Ismāʿīl ibn Jaʿfar al-Mubārak (Arabic: إسماعيل بن جعفر‎; c. born: 719 AD, Medina - died circa 762 AD, Medina) was the eldest son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. He is also known as Isma'il Al-Ãraj ibn Ja'far (اسماعيل الاعرج ابن جعفر الصادق).[1][2][3][4] Following Ja'far's death, the Shia community split between those who would become the Twelver Shia and those who believed that the Imamate passed to Ja'far's son, Isma'il; the Isma'ili branch of Shia Islam is accordingly named for Isma'il.[5] According to both the Nizari and Mustaali Shia sects, he is the rightful successor of the sixth Imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, and the seventh Imam.

Isma'il ibn Ja'far
(إسمعيل الديباج بن جعفر الصادق (رحمه الله.png
Born103 AH
(approximately 722 C.E)
Died138 AH
(approximately 762 C.E)
Resting placeAl-Baqi' Madina Saudi Arabia
Other namesAbu Muhammad, Isma'il Al-A"raj
Known forElder son of Ja'far al-Sadiq, sixth Ismāʿīlī Imām, Syed
Titleaz-Azbab-i-Itlaq (Absolute lord), Al-Wafi, Al-aa"raj
PredecessorJa'far al-Sadiq According to Isma'ili Shia
SuccessorMuhammad ibn Isma'il According to Isma'ili Shia
ChildrenMuhammad ibn Isma'il, Ali ibn Isma'il, Fatima
Parent(s)
RelativesMusa al-Kadhim

Contents

BiographyEdit

Isma'il was born in Shawwal 100 AH/719 AD He was the eldest son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. His mother, Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram bin al-Hasan bin Ali, was the first wife of Ja'far al-Sadiq. He was the brother of Abdullah al-Aftah.

Isma'ili sources say that, after the age of seven, as his father's designated successor, Isma'il was kept apart from his siblings, limited in his contact with the public, with his father taking personal responsibility for his education. Given his father's reputation as a scholar and the number of distinguished students who sought out his tuition, Isma'il would have received excellent training. It is said that whenever Ja'far was ill and unable to fulfill his duties as Imam, he deputized Isma'il, although his role was restricted to the confines of the home.

According to Daftary, Isma'il may have taken part in an anti-Abbasid plot in 755 and identified with the more activist, or militant Shi'a (some of whom split off as the Zaydis). He may have been summoned to the Caliph's court with others to face charges but was spared execution, unlike some of his fellow plotters.[citation needed]

To protect him from persecution, his father sent him into hiding and publicly declared him deceased. The majority Twelver groups argue that Isma'il actually died during his father's Imamate in the year 138 AH/756 AD.

In about 762, Isma'il may have left Medina for Basra, although this is disputed. He is said to have had a full grasp of the esoteric truth, the inner message of Islam. He was succeeded by his son, Muhammad, as the 8th Isma'ili Imam, who was about 22 at the time. Some Isma'ilis believe that Muhammad bin Isma'il became "hidden" and will return as the Mahdi, to establish universal peace and justice.

According to Daftary, Isma'il may have led a revolt against the Abbasids in 815, "and died shortly afterwards".[citation needed] He probably lived in "southwestern Persia ... from where he dispatched his own Dais to adjoining areas".[citation needed]

Burial placeEdit

According to some Isma'ili sources, Isma'il ibn Ja'far is buried in Salamiyah, a city located in Syria.[6] Other sources point to Al-Baqi' Madina as his burial place.[7] Twelver Shia's and Sunni Muslims sources have contradicted this, stating that he was buried in Al-Baqi' Medina, the holy Islamic city located in Hijaz.[8][9][10][11][12][13]

The Ismāʿīlī–IthnaʿAshari schismEdit

The Ismāʿīlī–Ithnaʿ Ashari split occurred during and after Imam Ja'far al-Sādiq’s lifetime. It was initially thought that Imam Ja'far al-Sādiq’s elder son, Isma'il ibn Ja’far (either first or second eldest to his first wife, Fatima bint al-Hussain) .[14] [15] would be the next Imam, arguably found in both Ismā'īlī and Twelver sources.[16] However, his untimely death prior to Imam Ja’far al-Sādiq’s death, led to multiple splits and theories within the community. [17]

What came to be known as Ismā'īlīs, are those who believed that the Imamate should remain within the line of Isma'il ibn Ja’far. It was believed that the designation went to Isma'il ibn Ja'far, and therefore the Imamate should continue through his lineage.[18] [19] His early supporters initially theorized that Isma'il ibn Ja’far’s death was staged, and he went into hiding out of fear for his life from the Abbasid Caliph al-Mansūr.[20] [21] They refused to acknowledge his death, and some even claimed to have seen him after his funeral. However, most Ismā'īlīs later accepted Isma'il ibn Ja’far’s death, and instead followed his son Muhammad ibn Isma'il as the next Imam, since the Imamate could still be continued through Isma'il ibn Ja’far’s lineage. On a theological level, Ismai'lis refuse to acknowledge Imams outside of the lineage of Ismail ibn Ja’far due to the notion of naṣṣ (designation) and ‘ișma (infallibility). Because Shi’as believe that the Imams are infallible and contain special knowledge of the Divine decree, it is inconceivable that Imam Ja'far al-Sādiq would have incorrectly chosen Imam Isma'il ibn Ja’far as his successor and then retract his original naṣṣ. This would mean that Imam Ja'far al-Sādiq either made a major mistake which would make him fallible, or later claims regarding other designations were forged narrations.

Ithna-'Asharis, following the early death of Isma'il ibn Ja’far acknowledged the designation of Imam Ja'far al-Sādiq’s younger son, Mūsā al-Kāẓim, from his slave-wife, Ḥamīda al-Barbariyya. Various hadith reports from the Twelver Shi’i collection contain narrations about the designation of Imam Mūsā al-Kāẓim, along with his exceptional character and wisdom from an early age[22]. Witnesses include some of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq’s sons, ‘Ali and Isḥāq, who affirmed Mūsā al-Kāẓim’s naṣṣ.[23] Other arguments made for Imam Mūsā al-Kāẓim include the passing down of special objects that belonged to the Prophet, ‘Ali and Fatima to the designated Imams[24]. While the early followers (later Twelvers) of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq believed that Isma'il ibn Ja'far might have been the Imam due to his beloved status by his father, some argue that he was neither explicitly designated, nor meant to be, due to his early death. Another mainstream view also purports a “change” or “abrogation” in the Divine Decree, known as badā’, in which God may abrogate a previous decree for something better.[25] As a result, Imam Ja'far al-Sādiq’s infallibility is not called into question. The Ithna-‘Asharis continued to follow the Imamate from Mūsā al-Kāẓim’s lineage until their twelfth Imam went into Occultation. They await their twelfth Imam as the final Mahdi.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ بصوته, مقولات السيد فضل الله. "موسوعة الإمام جعفر بن محمد ( الصادق ) عليه السلام - موقع الميزان". www.mezan.net. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
  2. ^ "موقع يازهراء س سيرة الإمام جعفر أبن محمد الصادق عليه الســـــــــلام". alzahraa.org. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
  3. ^ "الإمام جعفر الصادق عليه السلام". al-mousa.net. Retrieved 2017-02-27.
  4. ^ "كتاب(الروض المعطار في تشجير تحفة الأزهار وزلال الأنهار في نسب الأئمة الأطهار)". alsadah.hooxs.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 2017-02-27.
  5. ^ John Norman Hollister (1979). The Shi'a of India. Oriental Books Reprint Corp. : [exclusively distributed by Munshiram Manoharla]. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  6. ^ Gnostic, Ismaili. "Who Succeeded Imam Jafar al-Sadiq? Seven Proofs for the Imamat of Imam Ismail ibn Jafar". Ismaili Gnosis. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  7. ^ "Burial Places of Imams - Dawoodi Bohra Forum". www.dawoodi-bohras.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  8. ^ "Criminal silence on the Baqee destruction reason behind Muslim problems; Moosavi on 8 Shawwal | Jafariya News Network". www.jafariyanews.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  9. ^ "Ziarat of Hazrat Ismail bin Imam Jafar Sadiq (as)". ziaraat.org. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  10. ^ "SAUDI ARABIA - ZIARAAT & INFORMATION". www.ziaraat.org. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  11. ^ "Madinah a-Munawwarah | almiskeenah | Page 4". almiskeenah.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  12. ^ "History of Baqi cemetry in Medina". www.duas.org. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  13. ^ "iClassic". seattleclouds.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  14. ^ "6th Imam Molana Ismail a.s. bin Imam Jaffer Sadik a.s. - Dawoodi Bohra Forum". dawoodi-bohras.com. Retrieved 2016-04-11.
  15. ^ Al-Hasan ibn Musa al-Nawbakhti. Kitab Firaq al-Shia. Tr. by Abbas Kadhim, Shi'a Sects 2007, p. 123.
  16. ^ https://ismailignosis.com/2014/10/02/who-succeeded-imam-jafar-al-sadiq-seven-proofs-for-the-imamat-of-imam-ismail-ibn-jafar/
  17. ^ Al-Hasan ibn Musa al-Nawbakhti. Kitab Firaq al-Shia. Tr. by Abbas Kadhim, Shi'a Sects 2007, p. 122-142.
  18. ^ http://www.dawoodi-bohras.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=7646
  19. ^ https://ismailignosis.com/2014/10/02/who-succeeded-imam-jafar-al-sadiq-seven-proofs-for-the-imamat-of-imam-ismail-ibn-jafar/
  20. ^ Al-Hasan ibn Musa al-Nawbakhti. Kitab Firaq al-Shia. Tr. by Abbas Kadhim, Shi'a Sects 2007, p. 123.
  21. ^ p W. Ivanow, Ismaili Tradition Concerning the Rise of the Fatimids, 1941, p. 275-278
  22. ^ http://en.wikishia.net/view/Imam_Musa_b._Ja%27far_al-Kazim_(a)#Imamate
  23. ^ Shaykh al-Mufid. Kitab al-Irshad. Translated by Seyyid Hossein Nasr, p. 407
  24. ^ Shaykh al-Mufid. Kitab al-Irshad. Translated by Seyyid Hossein Nasr, p. 408
  25. ^ Ayoub, Mahmoud. Divine Preordination and Human Hope a Study of the Concept of Badāʾ in Imāmī Shīʿī Tradition. Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 106, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1986), pp. 623632. P 624
Isma'il ibn Jafar
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Clan of the Quraish
Born: 122 AH 719 AD Died: …. AH 815…. AD
Shia Islam titles
Preceded by
Ja'far al-Sadiq
7th Imam of Ismailism Succeeded by
Muhammad ibn Ismāʿīl ash-Shākir