Iškuza

Iškuza, Ishkuza, Ischkuza or Scythian kingdom (Akkadian: ašguza, Ancient Greek: Σκύθης, Hebrew: 'škwz‎) was a military and political entity created by Scythians in the 7th-6th centuries BCE in Western Asia. The question of the exact boundaries and form of statehood (kingdom, military-political association, or support base of the Scythians) of Ishkuza remains open. The center is usually located in Transcaucasia - in the western part of modern Azerbaijan or north-west Iran - in the Lake Urmia region.

OriginEdit

The origin is not clear. Modern research[which?] suggests a relationship with the Kimmerer. However, an equation must not be made, since both peoples are mentioned at the same time and there is a clear separation of the two tribes. The names and their language show strong similarities to the Hittite, Luwian, and Eastern Anatolian languages.

Iškuza in mentions of AshurbanipalEdit

Assurbanipal reports around 665 BC. Chr. Of "a grasshopper n-like incursion barbaric ischer who devastated the country" and used the Assyrian swear word "Guteans" for their leader Dugdamme. Together with Urartu, Mannea, and Cimmeria, Iškuza was named in the list of hostile states. Around 667 BC King Gyges asked for Assyrian help against the "wandering Iškuzaia". Assurbanipal did not respond to the call for help and shortly afterward noted the capture of Gyges. In the further course, Gyges must have succeeded in the reconquest, since between 666 BC. BC and 650 BC A victory over theIškuzaia is reported.

Whether Ashurbanipal was able to completely repel the attack by the Iškuzaia remains a matter of dispute.

After Gyges died in 644 BC, his son and successor, Ardys II, asked again for Assyrian help. It could not be clarified whether the request was complied with. The written tradition for Dugdamme ends around 642 BC. With his death in Cilicia. His son and successor Sandakkurru (reading Sandakšatru is also possible) are written in a Hymn to Marduk around 640 BC. Called in BC, in which Ashurbanipal asks for a final victory over the "Iškuzaia"; further evidence that the threat persisted in the years after Tugdamme.

In another oracle request to Shamasch, the Cimmerians and Iškuzaia are named together, who at that time besieged the provinces Bit Hamban and Parsumaš attacked.

See alsoEdit

LiteratureEdit

  • Yehoshua M. Grintz, Ashkenaz, Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008
  • Butnick, Stephanie. Study Says All Ashkenazi Jews Are 30th Cousins, Tablet Magazine. September 10, 2014.
  • Ausubel, Nathan. Pictorial History of the Jewish People. New York: Crown Publishers, 1953.Crown Publishers, 1953.
  • Dimont, Max. Jews, God, and History. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962.
  • Seltzer, Robert. Jewish People, Jewish Thought. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1980.