Hetman of Zaporizhian Host
Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host (Ukrainian: Гетьман Війська Запорозького, Russian: Гетман Войска Запорожского, Latin: Cosaccorum Zaporoviesium Supremus Belli Dux, Polish: Hetman wojsk kozackich) is a former historic government office and political institution of the Cossack Hetmanate that was its head of state. The office was liquidated on the edict of Russian Governing Senate of 17 November 1764.
|Hetman of Zaporizhian Host|
Hetman Residence, Baturyn
|Appointer||General Military Council|
|Formation||26 January 1648|
|First holder||Bohdan Khmelnytsky|
|Final holder||Kyrylo Rozumovsky|
|Abolished||17 November 1764|
As a head of state, the position was established by Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Cossack Hetmanate in the mid 17th century. During that period the office was electoral. All elections, except for the first one, were adapted by the Senior Council in Chyhyryn which, until 1669, served as the capital of the Hetmanate.
After the council in Pereyaslav of 1654, several senior cossacks sided with the Tsardom of Russia and, in 1663, they staged the "Black Council" (Chorna Rada) in Nizhyn which elected Ivan Briukhovetsky as an alternative hetman. Since the defeat of Petro Doroshenko in 1669, the title hetman was adapted by pro-Russian elected hetmans who resided in Baturyn. In the course of the Great Northern War one of them, Ivan Mazepa, decided to revolt against Russian rule in 1708, which later drew terrible consequences for the Cossack Hetmanate as well as the Zaporizhian Host. The administration was moved to Hlukhiv where Mazepa was publicly executed in effigy and anathema was laid against him by the Russian Orthodox Church. Later in the late 18th century, it was successfully disbanded by the Russian government during the expansion of the Russian territory towards the Black Sea coast.
List of office holdersEdit
The list includes only Hetmans who belonged to the Cossack Hetmanate. For a full list of all Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks, see Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks.
|#||Hetman||Elected (event)||Took office||Left office|
|1648 (Sich)||26 January 1648||6 August 1657||Council of Pereyaslav, Moscow's military union with Hetmanate|
|death of his father||6 August 1657||27 August 1657|
|1657 (Korsun)||27 August 1657
(confirmed: 21 October 1657)
|11 September 1659||Attempt for reconciliation with Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[a]|
|1659 (Hermanivka)||11 September 1659
(confirmed: 11 September 1659)
|October 1662||First vassalage to Muscovy[b], later agreed to autonomy within Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[c]|
Павло "Тетеря" Моржковський
|1662 (Chyhyryn)||October 1662||July 1665|
|The period of ruin and civil war|
|1663 (Nizhyn)||27 June 1663
(confirmed: 27 June 1663)
|17 June 1668||pro-Muscovite faction, changed sides due to Truce of Andrusovo|
|1666 (Chyhyryn)||10 October 1665
(confirmed: January 1666)
|19 September 1676||Union treaty with Ottomans[d]|
|1669 (Hlukhiv)||17 December 1668
(confirmed: 3 March 1669)
|April 1672||pro-Muscovite faction|
|7 (3)||Ivan Samoylovych
|1672 (Cossack Grove)||17 June 1672||August 1687||pro-Muscovite faction|
|The period of ruin and civil war ended|
|1687 (Kolomak)||4 August 1687||6 November 1708||"stripped" of a title, discredited|
|1708 (Hlukhiv)||6 November 1708||14 July 1722||died|
|appointed hetman||1722||1724||died in prison|
|Collegium of Little Russia (Stepan Velyaminov) 1722–1727|
|1727 (Hlukhiv)||12 October 1727||29 March 1734||died|
|Governing Council of the Hetman Office (Aleksei Shakhovskoy) 1734–1745|
|1750 (Hlukhiv)||22 February 1750||17 November 1764||resigned|
|Collegium of Little Russia 1764–1786 (Pyotr Rumyantsev)|
Some historians, including Mykola Arkas, question the legitimacy of the Teteria's elections, accusing him of corruption. Some sources claim that the election of Teteria took place in January 1663. The election of Teteria led to the Povoloch Regiment Uprising in 1663, followed by greater unrest in the modern region of Kirovohrad Oblast, as well as Polesie (all in the Right-bank Ukraine). Moreover, the political crisis that followed the Pushkar–Barabash Uprising divided the Cossack Hetmanate completely on both banks of the Dnieper River. Coincidentally, on 10 January 1663 the Tsardom of Muscovy created the new Little Russian Office (Prikaz) within its Ambassadorial Office.
Vouched for by Charles Marie François Olier, marquis de Nointel, Yuriy Khmelnytsky was freed from Ottoman captivity and, along with Pasha Ibragim, was sent to Ukraine to fight the Moscow forces of Samoilovych and Romadanovsky. In 1681, Mehmed IV appointed George Ducas hetman of Ukraine, replacing Khmelnytsky.
Following the anathema on Mazepa and the election of Ivan Skoropadsky, the Cossack Hetmanate was included in the Russian Government of Kiev in December 1708. Upon the death of Skoropadsky, the elections oh hetmans were discontinued and were awarded as a gift and a type of princely title, first to Moldavian noblemen and, later, to the Russian Empress's favorites.
On 5 April 1710, the council of cossacks, veterans of the battle at Poltava, elected Pylyp Orlyk as the Hetman of Ukraine in exile. Orlyk waged a guerrilla war at the southern borders of the Russian Empire with support from the Ottoman and Swedish empires.
- Following the Muscovite-Polish Truce of Vilna, which withdrew Moscow's military support for the Cossack Hetmanate, Vyhovsky signed the Treaty of Hadiach seeking a federative status as a Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth.
- Khmelnytsky was forced to sign the revised 1659 Pereyaslav Articles subjugating both state and church to Muscovy. It was not approved by the General Cossack Council.
- In 1660, Khmelnytsky signed the Slobodyshche Pact with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which sought to get rid of Moscow's control over the Hetmanate. The treaty was approved by the General Cossack Council in Korsun.
- In 1669, Doroshenko signed the Korsun treaty which provided the Hetmanate with military support and protection for the Ukrainian Exarch.
- Kyrylo Rozumovsky at the Jurist Encyclopedia
- Podobyed, O. Instructions of Catherine the Great to Senate. Handbook "History of Ukraine. 7–8 grades". Ranok Publishing House. ISBN 9789666724437
- Soroka, Yu. Hetmanless period and the last Hetman of Ukraine.
- Pavlo Teteria, Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine. Cossack leaders of Ukraine (textbook).
- Lohvyn, Yu. Pavlo Teteria. Hetmans of Ukraine. "Merry Alphabet".
- Pavlo Teteria. History of the Great Nation.
- Horobets, V. Civil wars in Ukraine of 1650s–1660s. Encyclopedia of history of Ukraine. Vol.2. Kiev: "Naukova Dumka", 2004.
- Dyadychenko, V. Sketches of a social and political system of the Left-bank Ukraine at the end of 17th and the start of 18th centuries. Kiev 1959
- Smoliy, V. Hetmanate Ukraine. Kiev 1999