John William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
Johann Wilhelm, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
|Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg|
|Reign||5 January 1592 –|
25 March 1609
|Born||28 May 1562|
|Died||25 March 1609(aged 46)|
(m. 1585; died 1597)
Antonia of Lorraine
|Father||William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg|
|Mother||Maria of Austria|
His parents were William the Rich, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1516–92) and Maria of Austria (1531–81), a daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. He grew up and was educated in Xanten. Johann Wilhelm became Bishop of Münster. However, after the unexpected death of his elder brother Karl Friedrich, Wilhelm was needed to succeed his father as Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, a secular fief. He was also Count of Altena. The United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg was a combination of reichsfrei states within the Holy Roman Empire. Johann Wilhelm was first married in 1585 to Jakobea of Baden (d. 1597), daughter of Philibert, Margrave of Baden. He was secondly married to Antonia of Lorraine (d. 1610), daughter of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine. Some believe that Johann Wilhelm also had a morganatic marriage prior to 1585 with Anna op den Graeff, with whom he had a son, Herman op den Graeff.
Upon Duke Johann William's death in 1609, his inheritance was claimed by the heirs of his two eldest sisters: the heir of Maria Eleonora of Cleves (1550–1608), the eldest sister and married to Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, was Anna of Prussia, the Electress of Brandenburg, a Protestant. The second sister was Anna of Cleves (1552–1632), married with Philipp Ludwig, Count Palatine of Neuburg, and her son and heir was the then Count Palatine of Neuburg, a Catholic.
The disputes of the epoch between Protestants and Catholics escalated, leading to the Thirty Years' War in 1618; the succession dispute became part of the war. Ultimately, Brandenburg received Cleves-Mark and Neuburg received Jülich-Berg, after the lands had been trampled under military several times and lost much of the fabled wealth so renowned in Duke Wilhelm's time. Among his court servants and employees were the composer Konrad Hagius.
- Wim Janse, Barbara Pitkin The Formation of Clerical And Confessional Identities in Early ... 2006 - Page 400 "By then, the Jülich-Kleve succession crisis was already simmering as Wilhelm (1516-92), the old, senile duke was dead, leaving the duchies to his mad and childless son, Johann Wilhelm (1562-1609).10 The details of the succession crisis are ..."
- "Unsichere Verwandtschaft". De Graeff, Op den Graeff (in German). Retrieved 2018-10-30.. Some claim the records were destroyed in the conflict between Protestants and Catholics at the time but regardless because Anna op den Graeff was of low social rank, Johann Wilhelm's titles and privileges were not passed on to their son and he was considered officially without an heir
- Claudia Swan Art, Science and Witchcraft in Early Modern Holland 2005 -- Page 225 "Like Weyer, but nearly half a century later, Guazzo served the court at Cleves; he served as physician to Duke Johann Wilhelm of Cleves (1562-1609), to whom he dedicated his book. "
John William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-BergBorn: 28 May 1562 Died: 25 March 1609
|Catholic Church titles|
John III of Hoya
| Prince-Bishop of Münster
as administrator regnant
Ernest of Bavaria
William the Rich
| Duke of Cleves,
Count of Mark,
Count of Ravensberg
Title next held byJohn Sigismund,
Elector of Brandenburg
| Duke of Jülich-Berg
Title next held byWolfgang Wilhelm,
Count Palatine of Neuburg