List of key works of Carolingian illumination

Key works of Carolingian illumination [de] are those Illuminated manuscripts of the Carolingian period which are recognised in art historical scholarship as works of particular artistic significance (especially those included in general overviews).

The first work to be considered Carolingian is the Godescalc Evangelistary, which was created for Charlemagne between 781 and 783. Until this point, Merovingian and Insular illumination had continued without a breach. The developers of Carolingian illumination were the so-called "court school of Charlemagne" at the Palace of Aachen, which created the manuscripts of the "Ada School [de]." Contemporary was the "Palace School" which was probably based in the same place, but whose artists were from Byzantium or Byzantine Italy. The codices of this school are also known as the "group of the Vienna Coronation Gospels" after their most outstanding examples. After the death of Charlemagne, the centre of illumination shifted to Rheims, Tours and Metz. Since the Court School dominated in the time of Charlemagne, it was more influential in later times than the works of the Palace School. The high point of Carolingian illumination came to an end in the late ninth century. In late Carolingian times a Franco-Saxon School [fr] developed which incorporated forms from insular illumination, before a new epoch began at the end of the tenth century with the development of Ottonian illumination [de]

List of manuscriptsEdit

Image Name Date Location, School Contents Inventory #
Godescalc Evangelistary between 781 and 783 Aachen (?) Evangeliary; six full page miniatures, ornamental decorations, initials and borders; written in gold and silver letters on purple-dyed parchment Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. nouv. acq. lat. 1203
Montpellier Psalter before 788 Mondsee Psalter; two full page miniatures, 165 large and 2000 small initials Montpellier, Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire, Section Médicine, Ms. 409
Ada Gospels c.790, second part at the beginning of the 9th century Aachen, Ada School [de] (Court School of Charlemagne) Evangeliary Trier, Stadtbibliothek [de], Cod. 22
Saint-Martin-des-Champs Gospels [fr] or Paris Arsenal-Gospels c. 790 Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) Evangeliary Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Ms. 599
Dagulf Psalter before 795 Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) Psalter Vienna, Austrian National Library, Ms. 1861
St. Riquier Gospels, or Centula Gospels, or Abbeville Gospels End of the eight century Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) Evangeliary Abbeville, Bibliothèque municipale, Ms. 4
Vienna Coronation Gospels or Reich Gospels shortly before 800 Aachen (?), Vienna Coronation Gospels Group ("Palace School of Charlemagne") Evangeliary; four full-page images of the Evangelists, 16 Canon tables; written with gold and silver letter on purple-dyed parchment Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Schatzkammer Inv. XIII 18
Livinius Gospels [de] c.800 Saint-Amand Abbey (?) Evangeliary; 18 Canon tables, two images of the Evangelists (originally four); Incipit and initial pages Ghent, Sint-Baafskapittel, Ms. 13
Charlemagne Gospels[1] c.800 Aachen, around the Court School of Charlemagne Evangeliary Munich, Universitätsbibliothek München [de], Cim. 1 (= 2° Cod. ms. 29)[2]
Hiltfred Gospels[3] 801/825 France Evangeliary Cologne, Cologne Diocesan Library [de], Dom Hs. 13[4]
Aachen Gospels or Schatzkammer Gospels or Carolingian Gospels Beginning of the 9th century Aachen (?), Vienna Coronation Gospels Group ("Palace School of Charlemagne") Evangeliary Aachen, Cathedral Treasury, Inv.-Nr. 4
Xanten Gospels Beginning of the 9th century Aachen (?), Vienna Coronation Gospels Group ("Palace School of Charlemagne") Evangeliary Brussels, Royal Library of Belgium, Ms. 18732
Gospels of Aachen Anfang des 9. Jahrhunderts Aachen (?), Vienna Coronation Gospels Group ("Palace School of Charlemagne") Evangeliary Brescia, Biblioteca Queriniana, Ms. E. II.9
London Gospel fragment Anfang 9. Jahrhundert Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) A single miniature depicting Luke 1.8-13 London, British Library, Cotton Clausius B.V.
Trier Apocalypse [de] first quarter of the 9th century West Francia Apokalypse; 74 illustrations Trier, Stadtbibliothek, Cod. 31
Codex Aureus of Lorsch c.810 Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) Evangeliary; six full-page miniatures, 12 Canon tables; written in gold and silver letters on purple-dyed parchment Bucharest, National Library of Romania; Vatican City, Vatican Library, Pal. lat. 50
  Harley Golden Gospels c.800 Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) Evangeliary London, British Library, Harley Ms. 2788
Ebbo Gospels between 816 and 835 Rheims Evangeliary Épernay, Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms. 1
Stuttgart Psalter between 820 and 830 Saint-Germain-des-Prés Psalter Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod. bibl. fol. 23
Utrecht Psalter c. 825 Rheims Psalter; 166 line drawings Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht [de], Ms. 484
Vatican Agrimensorum codex c.825 Aachen (?) Text on surveying Vatican City, Vatican Library, Pal. lat. 1564
Vatican Terence c.825 Aachen (?) Terence: Comedies; over 130 illustrations Vatican City, Vatican Library, Vat. lat. 3868
Bern Physiologus between 825 and 850 Rheims Physiologus; 25 framed and 10 unframed miniatures Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Codex Bongarsianus 318
Fleury Gospels between 825 and 850 Fleury Evangeliary Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Codex 348
Psalter of Louis the German [fr] second quarter of the 9th century Saint-Omer Psalter Berlin, State Library, Ms. theol. lat. fol. 58
Gospels of St. Medard de Soissons before 827 Aachen, Ada School (Court School of Charlemagne) Evangeliary; Six full-page miniatures and 12 canon tables; written with gold and silver letters on purple-dyed parchment Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 8850
Leiden Aratea between 830 and 840 Lotharingia (Aachen or Metz) Latin verse translation of Aratos' Phainomena by Germanicus with additions from Avienus' translation; 35 full-page miniatures (four images missing) Leiden, Leiden University Library, Voss. lat. Q 79
Bamberg Bible between 834 and 843 Tours Bible Bamberg, State Library, Msc.Bibl.1
Moutier-Grandval Bible [fr] c.840 Tours Bible; four full-page miniatures London, British Library, Add. Ms. 10546
Codex Vaticanus Reginensis latinus 124 c. 840 Fulda Rabanus Maurus: De laudibus sanctae crucis [de] Vatican, Vatican Library, Reg. lat. 124
Fulda Gospels [de] c.840 Fulda Evangeliary Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek [de], Mp. theol. fol. 66
Madrid Handbook of 809 c.840 Metz Handbook of 809; 52 illustrations of the constellations Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Cod. 3307
Drogo Sacramentary 842 Metz Sakramentary; 41 historicising initials Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 9428
Bamberger Boethius c.845 Tours Boethius: De institutione arithmetica libri II Bamberg, State Library, Msc.Class.5
First Bible of Charles the Bald or Vivian Bible 845/846 Tours Bible; eight full-page miniatures, four canon tables, 87 initials Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 1
Prayer book of Charles the Bald [de] between 846 and 869 Court School of Charles the Bald Oldest royal prayer book; two full-page miniatures, one full-page decorative initial Munich, Treasury of the Residenz, ResMü. Schk0004-WL
Lothaire Gospels between 849 and 851 Tours Evangeliary; six miniatures, nine framed incipit pages, twelve canon tables, 18 framed chapter indices, and five initials. Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 266
Prüm Gospels c.850 Tours Evangeliary; five miniature, initials, canon tables, frames Berlin, State Library, Ms. theol. lat. fol. 733
Gospels of Cleves [de] or Emperor Lothair's Gospels before 852 Aachen, Court School of Emperor Lothair Evangeliar Berlin, State Library, Ms. theol. Lat. folio 260
Paris Terence second half of the ninth century Rheims Terence: Comodies; 148 illustrations Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 7899
Gospels of Francis II second half of the ninth century Saint-Amand Evangeliary Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 257
Gospels of St. Denis[5] second half of the ninth century north or north east France Evangeliary Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 9387
Golden Psalter of St. Gallen begun c. 860 and continued from 870 to 900 St. Denis (?) (Court School of Charles the Bald), later continued at St. Gall Psalter; two full-page miniatures, 15 full or half page illustrations on the Psalm titles St. Gall, Abbey Library, Cod. Sang. 22
Düsseldorf, Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, B. 113 second third of the 9th century Rheims Evangeliary Düsseldorf, University and State Library, B. 113
Bern Prudentius last third of the 9th century Reichenau [de] (?) Prudentius: Poetry Bern, Burgerbibliothek, Codex Bongarsianus 264
Psalter of Charles the Bald [de] after 869 St. Denis (?) (Court School of Charles the Bald) Psalter Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Ms. lat. 1152
Sacramentary of Charles the Bald [fr] or Metz Sacramentary c. 870 Metz or St. Denis (?) (Court School of Charles the Bald) Sakramentary (Fragment, 10 leaves); five full-page miniatures and two initial pages Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 1141
Codex Aureus of St. Emmeram c. 870 St. Denis (?) (Court School of Charles the Bald) Sacramentary; seven full-page miniatures, 12 canon tables, 10 ornamental pages Munich, Bavarian State Library, Clm 14000
Bible of San Paolo fuori le Mura or Bible of Charles the Bald c. 870 St. Denis (?) (Court School of Charles the Bald) Bible; 24 (originally 25) title miniatures, four canon tables, 35 decorative pages, 91 initials; written in gold and silver letters on purple-dyed parchment Rome, San Paolo fuori le mura, n/a.
Folchard Psalter c.870 St. Gall Psalter St. Gall, Abbey Library, Cod. Sang. 23
Second Bible of Charles the Bald [fr] between 871 and 873 St. Amand Bible Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, Ms. lat. 2
Prague Gospels late 9th century St. Vaast Evangeliar; 15 canon tables, eight miniatures, framed incipit and initial pages Prague, Kapitulni Knihovna, Cim. 2

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Harald Wolter-von dem Knesebeck: Evangeliar Karls des Großen. In: Peter van den Brink, Sarvenaz Ayooghi (Edd.): Karl der Große – Charlemagne. Karls Kunst. Dresden 2014, pp. 236–237 (with Biblio.).
  2. ^ Charlemagne Gospels on the website of the Universitätsbibliothek München.
  3. ^ Hiltfred-Evangeliar in Kulturelles Erbe Köln.
  4. ^ Catalogie entry on the Codices Electronici Ecclesiae Coloniensis.
  5. ^ Gospels of St. Denis in the Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; Charlotte Denoël: Evangeliar aus Saint-Denis. In: Peter van den Brink, Sarvenaz Ayooghi (Ed.): Karl der Große – Charlemagne. Karls Kunst. Dresden 2014, pp. 192–194 (with Biblio.).

BibliographyEdit

  • Florentine Mütherich, Joachim E. Gaehde: Karolingische Buchmalerei. Prestel, München 1979. ISBN 3-7913-0395-3
  • Hermann Fillitz: "Propyläen–Kunstgeschichte," Vol 5: Das Mittelalter 1. Propyläen–Verlag, Berlin 1990. ISBN 3-549-05105-0
  • Hans Holländer: "Die Entstehung Europas," in: Belser Stilgeschichte, Studienausgabe, Vol 2, edited by Christoph Wetzel, pp. 153–384. Belser, Stuttgart 1993 [on illumination pp. 241–255]
  • Christoph Stiegemann, Matthias Wemhoff: 799. Kunst und Kultur der Karolingerzeit. Katalog der Ausstellung Paderborn 1999, Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1999. ISBN 3-8053-2456-1
  • Kunibert Bering: Kunst des frühen Mittelalters (Kunst–Epochen, Vol. 2). Reclam, Stuttgart 2002. ISBN 3-15-018169-0
  • Ingo F. Walther, Norbert Wolf: Meisterwerke der Buchmalerei. Taschen, Köln. 2005, ISBN 3-8228-4747-X
  • Peter van den Brink, Sarvenaz Ayooghi (Hrsg.): Karl der Große – Charlemagne. Karls Kunst. Katalog der Sonderausstellung Karls Kunst vom 20. Juni bis 21. September 2014 im Centre Charlemagne, Aachen. Sandstein, Dresden 2014, ISBN 978-3-95498-093-2 (on illumination passim).