Tezpur (/tɛzˈpʊər/) (Assamese: তেজপুৰ tezpur, Assamese pronunciation: [tɛspuɹ]) is a city and urban agglomeration in Sonitpur district, Assam state, India. Tezpur is on the banks of the river Brahmaputra, 175 kilometres (109 mi) northeast of Guwahati, and is the largest of the north bank towns with a population exceeding 100,000 as per Metropolitan Census 2011.[2]

Tezpur
City
Sunset at Ganesh Ghat near the Brahmaputra, Tezpur
Sunset at Ganesh Ghat near the Brahmaputra, Tezpur
Nickname(s): 
City of Eternal Romance
Tezpur is located in Assam
Tezpur
Tezpur
Location in Assam, India
Tezpur is located in India
Tezpur
Tezpur
Tezpur (India)
Coordinates: 26°38′N 92°48′E / 26.63°N 92.8°E / 26.63; 92.8Coordinates: 26°38′N 92°48′E / 26.63°N 92.8°E / 26.63; 92.8
Country India
StateAssam
DistrictSonitpur
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyTezpur Municipality Board
Area
 • Total40 km2 (20 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Elevation
48 m (157 ft)
Population
(2011)[1]
 • Total102,505
 • Density2,600/km2 (6,600/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialAssamese Nepalese
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
Vehicle registrationAS-12
Websitesonitpur.nic.in

Contents

HistoryEdit

The Area Tezpur has been inhabited by various common beings since BCE. The city lies on the northern bank of the river Brahmaputra.[citation needed]

EtymologyEdit

The name Tezpur literally means the "city of blood". Legend has it that the original name of this place was 'Xonitpur' ('Xonit' means blood). When the battle between Krishna's army and Lord Shiva, his disciple Banasura's army fought for the rescue of Aniruddha (who was the grandson of Lord Krishna, according to legend) there was so much bloodshed that the place was stained red. This led to the name of the place becoming Tezpur. The Shiva temples in and around Tezpur shows the love and devotions of King Baanasur for Lord Shiva.

Banasura was the eldest of the hundred sons of Bali, who in turn was the son of Virochana and grandson of Prahlada (son of Hiranyakashipu and devotee of Narasimha). Banas mother was Vindhyavali. Bana, the king of demons (asuras), ruled over Sonita-pura. The word 'bana' also means an arrow. He went to the Himalayan regions and performed a penance invoking Shiva's favour. When Shiva appeared in answer to his austerities, Bana begged the god to bestow a thousand arms carrying a multitude of weapons to destroy his enemies and opponents. He also desired that Parvati should consider him as her son. Bana was a great devotee of Shiva and there are several famous self manifest bana-lingas being worshipped in India. Banasura was a powerful and terrible asura. All people, the king of earth, and Devas of heaven were afraid of him. Bana was a follower of Siva. Banasura ruled in present-day central Assam with his capital at Sonitpur (present-day Tezpur). Banasura's wife's was Kandala. Banasura had a beautiful daughter named Usha. Usha one day saw a young man in her dream and fell in love with him. He was Aniruddha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. There was a war between Banasura and Krishna in which Banasura was defeated. Krishna married Usha with Aniruddha and brought them to dwaraka. Banasura moved to Himalayas and devoted his life in worship of Shiva. The Xunitpur (Tezpur) historical ruins from the 8th and 9th centuries dot the surrounding areas, resembling Gupta period art. The ruins of Da Parbatia are an example of architecture from around the 6th century AD.

Tezpur is considered to be the capital of Assamese culture. Notable residents include Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala (1903–51), Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909–69), and Phani Sarma (1909–70), all of whom were from Tezpur. Modern Tezpur was founded by the British colonial administration in 1835 as the headquarters of Darrang district. During World War II, Tezpur received large numbers of refugees fleeing from Burma, particularly the corps of Anglo-Burmese and Anglo-Indian nurses.

Medieval eraEdit

Historical ruins from the 8th and 9th centuries dot the surrounding areas. The ruins of Bamuni Hills are the most famous. They resemble Gupta period art. Accordingly, there are plenty of myths as well. The ruins of Da Parbatia are an example of the architecture around the 6th century AD. The people of Deori community believe that their ancestors originally lived in the Sotai hills which are situated north of Tezpur near the borders of Sonitpur district and East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh.

Places to seeEdit

The historically rich city bears magnificent relics from its past. Although now urbanised, most of the places worth seeing in[3] and around Tezpur speak of its history. Be it the famed Mahabhairav Temple, Bhairabi Temple (Maithan), the man-made hill of Agnigarh or the naturally rich outskirts of Nameri National Park and Bhalukpong, the place is thronged[peacock term] by visitors almost all year long.

Connecting the city to the district of Nagaon is another majestic structure, the Kaliabhomora Bridge.[4]

 
A bas-relief displaying a historical incident at Kankalata Udyan, Tezpur

British RajEdit

Modern Tezpur was founded by the British colonial administration in 1835 as the headquarters of Darrang district. During World War II, Tezpur received large numbers of refugees fleeing from Burma, particularly the corps of Anglo-Burmese and Anglo-Indian nurses. After the independence of India in 1947, it remained the headquarters of Darrang district. During the Sino-Indian War of 1962, the Chinese army advanced to the Tawang city, Arunachal Pradesh. The town was evacuated. The jails were opened and the prisoners released.[citation needed]

Rock inscriptions: In 1897, Sir Edward Albert Gait discovered a copper inscription in Tezpur the deciphering of which provided information regarding the Ahom rulers.[citation needed] He referenced the nine-line inscription of Harjjar Varma in 'A History of Assam'. The inscription, dating to 829 A.D., is the first historical record of Assam. The inscription was found engraved on a massive stone some 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from Tezpur town near Rudrapad Temple.[citation needed]

Hazara Pukhuri: A king of the dynasty Harjjar Varma excavated a large pond in 70 acres (280,000 m2) of land, later came to be known as Hazara Pukhuri (Harjjara Pukhuri).[citation needed]

Christian cemetery: The cemetery dates to the 17th century. It contains the grave of Alexander Bruce, founder of the tea industry in India, and of Europeans who died here before independence.[citation needed]

The first electric power station in this part of India was established at Tezpur by the British in 1913 near Padum Pukhuri and it was also had a specialty mechanized to supply electric current using coal.[citation needed]

Jonaki: The first cinema hall of Northeast India was established by Jyoti Prasad Agarwala in 1935.[citation needed] {{subst:Please link images|File:Jonaki Cinema Hall.jpg}}

Chitraban: The first film studio of Northeast India was established by Jyoti Prasad Agarwala in 1934.[citation needed]

The twin lakes Bor Pukhuri and the Padum Pukhuri in the heart of the city memorialize King Bana and his daughter Usha.[citation needed]

Post-independenceEdit

In 1983 a part of the district was carved out to form a separate district, Darrang. Tezpur was made the headquarters of the new district of Sonitpur.[citation needed] There is also a Statue In Memory of Unidentified Soldiers who laid their lives in N.E.F.A. defending our Motherland. Their ASHES immersed with full Military Honours in the River Brahmaputra at TEZPUR on 18 November 1963.[citation needed]

20th CenturyEdit

Tezpur - Fortress City of Assam which is located in the eastern Himalayas range of India and the river Brahmaputra cross one of the political borders of a country. One can collect various views and photographs of the various massive stone fortification built by the ancient kingdom. A statue where Nations Emblem is built by the Govt. of India in the '90s at Agnigarh. Which is one among the biggest high moral standard place to visit in any season in India. There is also places named Bamuni Hill or Pahar for tourist to view different art build monuments by the famous Joy Das(Artist). One, and many others could see various places to see the sunrise/sunset river Brahmaputra and nearby area covers land between hills or mountains, typically with a river or stream flowing through it across the India Bangladesh and Pakistan. The City also carries a brief story where Usha fell in love with Aniruddha in her dreams, not knowing that he was the grandson of Krishna. Her companion Chitralekha identified him by painting his portrait from Usha's description. The people of Tezpur also being identified as human being similar to one another people of Asia.[citation needed]

GeographyEdit

The town is on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River.

The rivers in and around Tezpur are fast flowing, especially from the Himalayas foothills.[citation needed][clarification needed] Tezpur has a number of small hillocks, so that flooding doesn't occur during the monsoons.[citation needed][clarification needed]

ClimateEdit

The average temperature in summer is around 36 °C (97 °F) while the average winter temperature is around 13 °C (55 °F).[5] The Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Regional Institute of Mental Health (LGBRIMH) was initially set up as Tezpur Lunatic Asylum under the British Government in April, 1876. One of the colleges of Assam named Tezpur College, Darrang College, Tezpur University, Indian Statistical Institute and many more junior colleges and school also running under Government of India. {{Weather box | location = Tezpur (Lokpriya Gopinath Bordoloi Mental Hospital) 2018 | metric first = Yes | single line = Yes | temperature colour = | Jan record high C = 28.14 | Feb record high C = 30.18 | Mar record high C = 31.22 | Apr record high C = 31.22 | May record high C = 32.24 | Jun record high C = 32.25 | Jul record high C = 32.26 | Aug record high C = 32.26 | Sep record high C = 31.24 | Oct record high C = 30.23 | Nov record high C = 28.16 | Dec record high C = 24.12 | year record high C = 32.26 | Jan record high C = 23.11 | Feb record high C = 24.11

 
An Autonomous Institute Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India

CultureEdit

 
Bishnu Rabha Smriti Udyan

Tezpur is considered[by whom?] to be the capital of Assamese culture. Being from the core Assamese cultural region, notable residents include Dr. Bhupen Hazarika, Jyoti Prasad Agarwala (1903–51), Kalaguru Bishnu Prasad Rabha (1909–69), Phani Sarma (1909–70), and Kartik Hazarika were from Tezpur. Baan Stage was the theatre where they first performed. Nikamul Satra is at Mazgaon, a center of Vaishnavaite culture. There is also Old Baan Theatre near Jail Road at first Baan stage was there and for lack of a theatre hall area, new Baan Theatre was established at the Town area. At Dadhara there is Jyoti-Bishnu khelpathar. The fields are used for cultural events. In Tezpur, various Cultural group is being established from the period of British rule. Name of some are - Kanyapur Anchalik Moina Parijat, Jangam, Sundaram, Assam Repertory, Baraholia Moina Parijat and many more.[citation needed]

DemographyEdit

The population is largely heterogeneous. Indigenous Assamese communities like Koch Rajbongshi, Keot (Kaibarta), Bodo, Sonowal–Kachari, Sarania–Kachari, Thengal–Kachari, Rabha, Mishing (Miri), Karbi (Mikir), Dimasa, Tiwa, Deori, Assamese Brahmins, Kalita, Nath, Assamese Kayastha, Ahoms, Moran and Motok, Doms/Nadiyals, Assamese Muslims, Assamese Sikhs[6] and Assamese Christians, along with immigrant communities like Nepali communities (form the majority), Bengali, Bihari, Marwari community.

People from the tea-tribes (brought in by the colonial planters as indentured laborers from the Chhotanagpur plateau region) have also made it their home.

OrphanageEdit

  • Naba Prabhat Naba Prabhat is an Orphanage founded on 3 February 2006 by Bidyut Saikia. The Orphanage is situated at Ketekibari near Ketekeswar Devalaya. Many visitors from the local and from other districts of Assam visits the orphanage for the celebration of happy moments with the orphan kids of Naba Prabhat. The Founder of this Orphanage died on 30 September 2011. Present day on 14 January 2019 there is 18 Nos of Children 2 Boys and Sixteen Girls who are pursuing education and various cultural and classical knowledge in this Orphanage. -[citation needed]

ReligionEdit

The majority of the people in the urban areas are of Hindu faith although a small number of Jains Sikhs and Muslim are also found.In the rural areas the people adhere to a reformed form of Hinduism known as neo-vaishnavite movement founded in 1500s by the Assamese reformer Srimanta Sankardeva.

Local dancesEdit

  • Bihu dance is an indigenous group dance of the indigenous Assamese community where males and females dance together.
  • Bagurumba is another indigenous folk dance of the Bodo community (a part of the indigenous Assamese community).

Local areas/sites of interestEdit

 
Stone statue of Lord Hanuman in Hanuman Mandir, Tezpur
 
Agnigarh Hill, Tezpur
  • Jyoti Bharati - (Poki) The First Concrete House in Assam made by Haribilash Agarwalla. Assamese Culture and the Baan Theatre, Darrang College, Mahila Samiti etc. and much more organizing committee was formed in Poki. In Poki various society and group of individuals involved in the persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. It was handed over the Government of Assam at the time of Hon'ble Cultural Minister Late. Hiteswar Saikia. Haribilash Agarwalla built the Jyoti Bharati (Poki) in 1874. He was a Tea Farmer by profession and a religious belief person. It was built in the style of Ahom Dynasty buildings. To build this building Haribilash Agarwala has brought many equipment from various part of India.[citation needed]
  • Dr. Bhupen Hazarika Kala Academy - It is Cultural Music School situtaed at Pithakhuwa, Tezpur.[citation needed]
  • Dak Bunglow - It is situated at the heart of the Tezpur City which was established in 1881.[citation needed]|publisher=Bhargab Baruah, Tezpur.
  • District Museum - The District Museum was firstly established in 1986 near Darrang College Road and after 1997 it was permanently situated near Duk Bunglow at Tezpur town area.[citation needed]
  • Bishnu Rabha Cremation Spot - It is the Bishnu Rabha (Kalaguru) Cremation Spot situated at the bank of river Brahmaputra area near Maa Bhairabi Temple at Kalibari, Tezpur. Bishnu Rava honourly named as Kalaguru who died in 20 June 1969.[citation needed]

EconomyEdit

The economy of Tezpur is dependent on its tea gardens. There are many tea gardens surrounding the town. The gardens and agriculture contribute to the local economy. The Zone III of the Assam Branch Indian Tea Association(ABITA) is located at Tezpur. Tezpur has manufacturing plants of FMCG brand Dabur and Patanjali's mega food park is under construction.

Presently Tezpur is a commercial, administrative and educational center. It also houses a major base of the Indian Army and Airforce (Salonibari), I.T.B.P, Bihaguri.

Government sectorEdit

Tezpur is part of Tezpur (Lok Sabha constituency).[7]

Media and communications sectorEdit

Assamese newspaper Dainik Agradoot is published from Tezpur along with Guwahati and Jorhat.

All India Radio has a local station in Tezpur which transmits programs of mass interest.[citation needed]

Bhattacharya Press It was established in Tezpur on 1936.[citation needed]

Transport sectorEdit

Tezpur is connected to the rest of the country by road, rail, and air.

 
The Kolia Bhomora Bridge, over the Brahmaputra, was opened in 1987 and is 3,015 metres (3,297 yd) long.

In 1987 the Kolia Bhomora Setu, over the Brahmaputra, was inaugurated connecting Tezpur to the southern district of Nagaon. The bridge in itself has become a tourist attraction. Dekargaon railway station is the nearest railway station of Tezpur which is about 10  km away from the town. The airport is located at Salonibari, 10  km from the heart of the city but is less operated and connects to very few Indian cities which include state capital Guwahati and Kolkata. Tezpur has daily direct flights to Kolkata and the service is provided by zoom airlines.[8]

Education and research sectorEdit

 
Tezpur University
  • Central University
  • Engineering Institute
  • Medical
  • Research Institute
    • Tezpur University
    • North Eastern Regional Institute of Water and Land Management
    • Defence Research Laboratory
    • Department of Electronic Accreditation Computer Course
    • Indian Statistical Institute, North East Centre
    • Jyoti Kola Kendra (Music/Dance/Art)
  • General colleges
    • Darrang College
    • L.G.B. Girls College
    • Tezpur College
    • Tezpur Law College
    • St. Xavier's College, Ghoramari
  • CBSE affiliated schools
    • Air Force School, Tezpur
    • Army School
    • Kendriya Vidyalaya, Central University Tezpur
    • Kendriya Vidyalaya#1
    • Kendriya Vidyalaya#2
    • St. Marys School, Tezpur
    • Tezpur Gurukul, Chatai Chapori
    • St. Joseph Convent High School
    • Gyan Bharati school, B.P Tinali
  • AHSEC Affiliated School
    • Dimension Academy Junior College, Science
    • Tezpur Science Academy
    • Luit Valley Junior College, Arts
  • ICSE Affiliated School
    • Assam Valley School
  • SEBA affiliated School
    • Tezpur Academy
    • Panchmile Higher Secondary School
    • Sacred Heart School
    • Tezpur Collegiate School
    • Tezpur Govt.Boys Higher Secondary School
    • Tezpur Govt. Primary School
    • Lokapriya Amiya Kumar Das School
    • Silver Jubilee School
    • Bengali Boys School
    • Moonlit High School
    • Sankardev Sishu Niketan
    • Rashtravasha Vidyalaya
    • Hindi Vidyapeeth
    • Don Bosco High School
    • Tezpur Bengali Boys Higher Secondary School
    • Tezpur Bengali Girls Higher Secondary School
    • Tezpur Collegiate M.V. School
    • Naapam M.V. School
    • Senior Secondary Secondary affiliated School
    • Sonitpur Jatiya Vidyalaya[citation needed]

Medical Treatment CentreEdit

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/SearchDetails.aspx?Id=306544
  2. ^ "Tezpur Metropolitan Urban Region Population 2011 Census". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  3. ^ "Tezpur City of Assam - Tourist Spots and Historical Significance of Tezpur". www.assamjournal.com. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  4. ^ Kolia Bhomora Setu Check |url= value (help), 2018-08-12, retrieved 2018-10-08
  5. ^ "Tezpur, India Weather Averages - Monthly Average High and Low Temperature - Average Precipitation and Rainfall days - World Weather Online". Retrieved 2 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Meet the Axomiya Sikhs". The Tribune. Chandigarh. 24 March 2013.
  7. ^ "List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Assam. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-05-04. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
  8. ^ "Kolia Bhomora". Akash Pratim Baruah's website. Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2007.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)

External linksEdit