James Norman Mattis (born September 8, 1950) is an American veteran and former government official who served as the 26th United States Secretary of Defense from January 2017 through December 2018. He resigned over policy differences with President Donald Trump. A retired United States Marine Corps general, Mattis served in the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan, and the Iraq War.
Mattis was commissioned in the Marine Corps through the Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps after graduating from Central Washington University. A career Marine, he gained a reputation among his peers for "intellectualism," and eventually advanced to the rank of general. From 2007 to 2010 he commanded the United States Joint Forces Command and concurrently served as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Transformation. He was Commander of United States Central Command from 2010 to 2013. After retiring from the military, he served in several private sector roles, including as a board member of Theranos.
Mattis was nominated as Secretary of Defense by President-elect Trump, and confirmed by the Senate on January 20, 2017. He needed a waiver from Congress to allow his nomination to be considered, as he had only been separated from the military for three years and U.S. federal law requires at least seven years of retirement for former military personnel to be appointed Secretary of Defense. As Secretary of Defense, Mattis affirmed the United States' commitment to defending longtime ally South Korea in the wake of the 2017 North Korea crisis. An opponent of proposed collaboration with China and Russia, Mattis stressed what he saw as their "threat to the American-led world order". Mattis occasionally voiced his disagreement with certain Trump administration policies, opposing the proposed withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and budget cuts that hamper the ability to monitor the impacts of climate change.
Mattis was born on September 8, 1950, in Pullman, Washington. He is the son of Lucille (Proulx) Mattis (1922-2019) and John West Mattis (1915–1988), a merchant mariner. His mother immigrated to the United States from Canada as an infant and had worked in Army Intelligence in South Africa during the Second World War. Mattis's father moved to Richland, Washington, to work at a plant supplying fissile material to the Manhattan Project. Mattis was raised in a bookish household that did not own a television. He graduated from Richland High School in 1968. He earned a Bachelor of Arts in history from Central Washington University in 1971 and a Master of Arts in international security affairs from the National War College of National Defense University in 1994.
Mattis enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve in 1969. He was commissioned a second lieutenant through the Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps on January 1, 1972. During his service years, Mattis was considered an "intellectual" among the upper ranks. Robert H. Scales, a retired United States Army major general, called him "one of the most urbane and polished men I have known."
As a lieutenant, Mattis was assigned as a rifle and weapons platoon commander in the 3rd Marine Division. As a captain, he was assigned as the Naval Academy Preparatory School's Battalion Officer, commanded rifle and weapons companies in the 1st Marine Regiment, then served at Recruiting Station Portland, Oregon, as a major.
Mattis is a graduate of the U.S. Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School, U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, and the National War College. He is noted for his interest in the study of military history and world history, with a personal library that once included over 7,000 volumes, and a penchant for publishing required reading lists for Marines under his command. He required his Marines to be well-read in the culture and history of regions where they were deployed, and had his Marines deploying to Iraq undergo "cultural sensitivity training".
Persian Gulf WarEdit
War in AfghanistanEdit
As a colonel, Mattis commanded the 7th Marine Regiment. He led the 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade as its commanding officer upon promotion to brigadier general. It was as a regimental commander that he earned his nickname and call sign, "CHAOS", an acronym for "Colonel Has An Outstanding Solution", which was initially somewhat tongue-in-cheek.
During the initial planning for the War in Afghanistan, Mattis led Task Force 58 in operations in the southern part of the country beginning in November 2001, becoming the first Marine Corps officer to command a Naval Task Force in combat. According to Mattis, his objective upon arriving in Afghanistan was "make sure that the enemy didn't feel like they had any safe haven, to destroy their sense of security in southern Afghanistan, to isolate Kandahar from its lines of communication, and to move against Kandahar." In December 2001 an airstrike carried out by a B-52 bomber inadvertently targeted a position held by U.S. special operations troops and Afghan militiamen in Urozgan Province. Numerous men were wounded in the incident, but Mattis repeatedly refused to dispatch helicopters from the nearby Camp Rhino to recover them, citing operational safety concerns. Instead an Air Force helicopter flew from Uzbekistan to ferry the men to the Marine Corps base where helicopters sat readily available but unauthorized to fly. Captain Jason Amerine blamed the delay caused by Mattis's refusal to order a rescue operation for the deaths of several men. Amerine wrote, "Every element in Afghanistan tried to help us except the closest friendly unit, commanded by Mattis," though he also wrote that "none of that was assessed properly because the [5th Special Forces Group] chose not to call for a formal investigation". This episode was used against Mattis when he was nominated for Defense Secretary in 2016.
While serving in Afghanistan as a brigadier general, Mattis was known[by whom?] as an officer who engaged his men with "real leadership."[clarification needed] He also was quoted as saying "be polite, be courteous, and have a plan to kill everyone you meet." A young Marine officer, Nathaniel Fick, said he witnessed Mattis in a fighting hole talking with a sergeant and lance corporal: "No one would have questioned Mattis if he'd slept eight hours each night in a private room, to be woken each morning by an aide who ironed his uniforms and heated his MREs. But there he was, in the middle of a freezing night, out on the lines with his Marines."
As a major general, Mattis commanded the 1st Marine Division during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the Iraq War. Mattis played key roles in combat operations in Fallujah, including negotiation with the insurgent command inside the city during Operation Vigilant Resolve in April 2004, as well as participation in planning of the subsequent Operation Phantom Fury in November.
In May 2004 Mattis ordered the 3 a.m. bombing of a suspected enemy safe house near the Syrian border, which later came to be known as the Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre and resulted in the deaths of 42 civilians, including 11 women and 14 children. Mattis said it had taken him 30 seconds to decide whether to bomb the location. Describing the wedding as implausible, he said, "How many people go to the middle of the desert to hold a wedding 80 miles (130 km) from the nearest civilization? These were more than two dozen military-age males. Let's not be naive." The Associated Press obtained video footage appearing to show a wedding party, but the occurrence of a wedding was disputed by military officials.
Following a Department of Defense survey that showed only 55% of U.S. soldiers and 40% of Marines would report a colleague for abusing civilians, Mattis told Marines in May 2007 that "whenever you show anger or disgust toward civilians, it's a victory for al-Qaeda and other insurgents." Believing that a need for restraint in war is key to defeating an insurgency, he added: "every time you wave at an Iraqi civilian, al-Qaeda rolls over in its grave."
Mattis popularized the 1st Marine Division's motto "no better friend, no worse enemy", a paraphrase of the epitaph the Roman dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla wrote for himself, in his open letter to all men within the division for their return to Iraq. This phrase later became widely publicized during the investigation into the conduct of Lieutenant Ilario Pantano, a platoon commander serving under Mattis.
As his division prepared to ship out, Mattis called in "experts on the Middle East" for "cultural sensitivity training". He constantly toured the battlefield to tell stories of Marines who were able to show "discretion in moments of high pressure". As an apparent example, he encouraged his Marines to grow moustaches to look more like the people they were working with.
He also was noted for a willingness to remove senior leaders under his command at a time when the U.S. military seemed unable or unwilling to relieve underperforming or incompetent officers. During the division's push to Baghdad, Mattis relieved Colonel Joe D. Dowdy, commander of Regimental Combat Team-1. It was such a rare occurrence in the modern military that it made the front page of newspapers. Despite this, Mattis declined to comment on the matter publicly other than to say that the practice of officer relief remains alive, or at least "we are doing it in the Marines." Later interviews of Dowdy's officers and men revealed that "the colonel was doomed partly by an age-old wartime tension: Men versus mission—in which he favored his men", while Mattis insisted on execution of the mission to seize Baghdad swiftly.
Combat Development CommandEdit
After being promoted to lieutenant general, Mattis took command of Marine Corps Combat Development Command. On February 1, 2005, speaking at a forum in San Diego, he said "You go into Afghanistan, you got guys who slap women around for five years because they didn't wear a veil. You know, guys like that ain't got no manhood left anyway. So it's a hell of a lot of fun to shoot them. Actually, it's a lot of fun to fight. You know, it's a hell of a hoot. It's fun to shoot some people. I'll be right upfront with you, I like brawling." Mattis's remarks sparked controversy; General Michael Hagee, Commandant of the Marine Corps, issued a statement suggesting Mattis should have chosen his words more carefully but would not be disciplined.
U.S. Joint Forces CommandEdit
The Pentagon announced on May 31, 2006, Mattis had been chosen to take command of I Marine Expeditionary Force, based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. On September 11, 2007, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates announced that President George W. Bush had nominated Mattis for appointment to the rank of general to command U.S. Joint Forces Command in Norfolk, Virginia. NATO agreed to appoint Mattis as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation. On September 28, 2007, the United States Senate confirmed Mattis's nomination, and he relinquished command of I MEF on November 5, 2007, to Lieutenant General Samuel Helland.
Mattis was promoted to four-star general and took control of JFCOM/SACT on November 9, 2007. He transferred the job of SACT to General Stéphane Abrial of France on September 9, 2009, but continued in command of JFCOM.
U.S. Central CommandEdit
In early 2010 Mattis was reported to be on the list of generals being considered to replace James T. Conway as the Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps. In July he was recommended by Defense Secretary Robert Gates for nomination to replace David Petraeus as commander of United States Central Command (CENTCOM), and formally nominated by President Obama on July 21. Mattis had planned to retire before the appointment.
His confirmation by the Senate marked the first time Marines had held billets as commander and deputy commander of a unified combatant command. He took command at a ceremony at MacDill Air Force Base on August 11.
As head of Central Command, Mattis oversaw the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and was responsible for a region that includes Syria, Iran, and Yemen. He lobbied the Obama administration for a more aggressive response to Iran, including more covert operations and disruption of Iranian arms shipments to Syria and Yemen. According to Leon Panetta, the Obama administration did not place much trust in Mattis because he was perceived as too eager for a military confrontation with Iran. Panetta later said Mattis lacked "the maturity to look at all of the options that a president should look at in order to make the right decisions".
Mattis announced his retirement from the Marine Corps in April 2012, effective in a matter of months. Eight months later, the Defense Department nominated General Lloyd Austin to succeed Mattis, who retired in March 2013.
Since retirement from the military, Mattis has worked for FWA Consultants and also served as a member of the General Dynamics Board of Directors. In August 2013 he became an Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution and has since been named as their Davies Family Distinguished Visiting Fellow.
In December 2015 Mattis joined the advisory board of Spirit of America, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that provides assistance to support the safety and success of American service personnel and the local people they seek to help.
He is co-editor of the book Warriors & Citizens: American Views of Our Military, published in August 2016.
In May 2019 it was announced that Mattis's book Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead would be published the next month.
From 2013 to January 2017 Mattis was a board member of Theranos, a health technology company that claimed to have devised revolutionary blood tests using very small amounts of blood. Previously, in mid-2012, a Department of Defense official evaluating Theranos's blood-testing technology for the military initiated a formal inquiry with the Food and Drug Administration about the company's intent to distribute its tests without FDA clearance. In August 2012 Theranos CEO Elizabeth Holmes asked Mattis, who had expressed interest in testing Theranos's technology in combat areas, to help. Within hours, Mattis forwarded his email exchange with Holmes to military officials, asking "how do we overcome this new obstacle". In July 2013 the Department of Defense gave Mattis permission to join Theranos's board provided he did not represent Theranos with regard to the blood-testing device and its potential acquisition by the Departments of the Navy or Defense.
Secretary of Defense (2017–2019)Edit
Nomination and confirmationEdit
Then-President-elect Donald Trump met with Mattis for a little over one hour in Bedminster, New Jersey, on November 20, 2016. He later wrote on Twitter, "General James 'Mad Dog' Mattis, who is being considered for Secretary of Defense, was very impressive yesterday. A true General's General!" On December 1, 2016, Trump announced at a rally in Cincinnati that he would nominate Mattis for United States Secretary of Defense.
As Mattis retired from the military in 2013, his nomination required a waiver of the National Security Act of 1947, which requires a seven-year waiting period before retired military personnel can assume the role of Secretary of Defense. Mattis was the second Secretary of Defense to receive such a waiver, following George Marshall. The waiver for Mattis passed 81–17 in the Senate, and 268–151 in the House. Mattis was subsequently confirmed as Secretary of Defense by a vote of 98–1 in the United States Senate on January 20, 2017. Senator Kirsten Gillibrand was the sole "no" vote, stating that she was opposed to the waiver on principle.
For his first official trip abroad, Mattis began a two-day visit with longtime U.S. ally South Korea on February 2, 2017. He warned North Korea that "any attack on the United States, or our allies, will be defeated", and any use of nuclear weapons would be met with an "effective and overwhelming" response from the United States. During a press conference in London on March 31, 2017, with his UK counterpart Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon, Mattis said North Korea was behaving "in a very reckless manner" and must be stopped. During a Pentagon news conference on May 26, Mattis reported the U.S. was working with the UN, China, Japan, and South Korea to avoid "a military solution" with North Korea. On June 3 Mattis said the United States regarded North Korea as "clear and present danger" during a speech at the international security conference in Singapore. In a June 12 written statement to the House Armed Services Committee Mattis said North Korea was the "most urgent and dangerous threat to peace and security". On June 15 Mattis said the U.S. would win a war against North Korea, but "at great cost".
On March 22, 2017, during questioning from the U.S. Senate, Mattis affirmed his support for U.S. troops remaining in Iraq after the Battle of Mosul was concluded. Mattis responded to critics who suggested the Trump administration had loosened the rules of engagement for the U.S. military in Iraq after U.S.-led coalition airstrikes in Mosul killed civilians, saying, "We go out of our way to always do everything humanly possible to reduce the loss of life or injury among innocent people." According to Airwars, the U.S.-led coalition killed as many as 6,000 civilians in Iraq and Syria in 2017.
On April 5, 2017, Mattis called the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack "a heinous act," and said it would be treated accordingly. On April 10 Mattis warned the Syrian government against using chemical weapons again. The following day, Mattis gave his first Pentagon news conference since becoming Secretary of Defense, saying ISIL's defeat remained "our priority," and the Syrian government would pay a "very, very stiff price" for further usage of chemical weapons. On April 21 Mattis said Syria still had chemical weapons and was in violation of United Nations Security Council resolutions. According to investigative journalist Bob Woodward, Trump ordered Mattis to assassinate Assad, but Mattis refused. On May 8 Mattis told reporters details of the proposed Syrian safe zones were "all in process right now" and the United States was involved with configuring them.
On April 20, 2017, one week after the Nangarhar airstrike, Mattis told reporters that the U.S. would not conduct a damage assessment "in terms of the number of people killed" in Afghanistan. Mattis traveled to Afghanistan days later and met with government officials, explaining that the purpose of the trip was to allow him to state his recommendations for U.S. strategy in the country. On June 13, Mattis said U.S. forces were "not winning" in Afghanistan and the administration would develop a new strategy by "mid-July" while speaking to the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services. On June 27 Mattis told reporters that he was creating a conflict-ending strategy for Afghanistan that would also "remove the danger to the Afghan people and to us and to all the nations that have been attacked by terrorist groups out of that region". On June 29 Mattis said the Obama administration "may have pulled our troops out too rapidly" and that he intended to submit a new Afghanistan strategy to Trump upon his return to Washington, D.C.
The United States has been openly arming the Syrian Kurdish fighters in the war against ISIL since May 2017. Following the start of the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, Mattis said in January 2018: "Turkey is a NATO ally. It's the only NATO country with an active insurgency inside its borders. And Turkey has legitimate security concerns." Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Bekir Bozdağ urged the United States to halt its support for Kurdish YPG fighters, saying: "Those who support the terrorist organization will become a target in this battle."
In November 2018 the CIA assessed with "high confidence" that Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman ordered the assassination of Washington Post columnist Jamal Khashoggi. Under mounting pressure from lawmakers who wanted action against Saudi Arabia, Mattis and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, in a rare closed briefing of the Senate, disputed the CIA's conclusion and declared there was no direct evidence linking the Crown Prince to Khashoggi's assassination.
On December 19, 2018, Trump announced immediate U.S. withdrawal from Syria, over the objections of his national security advisers. Mattis had recently said that the U.S. would remain in Syria following the defeat of ISIL to ensure they did not regroup. The next day, he submitted his resignation after failing to persuade Trump to reconsider. His resignation letter contained language that appeared to criticize Trump's worldview—praising NATO, which Trump has often derided, and the 79-nation Defeat-ISIS coalition that Trump had just decided to abandon. Mattis also affirmed the need for "treating allies with respect and also being clear-eyed about both malign actors and strategic competitors," and remaining "resolute and unambiguous" against authoritarian states such as China and Russia. He wrote that Trump has "the right to have a Secretary of Defense whose views are better aligned with [his] on these and other subjects." His resignation triggered alarm among historical allies. Mattis's letter said his resignation would be effective February 28, 2019. Three days later Trump moved Mattis's departure date up to January 1, after becoming angered by the implicit criticism of Trump's worldview in the resignation letter. On January 2, 2019, Trump criticized Mattis's performance as Secretary of Defense and said he had "essentially fired him."
Israeli–Palestinian peace processEdit
Mattis supports a two-state solution model for Israeli–Palestinian peace. He has said the situation in Israel is "unsustainable" and that Israeli settlements harm prospects for peace and could lead to an apartheid-like situation in the West Bank. In particular, he has said that the perception of biased American support for Israel has made it difficult for moderate Arabs to show support for the United States. Mattis strongly supported Secretary of State John Kerry on the Middle East peace process, praising Kerry for being "wisely focused like a laser beam" on a two-state solution.
Iran and Middle Eastern alliesEdit
Mattis believes Iran is the principal threat to the stability of the Middle East, ahead of Al-Qaeda and ISIL. Mattis says: "I consider ISIS nothing more than an excuse for Iran to continue its mischief. Iran is not an enemy of ISIS. They have a lot to gain from the turmoil in the region that ISIS creates." Mattis sees the Iran nuclear deal as a poor agreement, but believes there is now no way to tear it up, saying: "We are just going to have to recognize that we have an imperfect arms control agreement. Second, that what we achieved is a nuclear pause, not a nuclear halt". Mattis argues that inspections may fail to prevent Iran from seeking to develop nuclear weapons, but that "[i]f nothing else at least we will have better targeting data if it comes to a fight in the future." Additionally, he criticized Obama for being "naive" about Iranian intentions and Congress for being "pretty much absent" on the nuclear deal.
Mattis praises the friendship of regional US allies such as Jordan, Israel, and the United Arab Emirates. He also criticized Obama for seeing allies as "free-loading", saying: "For a sitting U.S. President to see our allies as freeloaders is nuts." He has cited the importance of the United Arab Emirates and Jordan as countries that wanted to help, for example, in filling in the gaps in Afghanistan. He criticized Obama's defense strategy as giving "the perception we're pulling back" from US allies. He stresses the need for the US to bolster its ties with allied intelligence agencies, particularly those of Jordan, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. In 2012 Mattis argued for providing weapons to Syrian rebels as a way to fight back against Iranian proxies in Syria.
The departure of several of Mattis's senior deputies in the fall of 2018 caused concern in foreign policy circles. Many senior officials served only because of Mattis and fought political battles with the White House regularly. One of the most serious areas of concern has been the potential for war with Iran because of the Trump Administration's withdrawal from the JCPOA at the same time the U.S. military is redeploying forces from the Middle East to the Pacific to better compete with China and contain North Korea. Mattis opposed the withdrawal from the JCPOA, calling the deal "the best we could come up with".
During an interview on C-SPAN, the Deputy for Middle East Mick Mulroy said that Mattis focused on five distinct threats posed by Iran. The first was obtaining a nuclear weapon. The second was to maritime security in the Strait of Hormuz and the Bab al-Mandab, because a substantial portion of energy trade and commercial goods go through those areas. The third was their support to proxies and terrorist organizations, including Hezbollah in Lebanon and Syria, Houthis in Yemen, some Hashd al-Shaabi in Iraq and safe-harboring senior al-Qaeda leaders in Iran. The fourth was Iranian ballistic missiles in Houthi-controlled areas of Yemen for use against Saudi Arabia and in Syria with Hezbollah to use against Israel. Cyber was the fifth threat and a growing concern.
Mattis visited Japan one week after being sworn in as Secretary of Defense. During a meeting with Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Mattis emphasized that the U.S. remains committed to the mutual defense of Japan and stated, "I want there to be no misunderstanding during the transition in Washington that we stand firmly, 100 percent, shoulder to shoulder with you and the Japanese people." He also reassured Japan that the U.S. would defend the disputed Senkaku Islands controlled by Japan but also claimed by China and Taiwan.
Speaking at a conference sponsored by The Heritage Foundation in Washington in 2015, Mattis said he believed that Russian President Vladimir Putin's intent is "to break NATO apart." Mattis has also spoken out against what he perceives as Russia's expansionist or bellicose policies in Syria, Ukraine and the Baltic states. In 2017 Mattis said that the world order is "under biggest attacks since World War Two, from Russia, terrorist groups, and China's actions in the South China Sea."
On February 16, 2017, Mattis said the United States was not currently prepared to collaborate with Russia on military matters, including future anti-ISIL U.S. operations. In August 2017, he said: "Despite Russia's denials, we know they are seeking to redraw international borders by force, undermining the sovereign and free nations of Europe".
In his 2018 resignation letter, Mattis called both Russia and China "authoritarian models" rivaling US interests.
Mattis called for freedom of navigation in the South China Sea and criticized China's island-building activities, saying: "The bottom line is [...] the international waters are international waters."
In 2017 Mattis said that budget cuts would hamper the ability to monitor the impact of climate change, and noted, "climate change is a challenge that requires a broader, whole-of-government response." He also told senators "climate change is impacting stability in areas of the world where our troops are operating today."
Mattis has never been married and has no children. He proposed to a woman, but she called off the wedding days before it was to occur, not wanting to burden his career. He is nicknamed "The Warrior Monk" because of his bachelorhood and lifelong devotion to the study of war.
Mattis is a Catholic, and has been described as "devout" and "committed." During the 2003 Iraq invasion, he often prayed with general John F. Kelly on Sundays. The Trump transition team's formal biography of Mattis described him as "the living embodiment of the Marine Corps motto, Semper Fidelis." He has declined when asked by reporters to discuss his faith in public. In a 2003 PBS interview Mattis recalled how his Marines followed advice from his chaplain on gaining the support of Iraqi citizens: "On the suggestion of my Catholic chaplain the Marines would take chilled drinking water in bottles and walk out amongst the protesters and hand it out. It is just hard to throw a rock at somebody who has given you a cold drink of water and it's 120 degrees outside."
Mattis's decorations, awards, and badges include, among others:
Mattis's civilian awards include:
- 2009 – Center for National Policy's Edmund S. Muskie Distinguished Public Service Award
- 2010 – Atlantic Council's Distinguished Military Leadership Award
- 2013 – World Affairs Council of Greater Hampton Roads "Ryan C. Crocker Global Citizen of the Year" Award
- 2014 – Marine Corps University Foundation Semper Fidelis Award
- 2014 – Washington College honorary doctor of laws degree
- 2016 – Washington Policy Center Champion of Freedom Award recipient
In popular cultureEdit
- Mattis is portrayed by Robert John Burke in the 2008 HBO miniseries Generation Kill, depicting the events of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
- He is also known for the internet meme depicting him as "Saint Mattis of Quantico, Patron Saint of Chaos."
- Mattis is commonly 'reported on' by the military satire website Duffel Blog for potentially being fired, winning an 'arms race' with Russia, and crossing the Potomac to launch a Roman-style coup d'état.
- Peterson-Withorn, Chase (December 22, 2016). "Here's What Each Member Of Trump's $4.5 Billion Cabinet Is Worth". Forbes.
- Kovach, Gretel C. (January 19, 2013). "Just don't call him Mad Dog". San Diego Union Tribune. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
He is a lifelong bachelor with no children, but wouldn't move into a monastery unless it was stocked with "beer and ladies."
- Boot, Max (March 2006). "The Corps should look to its small-wars past". Armed Forces Journal. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
- Yglesias, Matthew (March 16, 2018). "James Mattis is linked to a massive corporate fraud and nobody wants to talk about it". Vox. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- "Senate confirms retired Gen. James Mattis as defense secretary, breaking with decades of precedent". The Washington Post. January 20, 2017.
- "James Mattis, in South Korea, Tries to Reassure an Ally". The New York Times. February 2, 2017. Archived from the original on November 8, 2017.
- "US warns North Korea against nuclear attack". Al Jazeera. February 3, 2017. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017.
- Baldor, Lolita (February 16, 2017). "Mattis: US not ready to collaborate militarily with Russia". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Jackson, David (December 21, 2018). "Donald Trump disputes departing Defense Secretary Jim Mattis over Russia, China". USA Today. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- ""US needs to be ready to confront Russia: Trump's Pentagon pick". Press TV. January 13, 2017.
- McIntyre, Jamie (April 22, 2016). "Mattis: Iran is the biggest threat to Mideast peace". Washington Examiner. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- "Secretary of Defense James Mattis: The Lone Climate Change Soldier in this Administration's Cabinet". Union of Concerned Scientists. 2017.
- "Climate change, extreme weather already threaten 50% of U.S. military sites". USA Today. January 31, 2018.
- "Nominations before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 111th Congress" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "Lucille Mattis Obituary". The Tri-City Herald. Retrieved August 8, 2019.
- "10 Things You Didn't Know About James Mattis". Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- "James Mattis Fast Facts". CNN Library. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- "Reflections with General James Mattis – Conversations with History". University Of California Television. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
- "James Mattis, a Warrior in Washington". The New Yorker. May 29, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017.
- Kraemer, Kristin M. (November 22, 2016). "Gen. Mattis, Trump's possible defense chief, fulfills Benton County jury duty". Tri-City Herald.
- Ray, Michael (December 2, 2016). "James Mattis". Britannica. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
- Baldor, Lolita C. (December 2, 2016). "Trump to nominate retired Gen. James Mattis to lead Pentagon". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 23, 2016.
- "Official website". United States Joint Forces Command.
- "James N. Mattis – Donald Trump Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.
- Mattis, James (September 25, 2013). General James Mattis, "In the Midst of the Storm: A US Commander's View of the Changing Middle East". Dartmouth College. Event occurs at 80:10. Retrieved June 2, 2015.
- Reynolds, Nicholas E. (2005). Basrah, Baghdad and Beyond. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-1-59114-717-6. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Ricks, Thomas E. (August 1, 2006). "Fiasco". Armed Forces Journal. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "Gen James N. Mattis". Military Hall of Honor. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2006). Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. New York: Penguin Press. p. 313.
- Dickerson, John (April 22, 2010). "A Marine General at War". Slate. Archived from the original on January 11, 2017.
- "LtGen James Mattis' Reading List". Small Wars Journal. June 5, 2007.
- Ricks. Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq. p. 317.
- Lowry, Richard (December 9, 2016). "Op-ed: General James N. Mattis – A Marine for the History Books". American Military News. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
- Walker, Mark (June 2, 2006). "Mattis to assume command of I MEF". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- Wolf, McKenzie (September 21, 2017). "The origin of Mattis' call sign, 'Chaos'". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
- Finkel, Gal Perl (December 12, 2016). "General Mattis: A warrior diplomat". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016.
- Barzilai, Yaniv (January 31, 2014). 102 Days of War: How Osama bin Laden, al Qaeda & the Taliban Survived 2001. Potomac Books, Inc. pp. 45ff. ISBN 978-1-61234-534-5.
- Tritten, Travis J. (December 2, 2016). "Retired Green Beret says Mattis left 'my men to die' in Afghanistan". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Vladimirov, Nikita (December 2, 2016). "Former Special Forces officer: Mattis 'betrayed his duty to us'". The Hill. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Meek, James Gordon; Ferran, Lee (December 6, 2016). "Men Left 'to Die': Gen. James Mattis' Controversial Wartime Decision". ABC News. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
- Fisher, Max (July 9, 2010). "16 Most Hair-Raising General Mattis Quotes". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 5, 2018.
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2012). The Generals: American Military Command from World War II to Today. New York: Penguin Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-1-59420-404-3.
- Szoldra, Paul (December 1, 2006). "19 unforgettable quotes from legendary Marine Gen. James 'Mad Dog' Mattis". Business Insider. Retrieved May 19, 2017.
- West, Bing (2008). The Strongest Tribe: War, Politics, and the Endgame in Iraq. New York, NY: Random House. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-4000-6701-5.
- "Iraq Wedding-Party Video Backs Survivors' Claims". Fox News. May 24, 2004. Archived from the original on December 4, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
- Perry, Tony (May 17, 2007). "General Urges Marines To Add A Friendly Wave To Their Arsenal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- Durant, Will (2001). Heroes of History: A Brief History of Civilization from Ancient Times to the Dawn of the Modern Age. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 131. ISBN 0-7432-2910-X.
- "Top 10 Stories of 2005: Pantano, roads, Olchowski are 10–7". Star News Online. December 28, 2005. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- Quinn-Judge, Paul (February 28, 2005). "Did He Go Too Far?". Time. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- Phillips, Stone (April 26, 2005). "Marine charged with murders of Iraqis: Lieutenant claims self-defense in shooting of detainees". MSNBC. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- Jeff Schogol (November 16, 2005). "Marine acquitted in Iraqi shootings will publish a book". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- Walker, Mark (July 1, 2006). "Pantano case has parallels to Hamdania incident". North County Times. Retrieved January 24, 2007.
- Cooper, Christopher (April 5, 2004). "How a Marine Lost His Command In Race to Baghdad". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 12, 2015.
- Guardiano, John R. (February 11, 2005). "Breaking the Warrior Code". The American Spectator. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- Lowe, Christian (June 12, 2006). "Popular commander to lead I MEF". Marine Corps Times. p. 24.
- "French general assumes command of Allied Command Transformation". Allied Command Transformation Public Affairs Office. USS George Washington (CVN-73): NATO. September 18, 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2009.
- Gearan, Anne (June 22, 2010). "Gates announces nomination of Amos for CMC". Marine Corps Times. Associated Press. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- Cavallaro, Gina (July 8, 2010). "Pentagon picks Mattis to take over CENTCOM". Marine Corps Times. Archived from the original on July 12, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- "Obama backs Mattis nomination for CENTCOM". Marine Corps Times. July 22, 2010. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2010.
- Laughter, Dark (April 27, 2012). "CENTCOM Commander 'Mad Dog' General James Mattis Set To Retire". Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- "Petraeus' replacement at Central Command confirmed". The Fayetteville Observer. Associated Press. August 6, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2010.
- "Mattis takes over Central Command, vows to work with Mideast allies in Afghanistan, Iraq". Fox News. Associated Press. August 11, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- Mitchell, Robbyn (August 12, 2010). "Mattis takes over as CentCom chief". St. Petersburg Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- "Mattis assumes command of CENTCOM". U.S. Central Command. August 11, 2010. Retrieved August 12, 2010.
- "Mattis interview: Syria would fall without Iran's help". USA Today. April 12, 2013. Archived from the original on October 11, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
- Jaffe, Greg; Ryan, Missy (March 28, 2015). "Why the chaos in Yemen could force Obama to take a harder line with Iran". Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
- Panetta, Leon. Worthy Fights: A Memoir of Leadership in War and Peace (Kindle ed.). Penguin Group. pp. Kindle Locations 6368–6370.
- Jaffe, Greg; Entous, Adam (January 8, 2017). "As a general, Mattis urged action against Iran. As a defense secretary, he may be a voice of caution". Washington Post. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
- "Austin will be nominated to lead US Central Command". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "About General James Mattis". FWA Consultants. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "James Mattis". United States Department of Defense.
Following his retirement from the U.S. Marine Corps in 2013, Secretary Mattis served as the Davies Family Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, specializing in the study of leadership, national security, strategy, innovation, and the effective use of military force.
- "General James Mattis, Annenberg Distinguished Visiting Fellow". Hoover Institute. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "General James Mattis". Hoover Institution. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Mattis, James. "Why I'm Joining Spirit of America". Spirit of America. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Mattis, James; Schake, Kori, eds. (August 2016). Warriors and Citizens: American Views of Our Military. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution. ISBN 978-0-8179-1934-4. Retrieved November 28, 2016.
- Sullivan, Kate; Starr, Barbara. "Former Defense Secretary James Mattis publishing new book in July". CNN. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
- John Carreyrou (May 21, 2018). Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley Startup. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-5247-3166-3.[page needed]
- Levine, Matt (March 14, 2018). "The Blood Unicorn Theranos Was Just a Fairy Tale". Bloomberg View. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
- Weaver, Christopher (January 5, 2017). "Trump Defense Nominee James Mattis Resigns From Theranos Board". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "A singular board at Theranos". Fortune. June 12, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
- Johnson, Carolyn Y. (December 2, 2015). "E-mails reveal concerns about Theranos's FDA compliance date back years". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2015.
- Phil Mattingly (November 20, 2016). "Trump: 'Mad Dog' Mattis is a 'very impressive' candidate for defense secretary". CNN. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Trump, Donald J. [@realDonaldTrump] (November 11, 2016). "General James "Mad Dog" Mattis, who is being considered for Secretary of Defense, was very impressive yesterday. A true General's General!" (Tweet). Retrieved November 11, 2016 – via Twitter.
- Lamothe, Dan (December 1, 2016). "Trump has chosen retired Marine Gen. James Mattis for secretary of defense". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
- Peterson, Kristina; Hughes, Siobhan (January 20, 2017). "Senate Confirms James Mattis as Defense Secretary". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
- Schor, Elana (January 20, 2017). "Gillibrand says she won't vote for Mattis waiver". Politico. Retrieved January 20, 2017.
While I deeply respect General Mattis's service, I will oppose a waiver. Civilian control of our military is a fundamental principle of American democracy, and I will not vote for an exception to this rule.
- "Readout of Secretary Mattis' Call with Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Deputy Crown Prince and Minister of Defense Mohammed bin Salman". U.S. Department of Defense. January 31, 2017. Archived from the original on February 1, 2017.
- Smith, Alexander; Joselow, Gabe (March 31, 2017). "Defense Sec. James Mattis: North Korea 'Has Got to Be Stopped'". NBC News. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- "James Mattis says a military solution in North Korea will 'be tragic on an unbelievable scale'". Business Insider. May 26, 2017.
- Stewart, Phil; Brunnstrom, David (June 3, 2017). "Defense Secretary Mattis turns up heat on North Korea and China". CBS News. Reuters.
- Ali, Idrees; Stone, Mike (June 13, 2017). "North Korea 'most urgent' threat to security: Mattis". Reuters.
- Lockie, Alex (June 16, 2017). "Defense Secretary Mattis explains what war with North Korea would look like". Business Insider.
- Shane III, Leo (March 22, 2017). "Mattis: Expect U.S. troops in Iraq even after ISIS falls". Military Times.
- "After civilians killed in Mosul, Pentagon denies loosening rules". Reuters. March 27, 2017.
- Zenko, Micah (April 11, 2017). "Civilian casualties are up and Congress is AWOL". Foreign Policy. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
- Ryan, Missy (January 18, 2018). "Civilian deaths tripled in U.S.-led campaign against ISIS in 2017, watchdog alleges". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 30, 2018.
- Muñoz, Carlos (April 5, 2017). "Defense Secretary Mattis condemns 'heinous' chemical attack in Syria, DoD mulls response". Washington Times.
- "Statement by Secretary of Defense James Mattis on the U.S. Military Response to the Syrian Government's Use of Chemical Weapons" (Press release). United States Department of Defense. April 10, 2017.
- Klimas, Jacqueline (April 11, 2017). "Mattis: U.S. Syria policy is still to defeat ISIS". Politico.
- Burns, Robert (April 21, 2017). "US Defense Sec'y Mattis: Syria still has chemical weapons". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 21, 2017.
- "Trump wanted Syria's Assad assassinated, Bob Woodward claims in extraordinary new book". Independent. April 9, 2018.
- Mitchell, Ellen (May 8, 2017). "Mattis: Questions unanswered on Syria cease-fire plan". The Hill.
- "Pentagon Weighs More Support for Saudi-led War in Yemen". Foreign Policy. March 26, 2017.
- DeYoung, Karen; Ryan, Missy (March 26, 2017). "Trump administration weighs deeper involvement in Yemen war". The Washington Post.
- Klimas, Jacqueline (April 20, 2017). "Mattis: U.S. won't dig into 'mother of all bombs' damage in Afghanistan". Politico.
- Cullinane, Susannah; Browne, Ryan (March 27, 2017). "US Defense Secretary Mattis visits Afghanistan". CNN.
- O'Brien, Connor (June 13, 2017). "Mattis: 'We are not winning in Afghanistan'". Politico.
- Johnson, Bridget (June 27, 2017). "Mattis Crafting Strategy to 'Remove the Danger to the Afghan People and to Us'". PJMedia.com.
- "Mattis says US 'may have pulled our troops out too rapidly' in Afghanistan". Fox News. June 29, 2017.
- Fryer-Biggs, Zachary (January 22, 2018). "Turkish Forces Bomb Key U.S. Ally In Fight Against ISIS In Syria". Newsweek. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018.
- "Turkey has legitimate security concerns: Mattis". Hürriyet Daily News. Andalou Agency. January 22, 2018. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018.
- "Turkey to US: Stop YPG support or face 'confrontation'". Al Jazeera. January 25, 2018. Archived from the original on February 13, 2018.
- Hirsh, Michael; Gramer, Robbie (December 4, 2018). "White House Digs Itself in Deeper on Khashoggi". Foreign Policy.
- "Trump administration defends close Saudi ties as Senate moves to end US support for Yemen war". CNBC. November 28, 2018.
- "Defense Secretary Mattis To Retire In February, Trump Says, Amid Syria Tension". NPR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- "White House Orders Pentagon To Pull U.S. Troops From Syria". NPR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
The troop withdrawal is a reversal of policy discussed as recently as this month by Mattis, who said that after the defeat of ISIS, U.S. forces would remain in Syria to prevent a resurgence of the terrorist group and to counteract Iran.
- Cooper, Helene (December 20, 2018). "Jim Mattis Resigns, Rebuking Trump's Worldview". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Cooper, Helene (December 8, 2018). "Jim Mattis, Defense Secretary, Resigns in Rebuke of Trump's Worldview". The New York Times. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
- Sevastopulo, Demetri (December 21, 2018). "Mattis Resignation Spreads Alarm in Washington and Abroad". Financial Times. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Cooper, Helene (December 20, 2018). "Jim Mattis, Marine General Turned Defense Secretary, Will Leave Pentagon in February". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Cooper, Helene (December 23, 2018). "Trump, Angry Over Mattis's Rebuke, Removes Him 2 Months Early". The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Haberman, Maggie (January 2, 2019). "Trump Says Mattis Resignation Was 'Essentially' a Firing, Escalating His New Front Against Military Critics". New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Cortellessa, Eric (November 20, 2016). "Trump's top Pentagon pick said settlements were creating 'apartheid'". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016.
- Berman, Lazar (July 25, 2013). "Ex-US general: We pay a price for backing Israel". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on November 20, 2016.
- Shane III, Leo (April 22, 2016). "General Mattis wants Iran to be a top focus for the next president (whoever it is)". Military Times. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Cronk, Terri Moon (April 21, 2017). "Mattis Praises America's Security Partnership With Israel". Retrieved August 19, 2018.
- Cronk, Terri Moon (April 26, 2018). "Mattis, Israeli Counterpart Discuss Mutual Security Concerns". Retrieved August 19, 2018.
- Seck, Hope Hodge (April 22, 2016). "Mattis: 'I Don't Understand' Speculation about Presidential Run". military.com. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Grady, John (May 14, 2015). "Mattis: U.S. Suffering 'Strategic Atrophy'". USNI News. U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Muñoz, Carlo (April 22, 2016). "James Mattis, retired Marine general, says Iran nuclear deal 'fell short'". The Washington Times. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Ackerman, Spencer (March 6, 2012). "Military's Mideast Chief Sounds Ready to Aid Syria's Rebels". Wired. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
- Gramer, Lara Seligman, Robbie. "Three Senior Pentagon Officials Leave in Quick Succession". Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- Cooper, Helene (September 15, 2018). "Fraying Ties With Trump Put Jim Mattis's Fate in Doubt". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- "Citing Iran, military officials are alarmed by shrinking U.S. footprint in Middle East". Washington Post. November 3, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
- Gordon, Michael R.; Rich, Motoko (February 3, 2017). "James Mattis Says U.S. Is 'Shoulder to Shoulder' With Japan". The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- Flood, Rebecca (February 4, 2017). "China accuses US of putting regional stability at risk over backing of Japan in island dispute". The Independent. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017.
- "General stating Russian aggression in Ukraine "much more severe" than U.S. treats it may become Defense Secretary". UNIAN. Reuters. November 19, 2016. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016.
- Gordon, Michael R.; Schmitt, Eric (December 1, 2016). "James Mattis, Outspoken Retired Marine, Is Trump's Choice as Defense Secretary". New York Times. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017.
- "James Mattis says Russia wants to use violence to redraw the borders of Europe". August 25, 2017.
- James Mattis' resignation letter in full
- Hunt, Katie (January 13, 2017). "Chinese state media slams Tillerson over South China Sea". CNN Politics. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- "US Defence Secretary James Mattis says climate change is already destabilising the world". The Independent. 2017.
- Ness, Erik "The Cost of Skepticism," Brown Alumni Monthly, March/April 2018, p.16
- North, Oliver (July 9, 2010). "Gen. Mattis: The Warrior Monk". Fox News Insider. Retrieved June 3, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Jaffe, Greg; deGrandpre, Andrew (July 28, 2017). "In John Kelly, Trump gets a plain-spoken disciplinarian as his chief of staff". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- "Trump's Catholic Warriors". National Catholic Register. Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
- "Mattis Shows How to Handle a Reporter's Question About His Religious Beliefs". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
That's something I stay pretty private about.
- "Convocation Will Honor Marine General James Mattis". Washington College. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
- "WPC's 2016 'Champion of Freedom' named Secretary of Defense". Washington Policy Center. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- "Maj. Gen. James 'Maddog' Mattis". HBO.
- Szoldra, Paul (December 2, 2016). "The Facebook page for Marine Special Ops posted a picture of 'Mad Dog' Mattis as a saint". Business Insider. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Scuttlebutt, Dick (December 24, 2013). "General Mattis Crosses Potomac With 100,000 Troops; President, Senate Flee City". Duffel Blog. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- Quotes from James Mattis on All Views by Quotes
- James Mattis Sworn in As US Secretary of Defense
- Department of Defense biography
- Official Marine Corps biography
- "Full transcript: Defense Secretary James Mattis' interview with The Islander". June 2017. Archived from the original on September 16, 2018.
- Appearances on C-SPAN
Lance L. Smith
| Supreme Allied Commander of Transformation
| Commander of United States Joint Forces Command
John R. Allen
| Commander of United States Central Command
| United States Secretary of Defense
Patrick M. Shanahan