In geography and cartography, the hemispheres of Earth refer to any division of the globe into two hemispheres (from Ancient Greek ἡμισφαίριον hēmisphairion, meaning "half of a sphere").
The most common such divisions are by latitudinal or longitudinal markers:
The East–West division can also be seen in a cultural sense, as a division into two cultural hemispheres.
However, other schemes have sought to divide the planet in a way that maximizes the preponderance of one geographic feature or another in each division:
- Land–Water 
- Land Hemisphere, the hemisphere on Earth containing the largest possible area of land
- Water Hemisphere, the hemisphere on Earth containing the largest area of water
The Land Hemisphere is at the top, and the Water Hemisphere is at the bottom.
The Land Hemisphere is at the top and the Water Hemisphere is at the bottom
The Earth may also be split into hemispheres of day and night by the terrestrial terminator.