Honorifics for the dead in Judaism
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Among the honorifics in Judaism, there are several traditional honorifics for the dead which are used when naming and speaking of the deceased. Different honorifics might be applied depending on the particular status of the deceased. These honorifics are frequently found on gravestones, on memorial walls inside the sanctuary of synagogues, in speeches, and in writing such as in obituaries.
In writing, it is most common to use the name followed by an abbreviation of an honorific either in Hebrew or English. For examples, see chart.
The following chart shows different honorifics used, along with their abbreviation in Hebrew and English, their translation, the masculine and feminine forms, the type of person which the honorific is applied to, and examples.
|Full phrase in Hebrew||English translation||When used||Example|
|For a man||For a woman|
|of blessed memory; or
may his/her memory be a blessing
|rabbinical or non-rabbinical
|David Randomberg Z"L or David Randomberg ז״ל or Rabbi David Randomberg Z"L or Rabbi David Randomberg ז״ל|
|may peace be upon him/her||non-rabbinical
or biblical figure
|Albert Peretz A"H or Albert Peretz ע״ה or Avraham Avinu A"H or Avraham Avinu ע"ה|
|זצ״ל||זכר צדיק לברכה
zekher tzadik livrakha
|may the memory of
the righteous be a blessing
|a holy or a
|Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZT"L or Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZTz"L or Rabbi Moshe Feinstein זצ״ל|
|ZTVK"L||זצוק״ל||זכר צדיק וקדוש לברכה
zekher tzadik v'kadosh livrakha
|may the memory of the righteous and holy be a blessing||righteous and holy person, not necessarily a martyr||Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Bloch ZTVK"L or Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Bloch זצוק״ל|
|n/a||זצוקללה״ה||זכר צדיק וקדוש לברכה
לחיי העולם הבא
zekher tzadik v'kadosh livrakha,
l'chayei ha'olam ha-ba
|may the memory of
the righteous and
holy be a blessing
for the life of the world to come
|outstandingly holy person||Rabbenu Tzadok Hacohen (may the memory of the righteous and holy be a blessing for the life of the world to come) or Rabbenu Tzadok Hacohen זצוקללה״ה|
|ZI"A||זי"ע||זכותו יגן עלינו
zechuso yagen aleinu
|may his memory be a shield unto us||outstandingly holy person||Rabbi Menachem Mendel Shneersohn ZI"A or Rabbi Menachem Mendel Shneersohn זי"ע|
|HY"D||הי״ד||השם יקום דמו
Hashem yikkom damo
|השם יקום דמה
Hashem yikkom dama
|May Hashem avenge his / her blood||Martyred Jews or Jews killed by anti-Semites||Hana "Hanička" Bradyová HY"D or Hana "Hanička" Bradyová הי״ד|
Some honorifics may be used for any individual. These honorifics are generally not used for rabbis or other special persons, since the specific honorifics for those people are used instead, as a sign of honor and respect. See below.
Of blessed memoryEdit
The most common honorific is "of blessed memory," and the Hebrew transliteration is "zikhrono livrakha" (m.) / "zikhronah livrakha" (f.) (Hebrew: (f.) "זיכרונה לברכה" \ (m.) "זיכרונו לברכה"). It is often abbreviated in English both as OBM and as “Z"L” The Hebrew abbreviation is "ז״ל."
Peace be upon him/herEdit
An alternative honorific is "Peace be upon him/her." The Hebrew version is "alav ha-shalom" (m.) / "aleha ha-shalom" (f.) (Hebrew: (m.) "עליו השלום" / (f.) "עליה השלום"). It is abbreviated in English as “A"H.” The Hebrew abbreviation is "ע״ה."
This phrase is the same as the Islamic honorific "peace be upon him" (which is used for all prophets of Islam). However, unlike in Islamic usage, the English abbreviation "PBUH" is not commonly used for the Jewish honorific.
The above two may be used interchangeably; however "of blessed memory" is the most common.
May HaShem avenge his/her bloodEdit
This honorific "May HaShem avenge his/her blood" is generally used for an individual who perished as a result of anti-semitism, for example pogroms or the Holocaust. The term is also applied to any innocent Jew killed, whether for anti-Semitic reasons or others. The Hebrew phrase is "HaShem yikom damo" (m.) / "HaShem yikom dama" (f.) / "HaShem yikom damam" (pl.) and in the Hebrew: "השם יקום דמו" (m.) / "השם יקום דמה" (f.) / "השם יקום דמם" (pl.). The English abbreviation is “HY"D” and in Hebrew "הי״ד."
Holy and the righteousEdit
The abbreviation “זי״ע/zy"a” stands for "zekhuto yagen `aleinu/May his merit shield us," and often follows the mention of meritorious righteous ones. A variant is “זיע״א/zya"a” which adds "Amen" at the end.
Memory of the righteousEdit
The honorific "May the memory of the righteous be a blessing" is used after the names of holy rabbis and other holy people, from Proverbs 10:7. In Hebrew transliteration: "zekher tzadik livrakha" and in Hebrew: "זכר צדיק לברכה." The English abbreviation commonly used is “ZT"L” and in Hebrew, "זצ״ל" is used. It is pronounced in reading as "zatzal." It may be also written as “ZTz"L”.
It is used primarily in reference to rabbis who have been deceased in recent memory. Thus, one is likely to write “Rabbi Moshe Feinstein ZT"L” (d. 1986) but far less likely to write “Rashi ZT"L” (d. 1105).
Memory of the holy martyrsEdit
"May the memory of the holy be a blessing" is used specifically for holy martyrs and those killed in times of persecution, for example, in the Holocaust. In Hebrew transliteration "zekher kadosh l'vrakhah" and in Hebrew "זכר קדוש לברכה." It may be abbreviated as “ZK"L” or in Hebrew "זק״ל." It is not very common.