Italian orthography

Italian orthography (writing) uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language. Italian orthography is very regular and has an almost one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds, which is expressed in linguistic terms as saying that the Italian writing system is an almost perfect phonemic orthography. The most important of the few exceptions are the following (see below for more details):

  • The letter c represents the sound /k/ at the end of words and before the letters a, o, and u but represents the sound // (as in English church) before the letters e and i.
  • The letter g represents the sound /ɡ/ at the end of words and before the letters a, o, and u but represents the sound // (as in English judge) before the letters e and i.
  • The letter n represents the phoneme /n/, by assimilation pronounced [ŋ] (as in the English word sink) before the letter q, before c when it represents [k] and before the letter g when this is pronounced [g]: [ˈtʃiŋkwe] cinque '5', [ˈbaŋka] banca 'bank', [ˈluŋgo] lungo 'long'. n represents the sound [n] (as in English nine) when the letter c is pronounced [tʃ] or when the letter g represents [dʒ]: [ˈmantʃa] mancia 'tip, gratuity', [ˈmandʒa] mangia 'he/she/it eats'.
  • The letter h is always silent: hotel /oˈtɛl/; hanno 'they have' and anno 'year' both represent /ˈanno/. It is mainly used to form a digraph with c or g to represent /k/ or /g/ before i or e: chi /ki/ 'who', che /ke/ 'what'; aghi /ˈagi/ 'needles', ghetto /ˈgetto/.
  • The spellings ci and gi represent only /tʃ/ (as in English church) or /dʒ/ (as in English judge) with no /i/ sound before another vowel (ciuccio /ˈtʃuttʃo/ 'pacifier', Giorgio /ˈdʒɔrdʒo/) unless c or g precede stressed /i/ (farmacia /farmaˈtʃia/ 'pharmacy', biologia /bioloˈdʒia/ 'biology'). Elsewhere ci and gi represent /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ followed by /i/: cibo /ˈtʃibo/ 'food', baci /ˈbatʃi/ 'kisses'; gita /ˈdʒita/ 'trip', Tamigi /taˈmidʒi/ 'Thames'.


AlphabetEdit

The alphabet consists of 26 letters: five vowels (A, E, I, O, U) and 16 consonants. The letters J, K, W, X and Y are part of the alphabet, and appear in loanwords[1] (e.g., 'jeans'), foreign names, and in a handful of native words – such as the names Jesolo, Bettino Craxi, and Walter, which all derive from regional languages. In addition, grave, acute and circumflex accents may modify vowel letters.

 
An Italian computer keyboard layout.
Letter Name IPA Diacritics
A, a a [ˈa] /a/ à
B, b bi [ˈbi] /b/
C, c ci [ˈtʃi] /k/ or //
D, d di [ˈdi] /d/
E, e e [ˈe] /e/ or /ɛ/ è, é
F, f effe [ˈɛfːe] /f/
G, g gi [ˈdʒi] /ɡ/ or //
H, h acca [ˈakːa] silent
I, i i [ˈi] /i/ or /j/ ì, í, [î]
L, l elle [ˈɛlːe] /l/
M, m emme [ˈɛmːe] /m/
N, n enne [ˈɛnːe] /n/
O, o o [ˈɔ] /o/ or /ɔ/ ò, ó
P, p pi [ˈpi] /p/
Q, q cu [ˈku] /k/
R, r erre [ˈɛrːe] /r/
S, s esse [ˈɛsːe] /s/ or /z/
T, t ti [ˈti] /t/
U, u u [ˈu] /u/ or /w/ ù, ú
V, v vi [ˈvi], vu [ˈvu] /v/
Z, z zeta [ˈdzɛːta] /ts/ or /dz/

Double consonants are geminated: fatto [ˈfatːo], palla [ˈpalːa], bevve [ˈbevːe] etc.

VowelsEdit

The Italian alphabet has five vowel letters, ⟨a e i o u⟩. Of those, only ⟨a⟩ represents one sound value while each of the others has two. In addition, ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ indicate a different pronunciation of a preceding ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ (see below).

In stressed syllables, ⟨e⟩ represents both open /ɛ/ and close /e/. Similarly, ⟨o⟩ represents both open /ɔ/ and close /o/ (see the Italian phonology for further details on these sounds). There is typically no orthographic distinction between the open and closed sounds represented, though accent marks are used in certain instances (see below). There are some minimal pairs, called heteronyms, where the same spelling is used for distinct words with distinct vowel sounds. In unstressed syllables, only the close variants occur.

In addition to representing the respective vowels /i/ and /u/, ⟨i⟩ and ⟨u⟩ also typically represent the semivowels /j/ and /w/, respectively, when unstressed and occurring before another vowel. Many exceptions exist (e.g. attuale, deciduo, deviare, dioscuro, fatuo, iato, inebriare, ingenuo, liana, proficuo, riarso, viaggio). Unstressed ⟨i⟩ may represent that a preceding or following ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ is 'soft' (dolce).

C and GEdit

The letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ represent the plosives /k/ and /ɡ/ before ⟨r⟩ and before the vowels ⟨a⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩. They represent the affricates /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ respectively when they precede a front vowel (⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩).

The letter ⟨i⟩ can also function within digraphs (two letters representing one sound) ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ to indicate "soft" (affricate) /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ before another vowel. In these instances, the vowel following the digraph is stressed, and ⟨i⟩ represents no vowel sound: ciò (/tʃɔ/), giù (/dʒu/). An item such as Cia 'CIA', pronounced /ˈtʃi.a/ with /i/ stressed, contains no digraph.

For words of more than one syllable, stress position must be known in order to distinguish between digraph ⟨ci⟩ or ⟨gi⟩ containing no actual phonological vowel /i/ and sequences of affricate and stressed /i/. For example, the words camicia "shirt" and farmacia "pharmacy" share the spelling ⟨-cia⟩, but contrast in that only the first ⟨i⟩ is stressed in camicia, thus ⟨-cia⟩ represents /tʃa/ with no /i/ sound (likewise, pino grigio ends in /dʒo/ and the names Gianna and Gianni contain only two actual vowels: /ˈdʒan.na/, /ˈdʒan.ni/). In farmacia /i/ is stressed, so that ⟨ci⟩ is not a digraph, but represents two of the three constituents of /ˈtʃi.a/.

When the "hard" (plosive) pronunciation /k/ or /ɡ/ occurs before a front vowel ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩, digraphs ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ are used, so that ⟨che⟩ represents /ke/ or /kɛ/ and ⟨chi⟩ represents /ki/ or /kj/. The same principle applies to ⟨gh⟩: ⟨ghe⟩ and ⟨ghi⟩ represent /ge/ or /gɛ/ and /gi/ or /gj/.

In the evolution from Latin to Italian, the postalveolar affricates [tʃ] and [dʒ] were contextual variants of the velar consonants /k/ and /ɡ/. They eventually came to be full phonemes, and orthographic adjustments were introduced to distinguish them. The phonemicity of the affricates can be demonstrated with minimal pairs:

Plosive Affricate
Before ⟨i⟩, ⟨e⟩ ch china /ˈkina/ 'India ink' c Cina /ˈtʃina/ 'China'
gh ghiro /ˈɡiro/ 'dormouse' g giro /ˈdʒiro/ 'lap', 'tour'
Elsewhere c caramella /karaˈmɛlla/ 'candy' ci ciaramella /tʃaraˈmɛlla/ 'shawm'
g gallo /ˈɡallo/ 'rooster' gi giallo /ˈdʒallo/ 'yellow'

The trigraphs ⟨cch⟩ and ⟨ggh⟩ are used to indicate geminate /kk/ and /gɡ/, respectively, when they occur before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩; e.g. occhi /ˈɔkki/ 'eyes', agghindare /aɡɡinˈdare/ 'to dress up'.

⟨g⟩ joins with ⟨l⟩ to form a digraph representing palatal /ʎ/ before ⟨i⟩), and with ⟨n⟩ to represent /ɲ/ with any vowel following. Between vowels these are pronounced phonetically long, as in [ˈaʎːo] aglio 'garlic', [ˈoɲːi] ogni 'each'. By way of exception, ⟨gl⟩ before ⟨i⟩ represents /ɡl/ in many words derived from Greek, such as glicine 'wisteria'. ⟨gl⟩ before vowels other than ⟨i⟩ represents straightforward /gl/.

The digraph ⟨sc⟩ is used before ⟨e⟩ and ⟨i⟩ to represent /ʃ/; before other vowels, ⟨sci⟩ is used for /ʃ/. Otherwise, ⟨sc⟩ represents /sk/, the ⟨c⟩ of which follows the normal orthographic rules explained above.

/sk/ /ʃ/
Before ⟨i e⟩ sch scherno /ˈskerno/ sc scerno /ˈʃɛrno/
Elsewhere sc scalo /ˈskalo/ sci scialo /ˈʃalo/

Other than in a few Northern Italian dialects, intervocalic /ʎ/, /ɲ/, and /ʃ/ are always geminated and no orthographic distinction is made to indicate this.

S and ZEdit

⟨s⟩ and ⟨z⟩ are ambiguous to voicing.

⟨s⟩ represents a dental sibilant consonant, either /s/ or /z/. However, these two phonemes are in complementary distribution everywhere except between two vowels in the same word and, even with such words, there are very few minimal pairs.

  • The voiceless /s/ occurs:
  • The voiced /z/ occurs before voiced consonants (e.g. sbranare /zbraˈnare/).
  • It can be either voiceless or voiced (/s/ or /z/) between vowels; in standard Tuscany-based pronunciation some words are pronounced with /s/ between vowels (e.g. casa, cosa, così, mese, naso, peso, cinese, piemontese, goloso); in Northern Italy (and also increasingly in Tuscany) ⟨s⟩ between vowels is always pronounced with /z/ whereas in Southern Italy ⟨s⟩ between vowels is always pronounced /s/.

⟨ss⟩ always represents voiceless /sː/: grosso /ˈɡrɔsːo/, successo /sutˈtʃɛsːo/, passato /pasˈsato/, etc.

⟨z⟩ represents a dental affricate consonant; either /dz/ (zanzara /dzanˈdzara/) or /ts/ (nazione /natsjoːne/), depending on context, though there are few minimal pairs.

  • It is normally voiceless /ts/:
    • At the start of a word in which the second syllable starts with a voiceless consonant (zampa /ˈtsampa/, zoccolo /ˈtsɔkːolo/, zufolo /tsuˈfoːlo/)
    • When followed by an ⟨i⟩ which is followed, in turn, by another vowel (e.g. zio /ˈtsio/, agenzia /aˈdʒentsja/, grazie /ˈɡratːsje/)
      • Exceptions: azienda /aˈdzjɛnda/, all words derived from words obeying other rules (e.g. romanziere /romanˈdzjɛre/, which is derived from romanzo)
    • After the letter ⟨l⟩ (e.g. alzare /alˈtsare/)
    • In the suffixes -anza, -enza and -onzolo (e.g. usanza /uˈzantsa/, credenza /kreˈdɛntsa/, ballonzolo /balˈlontsolo/)
  • It is voiced /dz/:
    • At the start of a word in which the second syllable starts with a voiced consonant or ⟨z⟩ (or ⟨zz⟩) itself (e.g. zebra /ˈdzɛbra/, zuzzurellone /dzudːzurelˈlone/)
    • At the start of a word when followed by two vowels (e.g. zaino /ˈdzaino/)
      • Exceptions: zio and its derived terms (see above)
    • If it is single (not doubled) and between two single vowels (e.g. azalea /adzaˈlɛa/)
      • Exceptions: nazismo /natˈtsizmo/ (from the German pronunciation of ⟨z⟩)

Between vowels and/or semivowels (/j/ and /w/), ⟨z⟩ is pronounced as if doubled (/tːs/ or /dːz/, e.g. vizio /ˈvitːsjo/, polizia /politˈtsia/).

⟨zz⟩ is generally voiceless /tːs/: pazzo /ˈpatːso/, ragazzo /raˈɡatːso/, pizza /ˈpitːsa/, grandezza /ɡranˈdetːsa/, etc. (exceptions: razzo /ˈradːzo/, mezzo /ˈmɛdːzo/, azzardo /adˈdzardo/, azzurro /adˈdzurro/, brezza /ˈbredːza/). A major exception is the verbal ending -izzare (from Greek -ίζειν), in which it is always pronounced /dːz/ (e.g. organizzare /ɔrɡanidˈdzare/), and derived words (e.g. analizzo /anaˈlidːzo/, a derivative of analizzare).

Other lettersEdit

In addition to being used to indicate a hard ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ before front vowels, ⟨h⟩ is also used to distinguish ho, hai, ha, hanno (present indicative of avere, 'to have') from o ('or'), ai ('to the', m. pl.), a ('to'), anno ('year'); since ⟨h⟩ is always silent, there is no difference in the pronunciation of such words. In loanwords such as hovercraft /ˈɔverkraft/, the h is still silent.

The letters J (I lunga 'long I'), K (cappa), W (V doppia or doppia V 'double V'), X (ics) and Y (ipsilon or I greca 'Greek I') are used for loanwords only, with few exceptions.[citation needed]

DiacriticsEdit

The acute accent (´) may be used on ⟨é⟩ and ⟨ó⟩ to represent close-mid vowels when they are stressed in a position other than the default second-to-last syllable. This use of accents is generally mandatory only in the final syllable; elsewhere, accents are generally found only in dictionaries. Since final ⟨o⟩ is hardly ever close-mid, ⟨ó⟩ is very rarely encountered in written Italian (e.g. metró 'subway', from the original French pronunciation of métro with a final-stressed /o/).

The grave accent (`) is found on ⟨à⟩, ⟨è⟩, ⟨ì⟩, ⟨ò⟩, ⟨ù⟩. It may be used on ⟨è⟩ and ⟨ò⟩ when they represent open-mid vowels. The accents may also be used to differentiate minimal pairs within Italian (for example pèsca 'peach' vs. pésca 'fishing'), but in practice this is limited to didactic texts. In the case of final ⟨ì⟩ and ⟨ù⟩, both possibilities are encountered. By far the most common option is the grave accent, ⟨ì⟩ and ⟨ù⟩, though this may be due to the rarity of the acute accent to represent stress; the alternative of employing the acute, ⟨í⟩ and ⟨ú⟩, is in practice limited to erudite texts, but can be justified as both vowels are high (as in Catalan). However, since there are no corresponding low (or lax) vowels to contrast with in Italian, both choices are equally acceptable.

The circumflex accent (^) can be used to mark the contraction of two vowels, especially a double, final ⟨ii⟩ may become ⟨î⟩. For example, it can be used to differentiate words like geni ('genes', plural of gene) and genî ('geniuses', plural of genio). This is especially seen in older texts, since two homophones are usually distinguished by the context. Current use prefers, with exceptions, a single ⟨i⟩ instead of a double ⟨ii⟩ or a ⟨î⟩ with circumflex.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Italian Extraction Guide – Section A: Italian Handwriting" (PDF). script.byu.edu. The letters J, K, W, X, and Y appear in the Italian alphabet, but are used mainly in foreign words adopted into the Italian vocabulary.

External linksEdit