Human betaherpesvirus 7

Human betaherpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is one of nine known members of the Herpesviridae family that infects humans. HHV-7 is a member of Betaherpesvirinae, a subfamily of the Herpesviridae that also includes HHV-6 and Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5 or HCMV).[2][3] HHV-7 often acts together with HHV-6, and the viruses together are sometimes referred to by their genus, Roseolovirus.[4] HHV-7 was first isolated in 1990 from CD4+ T cells taken from peripheral blood lymphocytes.[5]

Human betaherpesvirus 7
SpecialtyInfectious disease
Human betaherpesvirus 7
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Duplodnaviria
Kingdom: Heunggongvirae
Phylum: Peploviricota
Class: Herviviricetes
Order: Herpesvirales
Family: Herpesviridae
Genus: Roseolovirus
Species:
Human betaherpesvirus 7
Synonyms[1]
  • Human herpesvirus 7

Signs and symptomsEdit

Both HHV-6B and HHV-7, as well as other viruses, can cause a skin condition in infants known as exanthema subitum, although HHV-7 causes the disease less frequently than HHV-6B.[6] HHV-7 infection also leads to or is associated with a number of other symptoms, including acute febrile respiratory disease, fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, low lymphocyte counts,[7] and febrile seizures,[8] though most often no symptoms present at all.[9]

There are indications that HHV-7 can contribute to the development of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome,[10] encephalopathy,[11] hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome,[12] hepatitis infection,[13] postinfectious myeloradiculoneuropathy,[14] pityriasis rosea,[15] and the reactivation of HHV-4, leading to "mononucleosis-like illness".[16]

Complications with HHV-7 infection has been shown to be a factor in a great variety of transplant types.[9]

VirologyEdit

StructureEdit

A mature virus particle measures about 170 nanometres (1,700 Å) in diameter.[17]

The genome of HHV-7 is very similar to that of HHV-6, although it is about 10% smaller,[18] with a DNA genome of about 145,000 base pairs.[9] There are a number of key differences between the genome of HHV-7 and that of HHV-6, but the importance of them for viral DNA replication is not yet known.[9]

Cellular effectsEdit

HHV-7 resides mostly in CD4+ T cells,[19] albeit only in certain strains of them.[20][21][22] To enter CD4+ T cells, HHV-7, unlike HHV-6, uses CD4 and possibly some cell-surface glyoproteins to enter CD4+ T cells.[23] About a week after HHV-7 has infected a cell, it begins to downregulate CD4 transcription,[24] which interferes with HIV-1 infection[25] but may reactivate HHV-6 infection.[26] It is however unclear exactly what effect HHV-7 has on HIV infection.[9]

HHV-7 also has a number of other effects on cells. Among these include membrane leaking, the presence of lytic syncytia,[27][28] occasional apoptosis,[29] the supporting of latent infection,[30] and increases and decreases in levels of certain cytokines.[31][32]

Detection and treatmentEdit

In adults, the effects of HHV-7 separate from HHV-6 have not been well-researched.[2] One reason for this is because the detection of HHV-7 was at first difficult to do quickly, as the process for doing so involves a procedure that is difficult to do in commercial laboratories and because viral isolation and serological testing are long processes that do not lend themselves to finishing quickly. A process known as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has recently been developed to speed up detection of HHV-7, although a larger sample size of patients must be tested first to see if the test will still work across a broad range of subjects.[33] No reliable serological test has been developed yet for HHV-7 alone, but multiple are in the process of being developed.[9] The use of PCR assays to test for HHV-7 is also being explored.[9][34]

No treatment for HHV-7 infection exists, but no clinical situation where such treatment would be useful has yet been discovered.[9]

EpidemiologyEdit

Over 95% of adults have been infected and are immune to HHV-7,[35] and over three quarters of those were infected before the age of six.[36] Primary infection of HHV-7 among children generally occurs between the ages of 2 and 5, which means it occurs after primary infection of HHV-6.[37] A 2014 Washington University School of Medicine's analysis of 102 healthy adults sampled at as many as five major body habitats found that HHV-7 was present in 98% of them, especially in the mouth.[38] A 2017 study looking at the human blood virome in 8,240 humans between the ages of 2 months to 102 years found that 20.37% of them were positive for HHV-7.[39]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Davison, Andrew (27 January 2016). "Rename species in the family Herpesviridae to incorporate a subfamily designation" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Other Herpesviruses: HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8, HSV-1 and -2, VZV". American Journal of Transplantation. 4 Suppl 10: 66–71. 2004. doi:10.1111/j.1600-6135.2004.00697.x. PMID 15504215.
  3. ^ Widen, B. F.; Lowings, J. P.; Belak, S.; Banks, M. (August 1999). "Development of a PCR system for porcine cytomegalovirus detection and determination of the putative partial sequence of its DNA polymerase gene". Epidemiology and Infection. 123 (1): 177–180. doi:10.1017/S0950268899002599. PMC 2810741. PMID 10487654.
  4. ^ Ongrádi, JóZsef; Kövesdi, Valéria; Kováts, Enikő (2010). "Az emberi 7-es herpeszvírus". Orvosi Hetilap (in Hungarian). 151 (16): 645–51. doi:10.1556/OH.2010.28856. PMID 20353917.
  5. ^ Frenkel, N; Schirmer, EC; Wyatt, LS; Katsafanas, G; Roffman, E; Danovich, RM; June, CH (1990). "Isolation of a new herpesvirus from human CD4+ T cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (2): 748–52. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87..748F. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.748. PMC 53343. PMID 2153965.
  6. ^ Cohen, J. I.; Fahle, G.; Kemp, M. A.; Apakupakul, K.; Margolis, T. P. (2010). "Human Herpesvirus 6-A, 6-B and 7 in Vitreous Fluid Samples". Journal of Medical Virology. 82 (6): 996–9. doi:10.1002/jmv.21751. PMC 2938775. PMID 20419813.
  7. ^ Suga, S; Yoshikawa, T; Nagai, T; Asano, Y (1997). "Clinical features and virological findings in children with primary human herpesvirus 7 infection". Pediatrics. 99 (3): E4. doi:10.1542/peds.99.3.e4. PMID 9099769.
  8. ^ Clark, DA; Kidd, IM; Collingham, KE; Tarlow, M; Ayeni, T; Riordan, A; Griffiths, PD; Emery, VC; Pillay, D (1997). "Diagnosis of primary human herpesvirus 6 and 7 infections in febrile infants by polymerase chain reaction". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 77 (1): 42–5. doi:10.1136/adc.77.1.42. PMC 1717251. PMID 9279150.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Tremblay, Cecile. Hirsch, Martin S; McGovern, Barbara H (eds.). "Human herpesvirus 7 infection". UpToDate. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  10. ^ Hara, H; Kobayashi, M; Yokoyama, A; Tochigi, M; Matsunaga, A; Shimizu, H; Goshima, J; Suzuki, H (2005). "Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome due to carbamazepine associated with reactivation of human herpesvirus 7". Dermatology. 211 (2): 159–61. doi:10.1159/000086449. PMID 16088166.
  11. ^ Van Den Berg, JS; Van Zeijl, JH; Rotteveel, JJ; Melchers, WJ; Gabreëls, FJ; Galama, JM (1999). "Neuroinvasion by human herpesvirus type 7 in a case of exanthem subitum with severe neurologic manifestations". Neurology. 52 (5): 1077–9. doi:10.1212/wnl.52.5.1077. PMID 10102435.
  12. ^ Kawada, J; Kimura, H; Yoshikawa, T; Ihira, M; Okumura, A; Morishima, T; Hayakawa, F (2004). "Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome and primary human herpesvirus 7 infection". Brain & Development. 26 (6): 412–4. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2003.12.003. PMID 15275707.
  13. ^ Hashida, T; Komura, E; Yoshida, M; Otsuka, T; Hibi, S; Imashuku, S; Imashuku, S; Ishizaki, T; et al. (1995). "Hepatitis in Association With Human Herpesvirus-7 Infection". Pediatrics. 96 (4 Pt 1): 783–785. PMID 7567349.
  14. ^ Mihara, T; Mutoh, T; Yoshikawa, T; Yano, S; Asano, Y; Yamamoto, H (2005). "Postinfectious myeloradiculoneuropathy with cranial nerve involvements associated with human herpesvirus 7 infection". Archives of Neurology. 62 (11): 1755–7. doi:10.1001/archneur.62.11.1755. PMID 16286551.
  15. ^ Chuh, A; Chan, H; Zawar, V (2004). "Pityriasis rosea--evidence for and against an infectious aetiology". Epidemiology and Infection. 132 (3): 381–390. doi:10.1017/S0950268804002304. PMC 2870116. PMID 15188706.
  16. ^ Chiu, H-H; Lee, C-Y; Lee, P-I; Lin, K-H; Huang, L-M (1998). "Mononucleosis syndrome and coincidental human herpesvirus-7 and Epstein-Barr virus infection". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 78 (5): 479–480. doi:10.1136/adc.78.5.479. PMC 1717555. PMID 9659100.
  17. ^ Klussmann, J. P.; Krueger, E.; Sloots, T.; Berneman, Z.; Arnold, G.; Krueger, G. R. F. (1997). "Ultrastructural study of human herpesvirus-7 replication in tissue culture". Virchows Archiv. 430 (5): 417–426. doi:10.1007/s004280050051. PMID 9174632.
  18. ^ Nicholas, John (September 1996). "Determination and analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of human herpesvirus 7" (PDF). Journal of Virology. 70 (9): 5975–5989. doi:10.1128/JVI.70.9.5975-5989.1996. PMC 190618. PMID 8709220.
  19. ^ Katsafanas, GC; Schirmer, EC; Wyatt, LS; Frenkel, N (1996). "In vitro activation of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 from latency". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 93 (18): 9788–92. Bibcode:1996PNAS...93.9788K. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.18.9788. PMC 38507. PMID 8790409.
  20. ^ Berneman, ZN; Ablashi, DV; Li, G; Eger-Fletcher, M; Reitz Jr, MS; Hung, CL; Brus, I; Komaroff, AL; Gallo, RC (1992). "Human herpesvirus 7 is a T-lymphotropic virus and is related to, but significantly different from, human herpesvirus 6 and human cytomegalovirus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 89 (21): 10552–10556. Bibcode:1992PNAS...8910552B. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.21.10552. PMC 50377. PMID 1332051.
  21. ^ Mirandola, P; Secchiero, P; Pierpaoli, S; Visani, G; Zamai, L; Vitale, M; Capitani, S; Zauli, G (2000). "Infection of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells by human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7)". Blood. 96 (1): 126–131. doi:10.1182/blood.V96.1.126. PMID 10891440.
  22. ^ Yasukawa, M; Inoue, Y; Ohminami, H; Sada, E; Miyake, K; Tohyama, T; Shimada, T; Fujita, S (1997). "Human herpesvirus 7 infection of lymphoid and myeloid cell lines transduced with an adenovirus vector containing the CD4 gene". Journal of Virology. 71 (2): 1708–1712. doi:10.1128/JVI.71.2.1708-1712.1997. PMC 191236. PMID 8995705.
  23. ^ Secchiero, P; Sun, D; De Vico, AL; Crowley, RW; Reitz Jr, MS; Zauli, G; Lusso, P; Gallo, RC (1997). "Role of the extracellular domain of human herpesvirus 7 glycoprotein B in virus binding to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans". Journal of Virology. 71 (6): 4571–80. doi:10.1128/JVI.71.6.4571-4580.1997. PMC 191679. PMID 9151851.
  24. ^ Hall, CB (1997). "Human Herpesviruses at Sixes, Sevens, and More (editorial)". Annals of Internal Medicine. 127 (6): 481–3. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.365.5033. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-127-6-199709150-00010. PMID 9313006.
  25. ^ Lusso, P; Secchiero, P; Crowley, RW; Garzino-Demo, A; Berneman, ZN; Gallo, RC (1994). "CD4 is a critical component of the receptor for human herpesvirus 7: interference with human immunodeficiency virus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (9): 3872–6. Bibcode:1994PNAS...91.3872L. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.9.3872. PMC 43684. PMID 7909607.
  26. ^ Tanaka-Taya, K; Kondo, T; Nakagawa, N; Inagi, R; Miyoshi, H; Sunagawa, T; Okada, S; Yamanishi, K (2000). "Reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 by infection of human herpesvirus 7". Journal of Medical Virology. 60 (3): 284–9. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9071(200003)60:3<284::AID-JMV6>3.0.CO;2-8. PMID 10630960.
  27. ^ Secchiero, P; Berneman, ZN; Gallo, RC; Lusso, P (1994). "Biological and molecular characteristics of human herpesvirus 7: in vitro growth optimization and development of a syncytia inhibition test". Virology. 202 (1): 506–12. doi:10.1006/viro.1994.1371. PMID 8009865.
  28. ^ Frenkel, N; Schirmer, EC; Wyatt, LS; Katsafanas, G; Roffman, E; Danovich, RM; June, CH (1990). "Isolation of a new herpesvirus from human CD4+ T cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (2): 748–52. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87..748F. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.748. PMC 53343. PMID 2153965.
  29. ^ Secchiero, P; Flamand, L; Gibellini, D; Falcieri, E; Robuffo, I; Capitani, S; Gallo, RC; Zauli, G (1997). "Human Herpesvirus 7 induces CD4(+) T-cell death by two distinct mechanisms: necrotic lysis in productively infected cells and apoptosis in uninfected or nonproductively infected cells". Blood. 90 (11): 4502–12. PMID 9373261.
  30. ^ Menegazzi, P; Galvan, M; Rotola, A; Ravaioli, T; Gonelli, A; Cassai, E; Di Luca, D (1999). "Temporal mapping of transcripts in human herpesvirus-7". Journal of General Virology. 80 (10): 2705–12. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-80-10-2705. PMID 10573164.
  31. ^ Atedzoe, BN; Menezes, J; D'Addario, M; Xu, J; Ongradi, J; Ahmad, A (1999). "Modulatory effects of human herpes virus-7 on cytokine synthesis and cell proliferation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 66 (5): 822–8. doi:10.1002/jlb.66.5.822. PMID 10577515.
  32. ^ Atedzoe, BN; Ahmad, A; Menezes, J (1997). "Enhancement of natural killer cell cytotoxicity by the human herpesvirus-7 via IL-15 induction". Journal of Immunology. 159 (10): 4966–72. PMID 9366423.
  33. ^ Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Ihira, Masaru; Akimoto, Shiho; Usui, Chie; Miyake, Fumi; Suga, Sadao; Enomoto, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Ryota; et al. (March 2004). "Detection of Human Herpesvirus 7 DNA by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 42 (3): 1348–1352. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.3.1348-1352.2004. PMC 356854. PMID 15004116.
  34. ^ Clark, D. A; Kidd, I M.; Collingham, K. E; Tarlow, M.; Ayeni, T.; Riordan, A.; Griffiths, P. D; Emery, V. C; Pillay, D. (1997). "Diagnosis of primary human herpesvirus 6 and 7 infections in febrile infants by polymerase chain reaction". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 77 (1): 42–45. doi:10.1136/adc.77.1.42. PMC 1717251. PMID 9279150.
  35. ^ Clark, DA; Freeland, ML; MacKie, LK; Jarrett, RF; Onions, DE (1993). "Prevalence of antibody to human herpesvirus 7 by age". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 168 (1): 251–2. doi:10.1093/infdis/168.1.251. PMID 8390545.
  36. ^ Cermelli, C; Fabio, G; Montorsi, M; Sabbatini, AM; Portolani, M (1996). "Prevalence of antibodies to human herpesviruses 6 and 7 in early infancy and age at primary infection". New Microbiologica. 19 (1): 1–8. PMID 8673847.
  37. ^ Yoshikawa, T (2003). "Human Herpesvirus-6 and -7 Infections in Transplantation". Pediatric Transplantation. 7 (1): 11–17. doi:10.1034/j.1399-3046.2003.02094.x. PMID 12581322.
  38. ^ Wylie, Kristine M.; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A.; Zhou, Yanjiao; Sodergren, Erica; Storch, Gregory A.; Weinstock, George M. (2014-01-01). "Metagenomic analysis of double-stranded DNA viruses in healthy adults". BMC Biology. 12: 71. doi:10.1186/s12915-014-0071-7. ISSN 1741-7007. PMC 4177058. PMID 25212266.
  39. ^ Moustafa, Ahmed; Xie, Chao; Kirkness, Ewen; Biggs, William; Wong, Emily; Turpaz, Yaron; Bloom, Kenneth; Delwart, Eric; Nelson, Karen E. (2017-03-22). "The blood DNA virome in 8,000 humans". PLOS Pathogens. 13 (3): e1006292. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006292. ISSN 1553-7374. PMC 5378407. PMID 28328962.

Further readingEdit

Classification