Jirair Sefilian (Armenian: Ժիրայր Սեֆիլեան (classical), Ժիրայր Սեֆիլյան (reformed); born 10 July 1967) is a Lebanese-born Armenian military commander and political activist. In 1992 he became the commander of the Shushi special military battalion, playing a significant role during the Battle of Shusha. In 1997-1998 Sefilian was the Artsakh Defense Army Brigade Commander. He is campaigning against any territorial concessions to Azerbaijan. Sefilian is one of the key figures of the Sasna Tsrer Pan-Armenian Party.
Sefilian in 2012
|Born||10 July 1967|
Republic of Artsakh
|Service/||Armed Forces of Armenia|
|Years of service||1983–1998|
|Commands held||Shushi Military Company|
NKR Defense Army Brigade
|Battles/wars||Lebanese Civil War|
Early and personal lifeEdit
Sefilian graduated from Kevork Chatalbashian College in Beirut in 1986. During the Lebanese Civil War, he took part in the defense of the Armenian Quarters of Beirut (mainly Bourj Hammoud) from 1983 to 1990.
In 1990, with the purpose of participating in the Karabakh movement he was sent to Armenia by the ARF (Dashnaktsutyun), Sefilian moved to Armenia with his family. As a military instructor, he was involved in the formation of self-defense units in Karabakh and Syunik. In 1991, as a military detachment commander, Sefilian took part in the defense of several districts of Nagorno-Karabakh. In 1992 he was chosen by the A.R.F to be the commander of the Shushi special military company, playing a significant role during the Battle of Shusha. He also participated in other battles, including the Capture of Aghdam, Battle of Kalbajar, Mardakert and Martuni Offensives.
Following the Nagorno-Karabakh War, in 1997-1998 he was the Artsakh Defense Army Brigade Commander. Sefilian was awarded with the First Degree Order of the Combat Cross (“Martakan Khach”). He is an army lieutenant-colonel of Armenia. In 1999 he left the A.R.F. Since 2001, Sefilian has been coordinating the activities of the public initiative group, "Liberated territories".
Sefilian and Vartan Malkhasian, the leaders of opposition group called the Alliance of Armenian Volunteers, were arrested in 2006. Human rights observers charged the arrest was politically motivated and that authorities used the controversial article of the Criminal Code to intimidate the opposition. Ombudsman of Armenia Armen Harutyunyan also condemned Sefilian's and his friends' arrest and marked that Sefilian, Vartan Malkhasian, and Vahan Aroyan "didn't break the judicial legislation".
On 6 August 2007, Judge Mnatsakan Martirosyan of the Kentron and Nork-Marash Court of First Instance found Sefilian not guilty of violating Article 301 of Armenia's Criminal Code (issuing anti-constitutional statements), but found him guilty of violating the first section of Article 235 of the Criminal Code (illegal possession of a weapon) and sentenced him to 1.5 years imprisonment.
Sefilian has claimed his innocence and that no crime has been committed on his part: "This is not a court, this is a theater. Even the biggest supporter of the government cannot show evidence of corpus delicti in our actions. This is all an order. The NSS is working to the gain of two people (Robert Kocharyan and Serge Sargsyan). All those who had something to do with this case will eventually answer for it. The famous pair is foolishly trying to punish me and to scare the people. My dear people, we must not fear this anti-Armenian regime, we must struggle against it. This amoral regime is not powerful, we are powerful."
In 2012, the European Court of Human Rights fined the Armenian authorities for keeping Sefilian under pre-trial arrest without sufficient legal grounds. According to the court, the National Security Service had illegally wiretapped Sefilian's phone conversations.
On January 31, 2015 Sefilian and other members of Founding Parliament were forcibly barred from entering the territory of the Republic of Artsakh. The Karabakh police attacked the procession of about 30 cars. More than two dozen people, including Sefilian, were injured. As a result, the Karabakh president ordered a police inquiry into the incident.
On April 8, 2015 Armenian authorities arrested the leaders of “Founding Parliament” opposition group seeking to launch antigovernment protests on April 24. The National Security Service and the Investigative Committee of Armenia announced that “organization of mass disturbances at public places on April 24, 2015 has been thwarted as a result of their joint action". Sefilian and his three associates had their homes searched at the same day. Several human rights organizations of Armenia recognized them as political prisoners. The head of Armenian Helsinki committee Avetik Ishkhanyan called them prisoners of conscience, "because they did not take any action, they do not incite riots, but only aimed civil disobedience".
Sefilian, a Karabakh war hero, and other leading members of the Founding Parliament have been released from custody in May 2015 following a prosecutor's request to change the measure of restraint applied against them to a written undertaking not to leave the area of permanent residence.
On June 30, 2015 the Founding Parliament issued a statement claiming that unidentified individuals were following Sefilian for hours. The political movement demanded Armenian law enforcement to identify the individuals following Sefilian.
On June 20, 2016, Jirair Sefilian was arrested yet again. By message of Special Investigation Service, Jirair Sefilian and a group of people planned to seize buildings and communication facilities, including the Yerevan TV tower.
Varuzhan Avetisian, a senior New Armenia member, claimed that the opposition leader was arrested because he planned to campaign against Armenian territorial concessions to Azerbaijan.
On July 17, 2016 a group of armed men from an opposition group stormed a district police headquarters in Yerevan, holding several hostages. The opposition group Founding Parliament issued a statement demanding the release of political prisoners, including Zhirayr Sefilian.
On August 8, 2016 Sefilian sent a letter from the prison, where he demands Serzh Sargsyan's resignation and snap parliamentary and presidential elections.
Sefilian completed his 18-month sentence on 9 June 2008, and was subsequently released from prison. He was greeted by hundreds of Armenians who came "to congratulate the hero on his liberty". However, Sefilian continues to face the threat of deportation from Armenia and has since begun seeking political asylum and citizenship in the Republic of Artsakh. In 2018 Sefilian was granted Armenian citizenship.
In his letters and announcements made from the prison, Jirair Sefilian supported former Armenian president and opposition leader Levon Ter-Petrosyan despite ideological differences with the latter, but later (in 2009) he criticized Ter-Petrosyan's views on Armenia-Azerbaijan and Armenia-Turkey relations and suggested that he leave the all-Armenian people's movement. On 30 October 2008, Sefilian alongside intellectuals and a group of prominent activists founded the Miatsum (Unification) National Initiative which campaigns against Armenian territorial concessions to Azerbaijan over the Karabakh dispute.
On 8 May 2013, Sefilian stated in an interview that Serzh Sargsyan and Robert Kocharyan had a very small role in the Nagorno-Karabakh War and accused them of corruption. In 2015, along with Raffi Hovannisian, he founded the New Armenia Public Salvation Front to prevent Serj Sargsyan's constitutional change initiative. He was also the leader of the Founding Parliament opposition group.
|Armenia||Order of the Combat Cross of the First Degree|
- Ղարաբաղյան ազատագրական պատերազմ 1988-1994, encyclopedia, Yerevan, p. 591
- "Armenia". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Armen Harutyunyan's interview, Azg Armenian daily, 2007
- "AZG Armenian Daily - WAP-version". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Sefilyan, Malkhasyan and Aroyan convicted" Archived 2008-05-17 at the Wayback Machine, Hetq Online - Investigative Journalists of Armenia, August 6, 2007.
- "Opposition Group Vows Another Campaign Trip To Karabakh". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- ""Founding Parliament" Opposition Group Leaders Arrested Ahead Of Anti-Government Protests – Armenian News By MassisPost". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Իրավապաշտպանները քաղաքական բանտարկյալներ են համարում ՀԽ-ի ձերբակալված անդամներին". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Sefilian, other Founding Parliament activists released, confined to city limits - News - ArmeniaNow.com". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Founding Parliament Says Unidentified Individuals Following Jirayr Sefilyan - Hetq - News, Articles, Investigations". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Opposition activist Jirair Sefilian arrested in Armenia". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Armenian Oppositionist Arrested Over 'Coup Plot'". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Service, RFE/RL's Armenian. "One Dead As Armed Men Storm Yerevan Police Station, Take Hostages". Retrieved 17 July 2016 – via Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty.
- Armenia’s Founding Parliament leader Sefilian writes another letter, mentioning 4 demands, News.am, 2016
- "ArmeniaNow.com - Local news, Global audience". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Jirayr Sefilian at Liberty, Azg Armenian Daily, #109, 10/06/2008
- "Nanur Sefilyan - 'Armenia is our motherland which no force can snatch from us'", Hetq Online - Investigative Journalists of Armenia, May 12, 2008.
- "New Armenian Group Demands Hard Line On Karabakh". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Interview with Jirair Sefilian// Cdaily.am, 19.11.09
- Սերժ Սարգսյանը և Ռոբերտ Քոչարյանը ոչ մի լուրջ ներդրում չեն ունեցել Արցախյան պատերազմում. Ժիրայր Սեֆիլյան. Tert.am (in Armenian). 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
- "Раффи Ованнисян и Жирайр Сефилян формируют совместный оппозиционный штаб". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "December "Nonstop": Opposition group starts round-the-clock protests in Yerevan - Constitution - ArmeniaNow.com". Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Commander Sefilyan is an “Undesirable” in the Eyes of the Authorities, Vahe Sarukhanyan, HETQ