John Sell Cotman
John Sell Cotman
Portrait by Alfred Clint (undated), Norfolk Museums Collections
|Died||24 May 1842(aged 60)|
|Known for||Landscape painting|
|Movement||Norwich School of painters|
Born in Norwich, the son of a silk merchant and lace dealer, Cotman was educated at the Norwich Grammar School. He showed an early talent for art. It was intended that he followed his father into the family business but, intent on a career in art, he moved to London in 1798, where he met artists such as J. M. W. Turner, Peter de Wint and Thomas Girtin, whose sketching club he joined, and whom he travelled with to Wales and Surrey. By 1800 he was exhibiting at the Royal Academy, showing scenes of the Welsh countryside there in 1801 and 1802. His drawing expeditions took him throughout southern Britain, including Yorkshire, where he stayed with the Cholmeley family during the three summers of 1803–5.
John Sell Cotman was born in Norwich, on 16 May 1782, the son of Edmund Cotman, a prosperous silk merchant and lace dealer, and his wife Ann Sell. They were married on 3 April 1781 at St. Mary Coslany, Norwich, the same church that their son John Sell was baptised on 9 June 1782. The family name was written as Cottman in the parish baptism record, which has survived.
His father intended him to go into the family business but instead, intent on a career in art, he moved to London in 1798, initially making a living through commissions from print-sellers. He came under the patronage of Dr. Thomas Munro, physician to the Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals, whose house in Adelphi Terrace was a studio and a meeting place for artists. There, Cotman made the acquaintance of the artists J. M. W. Turner, Peter de Wint and Thomas Girtin, who became an influential figure in his artistic development. He joined a sketching club started by Girtin, and went on drawing expeditions with him to Wales and Surrey.
In 1800 Cotman exhibited at the Royal Academy for the first time, showing five scenes of Surrey and one of Harlech Castle. He is thought to have spent the summers of 1800 and 1801 touring Wales, as he showed Welsh scenes at the Royal Academy in 1801 and 1802. In 1800 he was awarded an honorary palette by the Society of Arts. He continued to exhibit at the Academy until 1806, and went on extended drawing trips through England and Wales. In the three summers of 1803–5 he stayed with the Cholmeley family at Brandsby Hall in Yorkshire. On the last of these three visits, he made a series of watercolours of the River Greta.
Return to NorwichEdit
While based in London, Cotman had spent some time in Norwich, and in September 1802 he advertised his services as teacher of drawing in the Norwich Mercury. In 1806 he returned to live in Norwich. He joined the Norwich Society of Artists and exhibited 20 works, including six portraits, at the society's exhibition in 1807. In 1808, the 67 works he exhibited included oil paintings. He became President of the Society in 1811.
His main living came from teaching art and one of his students, the local antiquary Dawson Turner, became a good friend, introducing him to many pupils and collaborating on one of his books. As part of his teaching Cotman operated his own version of a watercolour subscription library, so that his pupils could take home his drawings to copy. Many of his works bear numbers related to this scheme.
In 1811, his first set of etchings was published; all but one of the subjects were architectural, mostly buildings in Yorkshire. From 1812 to 1820 he published a set of 60 etchings of the ancient buildings of Norfolk. In 1817, 1818 and 1820 he visited Normandy with Dawson Turner, making drawings of buildings. Two years later he published a set of 100 etchings based on sketches made during his Normandy tour. After these visits the character of his paintings changed, the later ones being brighter in colour.
From 1812 to 1823, Cotman lived on the coast at Great Yarmouth, where he studied shipping and mastered the form of waves. Some of his finest marine pieces date from this time. He returned to Norwich in 1824, hoping to improve his financial position, and moved into a large house in St Martin's Plain, opposite the Bishop's Palace, where he built up a collection of prints, books, armour and many models of ships to aid his compositions. He showed work from 1823 to 1825 at the Norwich Society of Artists' annual exhibitions.
In 1825, Cotman became an Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours and was a frequent exhibitor there until 1839. However he was driven to despair by his constant financial struggles.
King's College, LondonEdit
In January 1834, Cotman was appointed Master of Landscape Drawing at King's College School in London, partly on the recommendation of J. M. W. Turner. In 1836, his son Miles Edmund Cotman was appointed to assist him. The poet and artist Dante Gabriel Rossetti was one of his pupils. In London, Cotman was friends with the artists James Stark, George Cattermole, Samuel Prout and Cornelius Varley. In 1836, he became an honorary member of the Institute of British Architects. In 1838, all of his etchings were published by Henry George Bohn, including "Liber Studiorum".
Cotman died in July 1842, and was buried in the cemetery at St. John's Wood Chapel. All his works and collection of prints and books were sold by auction at Christie's, realising just over £525 – a relatively paltry sum.
John Sell Cotman married Ann Miles, one of four daughters of a Felbrigg farmer. They were married at Felbrigg parish church near Cromer on 6 January 1809. Cotman remained devoted to his wife throughout heir married life together. They moved to London during the spring of 1809, and their eldest child Miles Edmund Cotman was born on 5 February the following year. After the family moved to Great Yarmouth in April 1812, their daughter Ann was born in July 1812, followed by three more sons, John Joseph Cotman, (Francis) Walter, and Alfred Henry. who were born in 1814, 1816 and 1819 respectively. A sixth daughter was born in 1822.
Cotman painted The Toy Boat, a watercolour of himself and his daughter, in c.1815. He and his children sailed around the Yarmouth area on their boat 'Jessie' when they were older.
His depression affected his family, as revealed in a letter dated 26 June 1829:
My eldest son, who is following the same miserable profession with myself feels the same hopelessness; and his powers, once so promising, are evidently paralized, and his health and spirits gone. My amiable and deserving wife bears her part with fortitude. But the worm is there. My children cannot but feel the contagion. As a husband and father, bound by every tie human and divine to cherish and protect them, I leave you to suppose how impossible it must be for me to feel one joy divided from them. I watch them, and they me, narrowly; and I see enough to make me broken-hearted.— John Sell Cotman, (Lawrence Binyon, John Sell Cotman)
In 1834 his eldest son Miles Edmund remained in Norwich to work as an art teacher, when the rest of the Cotman family moved to London upon the appointment of John Sell Cotman as a Professor of Drawing at King's College. A year after his move to London, Mile Edmund himself moved to London, becoming his father's assistant after his brother John Joseph moved back to Norwich. His sons Miles Edmund and John Joseph Cotman later became painters of note. Miles Edmund succeeded his father as drawing master at King's College in 1843.
Cotman worked in oils, watercolour, pencil and chalk, and produced many hundreds of etchings. His works are on public display in Norwich, where well over 2,000 works are held, as well as at the Leeds Art Gallery, the Tate Gallery, the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, and other regional centres. In the United States, there are works by Cotman at the Yale Center for British Art in New Haven, Connecticut, and in other galleries around the country.
Cotman’s work was not thought to be important during his lifetime, and he made little from sales of his paintings and drawings. His architectural etchings have long been considered as a valuable records of his passion for archaeology.
- Liber Studiorum (produced between 1805 and 1814, published in 1838)
- Etchings of Ancient Buildings in England (1811)
- Specimens of Norman and Gothic Architecture in the County of Norfolk (1817)
- Excursions in the County of Norfolk, volumes 1 and 2 (1818)
- Sepulchral brasses in Norfolk and Suffolk, volumes 1 (Norfolk) and 2 (Suffolk) (1819)
- Architectural Antiquities of Normandy, by John Sell Cotman; accompanied by historical and descriptive notices by Dawson Turner, Esq. F.R. and A.S (1822)
- "John Sell Cotman in "Archdeacons transcripts for Norwich parishes, 1600-1812". FamilySearch. Retrieved 25 November 2019. (registration required)
- "Baptisms, Marriages and Burials (Norwich parishes 1771-1788) in "Archdeacons transcripts for Norwich parishes, 1600-1812"". FamilySearch. Retrieved 25 November 2019. (registration required)
- Cundall 1920, pp. 1, 17.
- Binyon 1897, p. 49.
- Binyon 1897, p. 50.
- Lyles & Hamlyn 1997, p. 206.
- Binyon 1897, pp. 52-52.
- Binyon 1897, p. 56.
- Binyon 1897, p. 60.
- Binyon 1897, p. 64.
- Binyon 1897, p. 67.
- Binyon 1897, p. 71.
- Binyon 1897, p. 72.
- Binyon 1897, p. 75.
- Binyon 1897, p. 76.
- Kitson 1937, p. 127.
- Kitson 1937, p. 128.
- Kitson 1937, p. 129.
- Kitson 1937, p. 132.
- Kitson 1937, p. 159.
- Kitson 1937, p. 164.
- Kitson 1937, pp. 75-6.
- Binyon 1897, p. 80.
- Binyon 1897, p. 85.
- Binyon 1897, p. 92.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Ray 1976, p. 49.
- Binyon, Laurence (1897). "John Sell Cotman". John Crome and John Sell Cotman. London: Seeley & Co. LCCN 10012634.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) .
- Cundall, Herbert Minton (1920). The Norwich School. London: The Studio Ltd. OCLC 472125860.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kitson, Sydney Decimus (1937). The life of John Sell Cotman. London: Faber & Faber. OCLC 1017287302.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lyles, Anne; Hamlyn, Robin (1997). British Watercolours from the Oppé Collection. London: Tate Gallery. OCLC 39887257.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ray, Gordon Norton (1976). The Illustrator and the Book in England from 1790 to 1914. London: Constable and Company Ltd. ISBN 0-486-26955-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bell, C.F. (1926). John Sell Cotman (The Bulwer Collection). London: Walker's Galleries (Walker's Quarterly). OCLC 1047498486.
- Dickes, William Frederick (1905). The Norwich school of painting: being a full account of the Norwich exhibitions, the lives of the painters, the lists of their respecitve exhibits and descriptions of the pictures. Norwich: Jarrold & Sons Ltd. OCLC 558218061.
- Green, Andrew (2019). "John Sell Cotman in Wales". gwallter. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- Hemingway, Andrew (1980). "The English Piranesi: Cotman's Architectural Prints". The Volume of the Walpole Society. 48: 210–244.
- Hill, David (2005). Cotman in the North: Watercolours of Durham and Yorkshire. New Haven, Connecticut; London: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10704-3.
- Holcomb, Adele M.; Rajnai, Miklós (1978). John Sell Cotman. London: British Museum Publications. OCLC 1075282596.
- Holcomb, Adele M.; Ashcroft, M.Y. (1980). John Sell Cotman in the Cholmeley archive. Northallerton: North Yorkshire County Council. ISBN 978-0-906035-12-2.
- Moore, Andrew & others (2005). John Sell Cotman: master of watercolour. Norfolk Museums Service. ISBN 0-903101-78-5.
- Moore, Andrew W. "Cotman, John Sell (1782–1842)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6390. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Popham, A.E. (October 1922). "The Etchings of John Sell Cotman". Print Collector's Quarterly (9): 236–273.
- Rajnai, Miklós (1982). John Sell Cotman, 1782-1842. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-1520-3.
- Rajnai, Miklós; Allthorpe-Guyton, Marjorie (1979). John Sell Cotman, 1782-1842: early drawings (1798-1812). Norwich: Norfolk Museums Service.
- Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1887). . Dictionary of National Biography. 12. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 285–87.
- Turner, Dawson (1822). Architectural antiquities of Normandy, by John Sell Cotman; accompanied by historical and descriptive notices by Dawson Turner. London: Arel.
- Wilton, Andrew; Lyles, Anne (1993). The Great Age of British Watercolours, 1750–1880. Prestel. ISBN 3-7913-1254-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Sell Cotman.|
- 62 paintings by or after John Sell Cotman at the Art UK site
- Works by Cotman in the Norfolk Museums Collections
- J S Cotman from the ArtCyclopedia.
- The Cotman Collection at Leeds Art Gallery
- Works by Cotman at the British Museum.
- John Sell Cotman at Find a Grave
- 17 works by Cotman at the Cleveland Museum of Art.
- Plates from Cotman's Liber Studiorum (1838).
- 129 works by (or associated with) John Sell Cotman held by the National Trust
- 67 works by John Sell Cotman at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- Biography by Bruce MacEvoy from handprint.com.