Kala Chitta Range
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Kala Chitta Range (in Punjabi and Urdu: کالا چٹا Kālā Chiṭṭā) is a mountain range in the Attock District of Punjab, Pakistan. Kala- Chitta are Punjabi words meaning Kala the Black and Chitta means the white. The range thrusts eastward across the Potohar plateau towards Rawalpindi.
|Elevation||841 m (2,759 ft)|
|Native name||کالا چٹا (Punjabi)|
|Provinces||Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa|
Pakistan's Kuldana Formation is best known for its fossil mammals, including primitive cetaceans such as Pakicetus and their close relatives. Kuldana mammals have been considered in different studies as early Luthecians (early Middle Eocene), late Ypresians (late early Eocene) or, recently, they encompass much of Ypresians up to early Lutheian time (early part of the early Eocene to early Eocene medium).
The Kuldana Formation is located in the Kata Chita hills and is a thin, 20-120 m thick tongue of low-lying continental red beds that lie within a much thicker sequence of foraminifera-rich marine formations. Shallow planktonic and benthic foraminifera limit the age of the Kuldana Formation to the late early or early middle Eocene, and the current interpretation of global sea level stratigraphy favours the latter.
The short duration of the low-water interval when Kuldana mammals are encountered means that differences between samples likely represent differences in local living environments, deposition sites, and sampling, rather than a substantial difference in age.
The Kohat formation consists of calcareous shale and light grey limestone. It lies on top of the Kuldana formation and intermingles with the Murree formation of the Rawalpindi group. Formation in the middle Eocene.
- "The Salt Range and Potwar Plateau". Plains and Plateaus of Pakistan. Pakistan Paedia. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Gringerich, Philip. "Stratigraphic and micropaleontological constraints on the middle Eocene age of the mammal-bearing Kuldana Formation of Pakistan". doi:10.1671/2409. Retrieved 10 September 2020. Cite journal requires
- Hamid, Hussein. "Structural Evolution of the Kohat Fold and Thrust Belt in the Shakardarra Area (South Eastern Kohat, Pakistan)". Geosciences. doi:10.3390/geosciences8090311.