I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English ⟨y⟩ in yes). It is a category of regressive metaphony, or vowel harmony.

The term is usually used by scholars of the Germanic languages: it is particularly important in the history of the Germanic languages because inflectional suffixes with an /i/ or /j/ led to many vowel alternations that are still important in the morphology of the languages.

Germanic languagesEdit

I-mutation took place separately in the various Germanic languages from around 450 or 500 AD in the North Sea area and affected all the early languages[1] except for Gothic.[2] It seems to have taken effect earliest and most completely Old English and Old Norse. It took place later in Old High German; by 900, its effects are consistently visible only in the spelling of Germanic */a/.

Other languagesEdit

I-mutation exists in many other languages but is often referred to by different names. However, in the Romance languages, it is more commonly called metaphony (from Ancient Greek, meaning "process of changing sounds", of which German umlaut is a translation).[citation needed] Meanwhile, in Celtic languages, it is referred to as affection.[citation needed] A type of i-mutation is also observed in Anatolian languages, including Hittite, Luwian, Lycian and Lydian.[3][4][5][6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ See Fausto Cercignani, Early "Umlaut" Phenomena in the Germanic Languages, in «Language», 56/1, 1980, pp. 126-136.
  2. ^ See Fausto Cercignani, Alleged Gothic Umlauts, in "Indogermanische Forschungen", 85, 1980, pp. 207-213.
  3. ^ Starke, Frank (1990). Untersuchung zur Stammbildung des keilschrift-luwischen Nomens. Studien zu den Boǧazköy-Texten. Volume 31. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-02879-3.
  4. ^ Melchert, Craig H. (2012). Orioles, V. (ed.). "Genitive Case and Possessive Adjective in Anatolian" (PDF). Per Roberto Gusmani: Linguistica storica e teorica. Udine: Forum: 273–286.
  5. ^ Yakubovich, Ilya (2015) "The Luwian Language". Oxford Handbooks Online.
  6. ^ . doi:10.1163/22125892-00501002. Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)