The Class D51 (D51形) is a type of 2-8-2 steam locomotive built by the Japanese Government Railways (JGR), the Japanese National Railways (JNR), and various manufacturers from 1936 to 1945.[2]

JNR Class D51
Soviet Railways D51
Taiwan Railways DT650
KNR Mika7 (미카7)
SL 20081207.jpg
JR East's D51 498 on the Jōetsu Line in December 2008
Type and origin
Power typeSteam
DesignerHideo Shima
BuilderKawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company etc
Build date1936-1951
 • Whyte2-8-2 Mikado
Gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (KNR Mika7)
Length19,730 mm (64 ft 8 34 in)
Loco weight76.8 t (75.6 long tons; 84.7 short tons)[1]
Total weight123.0 t (121.1 long tons; 135.6 short tons)
Performance figures
Maximum speed85 km/h (55 mph)
Tractive effort184.3 kN (41,400 lbf)
Retired24 December 1975

Design and operationEdit

The design of class D51 was based on the earlier D50, introduced in 1923. Wartime production featured some substitution of wood for steel parts like running boards, smoke deflectors and tender coal bunkers. A total of 1,115 D51s were built,[2] the largest number in any single class in Japan. Early D51s were nicknamed Namekuji-gata ("slug-form") for their shape. The locomotive was designed by Hideo Shima. It was used mainly in freight service through the 1960s. [3]

Service outside JapanEdit

Soviet Railways D51Edit

The specially built D51s that were left on Sakhalin (formerly Karafuto) by the retreating Japanese at the end of World War II were used until 1979 by Soviet Railways. One was left outside Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk railway station, and one is in running condition and is kept at the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk railway station. Additionally two wrecks were left to the north of the city.[4]

Korean National Railways Mika7Edit

Two locomotives were built for the Korean National Railroad in 1950 by Mitsubishi. Designated Mika7 (미카7) class, they were nearly identical to JNR class D51 except for the gauge.[5]

Taiwan Railways Administration DT650Edit

DT668 on a trial run in Taiwan in November 2011

From 1936 to 1944, Kawasaki, Kisha Seizō and Hitachi had built 32 D51s for Imperial Taiwan Railway. After World War II, they were taken over by Taiwan Railways Administration, and were classified DT650. In 1951, Kisha Seizō built three DT650s and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries built two DT650s for Taiwan Railways Administration.[6]


The classification consists of a "D" for the four sets of driving wheels and the class number 51 for tender locomotives that the numbers 50 through 99 were assigned to under the 1928 locomotive classification rule.

Preserved examplesEdit

Over 170 Class D51 locomotives are preserved in Japan. D51 498 was restored by JR East and pulls special-event trains on JR East lines.[7]

The following is a list of preserved locomotives as of September 2012.[8]


D51 200 at Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum in December 2011
  • D51 200: Preserved in operational condition by JR West at Umekoji Steam Locomotive Museum in Kyoto, and is operating on Yamaguchi Line since November 2017
  • D51 498: Operated by JR East, based at Takasaki Rolling Stock Center[7][9]

Built in 1938 at the JNR Hamamatsu Works, locomotive number D51 200 has been overhauled and restored to operational condition for use as SL Yamaguchi and SL Kitabiwako starting in 2017.[10]

Static preservationEdit

Russian Class D51Edit

Plinthed Russian D51-22 outside Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Railway Station Sakhalin Island, Russia
  • D51-1: Niigata Prefecture
  • D51-2: Hokkaido
  • D51-4: Sakhalin (Working order, but faces uncertain future due to re-gauging of the Sakhalin Railways to the Russian gauge)
  • D51-22: Sakhalin (Plinthed outside Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk railway station)
  • D51-23: Hokkaido
  • D51-25: Hokkaido
  • D51-26: Hokkaido
  • D51-27: Hokkaido
  • D51-28: Sakhalin (Dumped at Tomari)
  • D51 ? : Sakhalin (2 D51s Dumped north of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk at Dalny)

Taiwan Railways Administration DT650Edit

DT675(Former DT670)


  1. ^ Inoue, Kōichi (1999). 国鉄機関車辞典 [JNR Locomotive Encyclopedia]. Japan: Sankaido. p. 59. ISBN 4-381-10338-6.
  2. ^ a b Hirota, Naotaka (January 1972). Steam Locomotives of Japan. Kodansha America, Inc. p. 74 & 78. ISBN 978-0870111853.
  3. ^ Japan Railway Journal, Kyoto Railway Museum: The Story of Rail Transport in Japan. NHK. 2016. Event occurs at 10:14.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Steam and the Railways of Sakhalin Island - at International Steam Locomotives
  5. ^ Korean National RR Mika-7 2-8-2. Don's Rail Photos
  6. ^ DT650 class _Kurogane No Michi
  7. ^ a b JR全車輌ハンドブック2009 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 2009]. Japan: Neko Publishing. 2009. ISBN 978-4-7770-0836-0.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Sasada, Masahiro (September 2012). 国鉄&JR保存車大全 [JNR & JR Preserved Rolling Stock Complete Guide]. Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. pp. 133–135. ISBN 978-4863206175.
  9. ^ JR East Takasaki Branch D51 498 website (in Japanese) (Translate to English: Google, Bing)
  10. ^ JR西日本、D51形200号機が本線運転復活へ [JR West to restore D51 20 to mainline operational condition]. Mynavi News (in Japanese). Japan: Mynavi Corporation. 18 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  11. ^ 津山市 来月からD51の展示始まる [D51 to go on display at Tsuyama from next month]. RSK News (in Japanese). Japan: Sanyo Broadcasting Co., Ltd. 26 February 2015. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.