspiracies". Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  53. ^ "Libya crisis: Tensions rise as Tripoli airport seized". BBC. 24 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
  54. ^ "Bombs Hit Sole Civilian Airport in Libyan Capital". New York Times. 24 November 2014. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  55. ^ "Tripoli's Maitiga Airport Hit by Libyan Air Force Jet". International Business Times. 25 November 2014. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  56. ^ "Court issues warrant for Libya's Haftar". Yahoo News. 26 November 2014. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  57. ^ "Libyan parliament confirms Haftar as army chief". Al Jazeera. 2 March 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  58. ^ Lacher, Wolfram (2019). "Who is fighting whom in Tripoli? How the 2019 civil war is transforming Libya's military landscape" (PDF). Security Assessment in North Africa Briefing Paper. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  59. ^ "Libya's eastern commander declares victory in battle for Benghazi". Reuters. 5 July 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  60. ^ "Libya strongman declares Benghazi victory". BBC News. 6 July 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  61. ^ a b "Why is Khalifa Haftar the "biggest single obstacle to peace in Libya"?". Newsweek. 22 July 2016. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  62. ^ a b c "After conquering Benghazi, what will Libya's new strongman do next?". The Economist. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  63. ^ Mary Fitzgerald (7 June 2014). "General Haftar's anti-Islamist campaign divides Libyans". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  64. ^ a b c Ali, Ahmed Salah. "Haftar and Salafism: A Dangerous Game". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  65. ^ "I salafiti di Haftar". www.ilfoglio.it. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  66. ^ "ISIL fighters executed by Haftar's forces in Libya". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  67. ^ "Forces loyal to Libya's Haftar 'burn 6,000 books'". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  68. ^ Missy Ryan (17 August 2016). "A former CIA asset has become a U.S. headache in Libya". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  69. ^ Karim El-Bar (8 July 2016). "REVEALED: Leaked tapes expose Western support for renegade Libyan general". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 17 September 2016. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  70. ^ Karim El-Bar (13 September 2016). "EXCLUSIVE: UAE pilots flying sorties for Haftar in skies over Libya". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  71. ^ Patrick Wintour (14 April 2019). "Libya crisis: Egypt's Sisi backs Haftar assault on Tripoli". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  72. ^ Arab, The New. "Libyan strongman Haftar in Russia for 'military talks'". alaraby. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  73. ^ "Libyan general Khalifa Haftar meets Russian minister to seek help". 29 November 2016. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019 – via www.theguardian.com.
  74. ^ Kravchenko, Stepan; Meyer, Henry. "Bloomberg - Russia Urges Libya Leadership Role for UN-Defying Military Chief". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  75. ^ Editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (9 February 2017). "EU reaches out to Russia to broker deal with Libyan general Haftar". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  76. ^ Bibbo, Barbara. "What is Russia's endgame in Libya?". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  77. ^ a b Cafiero, Giorgio (14 February 2017). "Will Trump and Putin See Eye-to-Eye on Libya?". LobeLog. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  78. ^ a b "Former Dignity Operation commander attacks Khalifa Haftar and threatens to expose his crimes | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  79. ^ "Dignity Operation spokesperson defects, brands Khalifa Haftar a tyrant | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  80. ^ Wintour, Patrick (6 April 2019). "Libya: international community warns Haftar against Tripoli attack". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  81. ^ "Libya army leader Khalifa Haftar orders forces to march on Tripoli". Los Angeles Times. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  82. ^ Mohareb, Hatem; Sarrar, Saleh; Al-Atrush, Samer (6 April 2019). "Libya Lurches Toward Battle for Capital as Haftar Advances". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  83. ^ "Libya's Haftar forces conduct air strikes on Tripoli as U.N. fails to reach truce". Ekurd Daily. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  84. ^ "Airstrikes hit Tripoli as Haftar steps up assault on Libyan capital". The US Breaking News. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  85. ^ "Libya: Evidence of possible war crimes underscores need for international investigation". Amnesty International USA. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  86. ^ Zachary Cohen and Joshua Berlinger. "Libyan general praised by Trump accused of possible war crimes". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 May 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  87. ^ "Haftar vows attacks on Turkish assets in Libya after military setback". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  88. ^ Gurcan, Metin (5 July 2019). "Libya has outsized importance for Turkey's Mediterranean plans". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 6 July 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  89. ^ "Libya: UAE Strike Kills 8 Civilians". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  90. ^ "UAE implicated in lethal drone strike in Libya". BBC News. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  91. ^ Alharathy, Safa (28 April 2019). "Sabha holds municipal council elections". The Libya Observer. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  92. ^ "Project Document – Libya – Local Elections" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 4 February 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  93. ^ "Libyan fighters seize U.S. and Chinese missiles from Haftar's forces". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  94. ^ "Libya's eastern leader Haftar says army to take formal control". Reuters. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  95. ^ "Judge allows US suit against Libyan commander to move ahead". Associated Press News. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  96. ^ "Libyan activist prepares to sue Haftar in USA". Middle East Monitor. 6 November 2017. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  97. ^ "Libyan strongman Khalifa Haftar 'in a coma in Paris hospital'". Telegraph. 12 April 2018. Archived from the original on 13 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  98. ^ "Libyan strongman Haftar in coma after suffering stroke, reports say". Middle East Eye. 12 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
  99. ^ "Libyan strongman Khalifa Haftar 'in a coma in Paris hospital". The Telegraph. 12 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  100. ^ "Libya's most powerful military leader might be dead and that could impact oil markets". CNBC. 19 April 2018. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  101. ^ "East Libya commander Haftar returning after treatment in Paris". Reuters. 25 April 2018. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  102. ^ Stavridis, James (13 April 2019). "Libya's New Warlord Needs to Make Peace". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.

Further readingEdit