Hetman of Zaporizhian Host

Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host (Ukrainian: Гетьман Війська Запорозького, Russian: Гетман Войска Запорожского, Latin: Cosaccorum Zaporoviesium Supremus Belli Dux, Polish: Hetman wojsk kozackich) is a former historic government office and political institution of the Cossack Hetmanate that was its head of state. The office was liquidated on the edict of Russian Governing Senate of 17 November 1764.[1]

Hetman of Zaporizhian Host
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg
State flag
Kirill Razumovsky Tokke.jpg
Last hetman of the Zaporizhian Host, Kyrylo Rozumovsky
ResidenceChyhyryn (originally)
Hetman Residence, Baturyn
AppointerGeneral Military Council
Formation26 January 1648
First holderBohdan Khmelnytsky
Final holderKyrylo Rozumovsky
Abolished17 November 1764

Brief historyEdit

As a head of state, the position was established by Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Cossack Hetmanate in the mid 17th century. During that period the office was electoral. All elections, except for the first one, were adapted by the Senior Council in Chyhyryn which, until 1669, served as the capital of the Hetmanate.

After the council in Pereyaslav of 1654, several senior cossacks sided with the Tsardom of Russia and, in 1663, they staged the "Black Council" (Chorna Rada) in Nizhyn which elected Ivan Briukhovetsky as an alternative hetman. Since the defeat of Petro Doroshenko in 1669, the title hetman was adapted by pro-Russian elected hetmans who resided in Baturyn. In the course of the Great Northern War one of them, Ivan Mazepa, decided to revolt against Russian rule in 1708, which later drew terrible consequences for the Cossack Hetmanate as well as the Zaporizhian Host. The administration was moved to Hlukhiv where Mazepa was publicly executed in effigy and anathema was laid against him by the Russian Orthodox Church. Later in the late 18th century, it was successfully disbanded by the Russian government during the expansion of the Russian territory towards the Black Sea coast.

In 1764, the Russian Empress Catherine the Great issued a secret instruction to Prince Vyazemsky who was Procurator General of the Governing Senate.[2][3]

Instruction to Senate

Little Russia, Livonia, Finland are provinces which are governed based on granted to them privileges; trespass them by suddenly canceling would be very unethical, yet to call them alien and treat them as such would be more than mistake; perhaps even a nonsense. Those provinces as well as Smolensk must be in the easiest way steered to be Russified and ceased to "look as if wolves to woods". To accomplish that will be very easy if wise men will be elected governors of those provinces. When the Little Russia would not have its hetman, it is necessary that the period and the name of hetmans disappeared.”

~ Catherine the Great, 1764

List of office holdersEdit

The list includes only Hetmans who belonged to the Cossack Hetmanate. For a full list of all Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks, see Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks.

# Hetman Elected (event) Took office Left office
1   Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(1596–1657)
Зиновій-Богдан Хмельницький
1648 (Sich) 26 January 1648 6 August 1657 Council of Pereyaslav, Moscow's military union with Hetmanate
2   Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
death of his father 6 August 1657 27 August 1657
3   Ivan Vyhovsky
(????–1664)
Іван Виговський
1657 (Korsun) 27 August 1657
(confirmed: 21 October 1657)
11 September 1659 Attempt for reconciliation with Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[a]
4   Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
1659 (Hermanivka) 11 September 1659
(confirmed: 11 September 1659)
October 1662 First vassalage to Muscovy[b], later agreed to autonomy within Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[c]
5   Pavlo Teteria
(1620?–1670)
Павло "Тетеря" Моржковський
1662 (Chyhyryn) October 1662 July 1665
The period of ruin and civil war
(1)   Ivan Briukhovetsky
(1623–1668)
Іван Брюховецький
1663 (Nizhyn) 27 June 1663
(confirmed: 27 June 1663)
17 June 1668 pro-Muscovite faction, changed sides due to Truce of Andrusovo
6   Petro Doroshenko
(1627–1698)
Петро Дорошенко
1666 (Chyhyryn) 10 October 1665
(confirmed: January 1666)
19 September 1676 Union treaty with Ottomans[d]
(2)   Demian Mnohohrishny
(1631–1703)
Дем'ян Многогрішний
1669 (Hlukhiv) 17 December 1668
(confirmed: 3 March 1669)
April 1672 pro-Muscovite faction
7 (3)   Ivan Samoylovych
(1630s–1690)
Іван Самойлович
1672 (Cossack Grove) 17 June 1672 August 1687 pro-Muscovite faction
The period of ruin and civil war ended
8   Ivan Mazepa
(1639–1708)
Іван Мазепа
1687 (Kolomak) 4 August 1687 6 November 1708 "stripped" of a title, discredited
9   Ivan Skoropadsky
(1646–1722)
Іван Скоропадський
1708 (Hlukhiv) 6 November 1708 14 July 1722 died
X   Pavlo Polubotok
(1660–1724)
Павло Полуботок
appointed hetman 1722 1724 died in prison
Collegium of Little Russia (Stepan Velyaminov) 1722–1727
10   Danylo Apostol
(1654–1734)
Данило Апостол
1727 (Hlukhiv) 12 October 1727 29 March 1734 died
X Yakiv Lyzohub
(1675–1749)
Яків Лизогуб
appointed hetman 1733 1749 died
Governing Council of the Hetman Office (Aleksei Shakhovskoy) 1734–1745
11   Kyrylo Rozumovsky
(1728–1803)
Кирило Розумовський
1750 (Hlukhiv) 22 February 1750 17 November 1764 resigned
Collegium of Little Russia 1764–1786 (Pyotr Rumyantsev)
Notes

Some historians, including Mykola Arkas,[4] question the legitimacy of the Teteria's elections, accusing him of corruption.[5] Some sources claim that the election of Teteria took place in January 1663.[6] The election of Teteria led to the Povoloch Regiment Uprising in 1663, followed by greater unrest in the modern region of Kirovohrad Oblast, as well as Polesie (all in the Right-bank Ukraine).[7] Moreover, the political crisis that followed the Pushkar–Barabash Uprising divided the Cossack Hetmanate completely on both banks of the Dnieper River.[7] Coincidentally, on 10 January 1663 the Tsardom of Muscovy created the new Little Russian Office (Prikaz) within its Ambassadorial Office.

Vouched for by Charles Marie François Olier, marquis de Nointel, Yuriy Khmelnytsky was freed from Ottoman captivity and, along with Pasha Ibragim, was sent to Ukraine to fight the Moscow forces of Samoilovych and Romadanovsky. In 1681, Mehmed IV appointed George Ducas hetman of Ukraine, replacing Khmelnytsky.

Following the anathema on Mazepa and the election of Ivan Skoropadsky, the Cossack Hetmanate was included in the Russian Government of Kiev in December 1708. Upon the death of Skoropadsky, the elections oh hetmans were discontinued and were awarded as a gift and a type of princely title, first to Moldavian noblemen and, later, to the Russian Empress's favorites.

On 5 April 1710, the council of cossacks, veterans of the battle at Poltava, elected Pylyp Orlyk as the Hetman of Ukraine in exile. Orlyk waged a guerrilla war at the southern borders of the Russian Empire with support from the Ottoman and Swedish empires.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Following the Muscovite-Polish Truce of Vilna, which withdrew Moscow's military support for the Cossack Hetmanate, Vyhovsky signed the Treaty of Hadiach seeking a federative status as a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth.
  2. ^ Khmelnytsky was forced to sign the revised 1659 Pereyaslav Articles subjugating both state and church to Muscovy. It was not approved by the General Cossack Council.
  3. ^ In 1660, Khmelnytsky signed the Slobodyshche Pact with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which sought to get rid of Moscow's control over the Hetmanate. The treaty was approved by the General Cossack Council in Korsun.
  4. ^ In 1669, Doroshenko signed the Korsun treaty which provided the Hetmanate with military support and protection for the Ukrainian Exarch.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kyrylo Rozumovsky at the Jurist Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Podobyed, O. Instructions of Catherine the Great to Senate. Handbook "History of Ukraine. 7–8 grades". Ranok Publishing House. ISBN 9789666724437
  3. ^ Soroka, Yu. Hetmanless period and the last Hetman of Ukraine.
  4. ^ Pavlo Teteria, Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine. Cossack leaders of Ukraine (textbook).
  5. ^ Lohvyn, Yu. Pavlo Teteria. Hetmans of Ukraine. "Merry Alphabet".
  6. ^ Pavlo Teteria. History of the Great Nation.
  7. ^ a b Horobets, V. Civil wars in Ukraine of 1650s–1660s. Encyclopedia of history of Ukraine. Vol.2. Kiev: "Naukova Dumka", 2004.

Further readingEdit

  • Dyadychenko, V. Sketches of a social and political system of the Left-bank Ukraine at the end of 17th and the start of 18th centuries. Kiev 1959
  • Smoliy, V. Hetmanate Ukraine. Kiev 1999

External linksEdit