Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russian: Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ), in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (110 km north of Moscow), Russia, is an international research center for nuclear sciences, with 5500 staff members, 1200 researchers including 1000 Ph.Ds from eighteen states (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus and Kazakhstan), members of the institution. Most scientists, however, are eminent Russian scientists.
|Formation||March 26, 1956|
|Headquarters||Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia|
|English and Russian|
|Victor A. Matveev|
|Victor A. Matveev|
The Institute has seven laboratories, each with its own specialisation: theoretical physics, high energy physics (particle physics), heavy ion physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear reactions, neutron physics, and information technology. The institute has a division to study radiation and radiobiological research and other ad hoc experimental physics experiments.
Principal research instruments include a nuclotron superconductive particle accelerator (particle energy: 7 GeV), three isochronic cyclotrons (120, 145, 650 MeV), a phasotron (680 MeV) and a synchrophasotron (4 GeV). The site has a neutron fast-pulse reactor (1500MW pulse) with nineteen associated instruments receiving neutron beams.
The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research was established on the basis of an agreement signed on March 26, 1956 in Moscow by representatives of the governments of the eleven founding countries, with a view to combining their scientific and material potential. The USSR contributed 50 percent, the People's Republic of China 20 percent. On February 1, 1957, JINR was registered by the United Nations. The Institute is located in Dubna, 120 km north of Moscow.
At the time of the creation of JINR, the Institute of Nuclear Problems (INP) of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR already existed at the site of the future Dubna since the late 1940s, and it launched a program of fundamental and applied research at the synchrocyclotron. The Electrophysics Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (EFLAN) was established, and under the guidance of Academician Vladimir Veksler, work began to create a new accelerator - a proton synchrophasotron - with a record energy of 10 GeV at that time.
By the mid-1950s, there was a worldwide consensus that nuclear science should be accessible and that only broad cooperation could ensure the progressive development of this research, as well as the peaceful use of atomic energy. Thus, in 1954, near CERN, CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) was established. At about the same time, the countries that belonged to the socialist community decided to establish a Joint Institute for Nuclear Research on the basis of the INP and EFLAN.
The first director of the United Institute was Professor D. I. Blokhintsev, who just completed the creation of Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant the world's first nuclear power plant in Obninsk. The first vice-directors of JINR were professors Marian Danysz (Poland) and V. Votruba (Czechoslovakia).
The history of the formation of the United Institute is connected with the names of such prominent scientists and leaders of science as Nikolay Bogolyubov, Leopold Infeld, Igor Kurchatov , G. Nevodnichansky, AM Petrosyants, E. Slavsky, Igor Tamm, A. V. Topchiev, H. Hulubey, L. Janos and others.
In the formation of the main scientific directions and the development of the Institute, outstanding physicists:
- Alexander Baldin
- Wang Ganchang
- Vladimir Veksler
- Nikolay Govorun
- M. Gmitro
- Venedikt Dzhelepov
- I. Zvara
- I. Zlatev (bols. Ivan Zlatev)
- D. Kish
- N. Kroo (Hungarian Norbert Kroó)
- Jaroslav Kožešník
- Karl Lanius
- Le Van Thiem
- Moisey Markov
- VA Matveev
- MG Meshcheryakov
- Georgi Nadjakov
- Nguyen Van Hieu
- Yuri Oganessian
- L. Pal
- Heinz Pose
- Bruno Pontecorvo
- VP Sarantsev
- N. Sodnoy
- R. Sosnovski
- A. Sandulescu (Aureliu Săndulescu)
- Albert Tavkhelidze
- I. Todorov
- I. Ulegla
- I. Ursu
- Georgy Flyorov
- Ilya Frank
- H. Hristov
- A. Hrynkiewicz (Polish Andrzej Hrynkiewicz), Șerban Țițeica
- F. Shapiro
- Dmitry Shirkov
- D. Ebert
- Heinz Barwich
- E. Yanik (Polish: Jerzy Janik)
The JINR cooperates with many organizations. One of the main organizations with which JINR coopeates is UNESCO; its collaboration with JINR started in 1997 in order to develop basic sciences and try to achieve sustainable development. Joint activities include training programmes and grant mechanisms for researchers in the basic science. This international scientific cooperation and knowledge sharing in key scientific fields is one of the main 2030 UNESCO goals, the achievement of Sustainable Development. The United Nations General Assembly and UNESCO General Conference named 2019 as The International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements (IYPTE 2019); this reinforced the cooperation between this two organization.. in addition, JINR is one of the observers of European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).
The JINR members are 18 states:
Associate members are:
Scientific collaboration with organizations including:
The JINR has eight laboratories and University Centre:
- Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (BLTP)
- Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies (VBLHE)
- Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP)
- Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (DLNP)
- Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR)
- Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (FLNP)
- Laboratory of Information Technologies (LIT)
- Laboratory of Radiation Biology (LRB)
- University Centre (UC)
Experimental physics workshops are also parts of the institute.
Superheavy Element FactoryEdit
The Superheavy Element Factory (SHE factory) at the JINR, opened in 2019, is a new experimental complex dedicated to superheavy element research. Its facilities enable a tenfold increase in beam intensity; such an increase in sensitivity enables the study of reactions with lower cross sections that would otherwise be inaccessible. Sergey Dmitriev, director of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, believes that the SHE factory will enable closer examination of nuclei near the limits of stability, as well as experiments aimed at the synthesis of elements 119 and 120.
Fields of researchEdit
The main fields of the Institute's research are:
More than 40 major discoveries have been made.
- 1959 – nonradiative transitions in mesoatoms
- 1960 – antisigma-minus hyperon
- 1966 – element 102 (nobelium)
- 1972 – postradiative regeneration of cells
- 1973 – quark counting rule
- 1975 – phenomenon of slow neutron confinement
- 1988 – regularity of resonant formation of muonic molecules in deuterium
- 1999-2005 – elements 113 (nihonium), 114 (flerovium), 115 (moscovium), 116 (livermorium), and 118 (oganesson)
- 2006 – chemical identification of element 112 (copernicium)
- 2010 – successful synthesis of element 117 (tennessine)
In 1961 the JINR Prizes were instituted.
- JINR Prize 1961
- A group of physicists headed by Wang Ganchang, deputy director from 1958 to 1960 and the Soviet Professor Vladimir Veksler was awarded the first prize for the discovery of antisigma-minus hyperon. The experimental group led by Professor Wang Ganchang, analysed more than 40,000 photographs which recorded tens of thousands of nuclear interactions taken in the propane bubble chamber, produced by the 10 GeV synchrophasotron used to bombard a target forming high energy mesons, was the first to discover the anti-sigma minus hyperon particles on March 9, 1959:
- The discovery of this new unstable antiparticle which decays in (1.18±0.07)·10−10 s into an antineutron and a negative pion was announced in September of that year:
Georgy Flyorov, founder of JINR
- "International Intergovermental Organization Joint Institute for Nuclear Research" (PDF). Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. July 18, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 23, 2011. Retrieved August 12, 2008.
- Объединенный институт ядерных исследований (Дубна)
- Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, M.; Oganessian, Y. (2016). "Status and perspectives of the Dubna superheavy element factory" (PDF). EPJ Web of Conferences. 131 (08001): 1–6. doi:10.1051/epjconf/201613108001.
- "Inauguration of the Factory of superheavy elements". Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. 26 March 2019. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
- Glanz, James (April 6, 2010). "Scientists Discover Heavy New Element". The New York Times.
- "50thAnniversary of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research" (PDF). Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. October 27, 2003. Retrieved August 11, 2008.[dead link]
- "王淦昌的科学贡献". 电动力学网络教程. 2006-06-01. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved August 4, 2008.