John I, Duke of Brabant
John I of Brabant, also called John the Victorious (1252/1253 – 3 May 1294) was Duke of Brabant (1267–1294), Lothier and Limburg (1288–1294). During the 13th century, John I was venerated as a folk hero. He has been painted as the perfect model of a brave, adventurous and chivalrous feudal prince.
John going to battle, from the Codex Manesse
|Duke of Brabant and Lothier|
|Duke of Limburg|
|Predecessor||Reginald I of Guelders|
|Died||3 May 1294 (aged 41 or 42)|
|Spouse||Margaret of France|
Margaret of Flanders
|Issue||John II, Duke of Brabant|
Margaret, Holy Roman Empress
Marie, Countess of Savoy
|House||House of Reginar|
|Father||Henry III, Duke of Brabant|
|Mother||Adelaide of Burgundy|
|Coat of arms|
Born in Leuven, he was the son of Henry III, Duke of Brabant and Aleidis of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy. He was also an older brother of Maria of Brabant, Queen consort of Philip III of France. In 1267 his older brother Henry IV, Duke of Brabant, being mentally deficient, was deposed in his favour.
John's greatest military victory was the Battle of Worringen 1288, by which John I came to reign over the Duchy of Limburg. He was completely outnumbered in forces but led the successful invasion into the Rhineland to defeat the confederacy. In 1288 Limburg was formally attached to Brabant.
John I was said to be a model of feudal prince: brave, adventurous; excelling in every form of active exercise, fond of display, and generous in temper. He was considered one of the most gifted princes of his time. This made him very popular in Middle Ages poetry and literature. Even today there exists an ode to him, so well known that it was a potential candidate to be the North Brabant anthem. John I delighted in tournaments and was always eager to take part in jousts. He was also famous for his many illegitimate children.
On 3 May 1294 at some marriage festivities at Bar-le-Duc, John I was mortally wounded in the arm in an encounter by Pierre de Bausner. He was buried in the church of the Order of Friars Minor (Minderbroederskerk) in Brussels, but since the Protestant iconoclasm (Beeldenstorm) in 1566, nothing remains of his tomb.
Family and childrenEdit
- Godfrey (1273/74 – aft. 13 September 1283).
- John II of Brabant (1275–1312).
- Margaret (4 October 1276 – 14 December 1311, Genoa), married 9 July 1292 to Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor.
- Marie (d. after 2 December 1338), married to Count Amadeus V of Savoy.
John I had several illegitimate children:
The duke is remembered in the folkish song Harbalorifa that remains popular. The popular Dutch beer Hertog Jan was named after the duke. Also the beer Primus of the Haacht Brewery is named after John I (Jan Primus)
|Ancestors of John I, Duke of Brabant|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John I, Duke of Brabant.|
- Harrie Beex www.bossche-encyclopedie.nl
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 445. .
- Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study in Colonial And Medieval Families, 2nd edition, ed. Kimball G. Everingham, (Genealogical Publishing Company, 2004), 121.
- J.F. Verbruggen, The Battle of the Golden Spurs (Courtrai, 11 July 1302), ed. Kelly DeVries, transl. David Richard Ferguson, (Boydell Press, 2002), 8.
- Messager des sciences historiques, ou, Archives des arts et de la bibliographie de Belgique. Impr. et Lithographie de L. Hebbelynck. 1889. p. 194.
- Het lied van Hertog Jan www.codeximperium.be
- Douglas Richardson (2013) Royal Ancestry, Vol.1 pp.499-503 (Brabant), Vol.2 pp.28-31 (Burgundy), Vol.3 pp.469-472 (Dreux).
- H. Barlandus, Rerum gestarum a Brabantiae ducibus historia usque in annum 1526 (Leuven, 1566)
- G. C. van der Berghe, Jean le Victorieux, duc de Brabant (1259–1294), (Leuven, 1857)
- K. F. Stallaert, Gesch. v. Jan I. van Braband en zijne tijdvak (Brussels, 1861)
- A. Wauters, Le Duc Jean Ier et le Brabant sous le règne de ce prince (Brussels, 1859)
| Duke of Brabant and Lothier
| Duke of Limburg|